GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER


Designed By

Future IT

Category: Technology


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

HISTORY


A GENERATION REFERS TO THE STATE OF
IMPROVEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A
PRODUCT.


EACH GENERATION OF COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED
BY A MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT THAT
CHANGED THE WAY COMPUTERS OPERATE


RESULTING IN INCREASINGLY SMALLER,CHEAPER AND
MORE POWERFUL,MORE EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE
DEVICES..


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

KEYPOINTS:


FIRST GENERATION FROM(1940) TO (1956):VACUUM
TUBE TECHNOLOGY.


2
ND

GENERATIONS FROM(1956) TO (1963):TRANSISTOR
TECHNOLOGY.


3RD GENERATIONS FROM(1964) TO (1971):INTEGRATED
CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY.


4TH GENERATION FROM(1972) TO (1984):
MICROPROCESSORS.


5TH GENERATION FROM(1984) TO (1990): ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE.


6TH GENERATION FROM(1990)
-
TILL DATE
NANOTECHNOLOGY.






Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

FIRST GENERATION


CONCEPT OF FIRST
GENERATION.


FEATURES OF FIRST
GENERATION.


TWO TYPES OF
MACHINES OF FIRST
GENERATION,UNIVAC
AND ENIAC.






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CONCEPT



THE FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS
WERE RUN BY SEVERAL TYPES OF
MEMORIES AND STEP BY STEP
ADVANCEMENT IN THE TECHNOLOGY FOR
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORIES.


FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS CAN BE
CATEGORIZED BY THEIR USE OF VACUUM
TUBES TO STORE INDIVIDUAL BITS OF
DATA.



Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


FEATURES:

1.
USE OF VACUUM TUBES FOR
CIRCUITRY.

2.
USE MAGNETIC DRUMS FOR
MEMORY.

3.
CHARACTERISTICS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

VACUUM TUBES


Vacuum tubes were the fragile
glass devices that can control and
amplify electronic signals.


Purpose of vacuum tubes was to
act like as amplifier and switch.


Without any moving parts vacuum
tubes could take very weak signals
and make them stronger(amplify
it).


They are suppose to stop and start
the flow of current instantly
(switch) They were used to give
instructions in binary code.






Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


MEMORY


MAGNETIC DRUMS ALSO REFERRED TO AS A
DRUM,IT IS A METAL CYLINDER COATED WITH
MAGNETIC
-
OXIDE MATERIAL.



THEIR WERE TRACKS ON THE MAGNETIC DRUM
FORMING ADJACENT CIRCULAR BANDS THAT
WIND AROUND THE DRUM.



A SINGLE DRUM CAN HAVE UP TO 200 TRACKS,IT
ROTATES AT A SPEED OF UP TO 3,000 RPM.





Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

DRAWBACKS


BIG & CLUMSY.


HIGH ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION.


PROGRAMMING IN MECHANICAL


LANGUAGE.


LARGER AC WERE NEEDED.


LOT OF ELECTRICITY FAILURE OCCURED.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011




SECOND GENERATIONS



FEATURES:


a.
TRANSISTORS.

b.
CORE MEMORY.

c.
PROGRAMMING WAS IN MACHINE
& ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE.

d.
MAGNETIC TAPES & DISCS WERE
USE.

e.
OTHER CHARACTERISTICS.




Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

TARNSISTORS


TRANSISTORS REPLACED VACUUM
TUBES.


TRANSISTOR IS A DEVICE COMPOSED OF
SEMICONDUTOR MATERIAL THAT
AMPLIFIES A SIGNAL OR OPENS OR
CLOSE A CIRCUIT.


INVENTED IN 1947 AT BELL LABS.


TRANSISTORS BECOME THE HEYING
RESIDIENT OF ALL DIGITAL COMPUTERS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


CORE MEMORY




THE SWITCHING TIME CAME DOWN TO
0.3 MICROSECONDS.



MEMORY SHIFTED FROM MAGNETIC
DRUM TO MAGNETICCORE
TECHNOLOGY.



Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

PROGRAMMING


SECOND
-
GENERATION COMPUTERS MOVED
FROM BINARYMACHINE LANGUAGE TO
SYMBOLIC OR ASSEMBLY LANGUAGES.



