Super Conductivity/ Quantum

awfulhihatUrban and Civil

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

110 views

Super Conductivity/ Quantum
Locking

NASA Hunch

Bethanie

Hart

Conductors (not at superconducting
state)


Electrons can flow through conductors


There is Resistance.

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-


Conducting Materials such as wires


Wires

Light


As the resistance goes
down and the current
goes Up the Light will
get brighter
.

Resistance

Temperature

10K or
-
263
degrees C

Type 1 superconductors

Copper Lattice


Inside the Wire there is something known as a
copper lattice


+ + + + +


+ + + + +

e
-

e
-

e
-

+


+ + + + +


+ + + + +

e
-

e
-

e
-

+


The electrons are attracted to the giant
positive Charge at the end of the lattice.


+ + + + +


+ + + + +

e
-

e
-

e
-

+


The electrons and the slight positive charges
are also attracted to each other.

+


+ + + + +

e
-


e
-


The electron wants to get to the Huge positive charge but the smaller positive
charges are also attracted to the electron that is trying to go through the copper
lattice.


The Slight Positive charges Distort. And the positive charges move towards the
middle.


+ + + + +

+


+ + + + +

e
-


e
-


+ + + + +

+


The Positive Charges form a bigger Positive Charge
in middle of the copper lattice.

+


+ + + + +

e
-


e
-


+ + + + +

+

+

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-

e
-


The electrons still want to stay
away form each other but they
also want to get to the positive
charge so they form Cooper pairs
which are pairs of electrons.



To make these bonds it takes very little energy.
At room temperature (and any other
temperature above 10 degrees K) there is
enough energy to break the cooper pairs. If
below 10 degrees Kelvin then the Copper pairs
stay together.

Another Way to Look at it

http://ffden
-
2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Matthew_Titus/How%20Superconductors%20W
ork.html

http://ffden
-
2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Matthew
_Titus/How%20Superconductors%20Work.html

http://ffden
-
2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Matt
hew_Titus/How%20Superconductors%20W
ork.html

Think about computer circuit

No computer has ever had an circuit in which it never
looses energy because in order for it to reach a
superconducting state it has to be cold.


But think in space when you travel to places that are
almost 0 degrees Kelvin. You would able to travel forever
with no loss of energy.

Continued…


Superconducting material could potentially
produce 10 times the amount of power.


So I think for the travel into space you could
use gas or a supply of liquid Nitrogen or Liquid
helium and once you got to below 10 k you
could switch the primary motor to a
superconducting circuit.

Type 2 Superconductors

Type 2 vs. Type 1 Superconductors

Type 2


Does not use the Meissner
effect


Called “Hard”


They have a high Critical
Field


Tolerate impurities


Has to be liquid nitrogen
cold

Type 1


Uses meissner effect


Soft metals


Low critical field


Current flows through the
surface of the material


Better known


Has to be liquid helium cold

Type 2


Allows some magnetic field to go through the
surface


There are visible stripes that you can see
without a microscope but is only roughly
indicated


These Stripes have only been occurred in type
two super conductors.

How do Type 2 superconductors work?


Stripes can be observed
on high temperature
superconductors like
YBCO.


The Green is the Copper
atoms and the Blue is
the oxygen atoms rest
other elements



Visible stripes are on the
copper and oxygen
atoms parallel planes


In between the planes
there is other elements
(red and yellow) that
absorb the electrons
from the copper atoms
that leave positively
charged holes that then
cling together.

http://physics.aps.org/story/v9/st12


the holes cover up the
magnetism from the copper
atoms.


The holes also jump side across
the copper atoms which causes a
loss of energy because it would
normally jump up and down.


But then If a long strip of the
holes on top of the copper atoms
form it creates a pathway.


The positive charge holes still
repel each other but it takes
more energy to break off the
stripe then to repel.


This pathway has then no
magnetic field and no field
pattern so therefore there is no
resistance.

Another Way to look at it


The Magnetic Flux is put
into tubes or vertices
which jump around
creating resistance.


Then it is in Vertex State
Zero which means there is
zero resistance because
the materials have
enough flaws or
impurities to pin the
vertices in place. Which
Forms A vortex lattice.


Type 2 superconductors do not use the
meissner effect


For our
expirement

you can only use type 2
superconducters

Although this experiment is uses a
type 1 superconductor

Main References


http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fuloQcljFOs


http://
hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/scond.html


http://
ffden
-
2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Matthew_Titus/How%2
0Superconductors%20Work.html


http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=FpQcr8mBVDo