HIGH
-
LEVEL LANGUAGES LIKE COBOL AND
FORTRON WERE DEVELOPED AT THIS TIME.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

MAGNETIC TAPES AND DISCS


MAGNETIC DISK,A NEW EXTERNAL AUXILIARY
STORAGE DEVICE WAS DEVELOPED.



MAGNETIC DISC IS FASTER THAN MAGNETIC TAPE.



BY THIS TECHNOLOGY EACH DATA ITEM CAN BE
ACCESSED DIRECTLY BY REFERING TO ITS LOCATION
ON THE DISC.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


OTHER CHARACTERISTICS


FASTER THAN FIRST GENERATION
COMPUETRS.


FIRST OPERATING SYSTEMS WAS
DEVELOPED.


COMPUTER’S SIZE BECAME
SMALLER.


COMPUTERS CONSUMED LESS
HEAT.


LESS CONSUMPTION OF
ELECTRICITY.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


THIRD GENERATION




INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DEVELOPED


CHARACTERISTICS


SSI & MSI TECHNOLOGY WAS USED


HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES WERE
USED.


OTHER FEATURES.



Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY

o
THE DEVEOPLMENT OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
WAS THE KEYPOINT OF THE THIRD
GENERATION OF COMPUTERS.

o
DOZENS OF TRANSISTORS WERE PLACES ON A
SINGLE CHIP MADE OF SILICON,CALLED
SEMICONDUTOR.

o
WHICH HAD A LAGRE IMPACT ON THE
INCREASE IN SPEED AND EFFICIENCY OF
COMPUTERS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Synthetic detail of an
integrated circuit through four
layers of
planarized

copper
interconnect.

JACK KIBY’S ORIGINAL IC

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CHARACRTERISTICS



POWER CONSUMPTION WAS LOW AS
COMPARE TO SECOND GENERATION
COMPUTERS.


THEY WERE SMALL IN SIZE AND
FASTER.SOME OF THEM HAVE ONLY SIZE
OF A SMALL REFRIGERATOR.


INTERACTION MEDIUM WERE
KEYBOARDS AND MONITORS,INSTEAD OF
PUNCH CARDS.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

SSI & MSI TECHNOLOGY
GY


THE FIRST INTEGRATED CIRCUITS CONTAINED ONLY A


FEW TRANSISTORS,CALLED “SMALL
-
SCALE
INTEGRATION”(SSI).



THE NEXT STEP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF IC RESULTS IN
INTRODUCING “MEDIUM
-
SCALE INTEGRATION” (MSI).



MSI CONTAINS HUNDREDS OF TRANSISTORS ON EACH
CHIP,COSTS LITTLE AND SMALL IN SIZE.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

OTHER FEATURES



USE OF SEMICONDUCTOR
MEMORIES.


MICROPROGRAMMING.


VARIOUS PATTERNS OF
PARALLEL PROCESSING.


INTRODUCTION OF OS AND
TIME
-
SHARING.


USE OF HIGH LEVEL
LANGUAGES.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


FOURTH GENERATION


MICROPROCESSORS.


DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER
PROGRAMS.


COMMUNICATION


PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.


OTHER FEATURES.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

MICROPROCESSORS
GY


LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION(LSI) COULD FIT HUNDREDS


OF COMPONENTS ONTO ONE CHIP.



MARCIAN HOFF INEVENTED A DEVICE WHICH COULD
REPLACE SEVERAL OF THE COMPONENTS OF EARLIER
COMPUTERS,THE MICROPROCESSOR.



CAPABLE OF PERFORMING ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS OF A
COMPUTER’S CPU IN ALL FORTH GENERATION COMPUTERS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

4
TH

GENERATION IC

INTEL PENTIUM CPU

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

COMPUTER PROGRAMS



WORD PROCESSING.


SPREADSHEETS.



DATABASE MANAGEMENT.


STATISTICAL SOFTWARES.


GRAPHICS.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


COMMUNICTAION


MICROCOMPUTERS HAVE THE UNIQUE
FEATURE OF BEING ABLE TO BE USED
BOTH AS A SINGLE USER COMPUTER.



ALSO AS A TERMINAL TO A LARGER
MULTIUSER COMPUTER.


COMMUNICATION SOFTWARES WERE
DEVELOPED.



Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

PRORAMMING LANGUAGES
GY


HIGH
-
LEVEL LANGUAGES LIKE FUNCTIONAL
PROGRAMMMING(PF) AND
PROLOG(PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC) WERE
DEVELOPED.



ALTERNATIVELY LANGUAGES LIKE PASCAL,C USED
IMPERATIVE STYLE
i.e

DESCRIBING COMPUTATION IN
TERMS OF STATEMENTS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


OTHER FEATURES:


PORTABLE COMPUTERS WAS THE
GREAT DEVELOPMENT.


REQUIRES LESS SPACE,LIGHT
WEIGHT.


FASTER AND MORE RELIABLE.


POWERFUL NETWORKING.


DEVELOPMENT OF
GUIs
, THE
MOUSE AND HANDHELD DEVICES.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

FIFTH GENERATION

INTRODUCTION
:


FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS ARE BASED ON ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE.


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS THE BRANCH OF COMPUTER
SCIENCE WHICH MAKES COMPUTERS BEHAVE LIKE HUMANS.


THE TERM ‘ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE’ WAS COINED IN
1965
BY
JOHN MSCARTHY.


COMPUTING BASED ON THIS TECHNOLOGY IS STILL IN
PROCESS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

FEATURES
GY


PARALLEL PROCESSING.


SUPERCONDUCTORS.


VOICE RECOGNITION.


INTELLIGENT ROBOTS.


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


PARALLEL PROCESSING


PARALLEL PROCESSING MEANS TO
EXECUTE MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM OR
MULTIPLE COMPUTATIONAL THREADS.



MASSIVELY PARALLEL PROCESSING(MPP)
IS USED ALONG WITH ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE TO MAKE COMPUTERS
BEHAVE LIKE SUPERCOMPUTERS..


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

SUPERCONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY


THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
ALONG WITH NASA AND DARPA AND
VARIOUS UNIVERSITIES ARE CURRENTLY
RESEARCHING ‘PETAFLOP’ COMPUTERS.


A PETAFLOP IS A THOUSAND
-
TRILLION
FLOATING POINT OPERATIONS PER
SECOND.


TODAY’S FASTEST COMPUTER HAVE
REACHED ‘PETAFLOP’ SPEEDS
-
QUADRILLIONS OF OPERATIONS PER
SECOND.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

SPEECH RECOGNITION
Y


VOICE RECOGNITION SOFTWARES
DEALS WITH RECOGNIZING HUMAN
VOICE SPOKEN IN HUMAN
LANGUAGES.



THESE SOFTWARES ARE EXPENSIVE
AND HAVE SOME FLAWS,DUE TO
WHICH THEY ARE USED IN FEW
SITUATIONS.




Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

INTELLIGENT ROBOTS
Y


ROBOTS ARE THE PROGRAMMING
COMPUTERS TO SEE AND HEAR AND
REACT TO OTHER SENSORY STIMULI.



BUT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF VERY
LIMITED TASKS.



A LOT OF DEVELOPMENT IS NEEDED IN
THIS TECHNOLOGY TO OVERCOME
CLUMSY MOVEMENTS AND OBJECT
HANDLING OF ROBOTS.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS
CONCERNED IN MAKIING
COMPUTERS BEHAVE LIKE
HUMANS.


ARTIFICILA INTELLIGENCE INCLUDE:

I.
GAMES PLAYING.

II.
EXPERT SYSTEMS.

III.
NATURAL LANGUAGES.

IV.
THEORM PROVING.

V.
ROBOTICS AND NAVIGATION.


Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


SIXTH GENERATION


TRANSITIONS BETWEEN GENERATION IS
HARD TO DEFINE,ESPACIALLY WHEN
THEY ARE IN PROCESS.


SIXTH GENERATION COMPUTERS ARE
BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BY
ADOPTING PARALLEL PROCESSING.


THERE WILL BE MORE ADVANCE
TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS
NANOTACHNOLOGY AND QUANTUM
PROCESSING.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

"pen
-
based" approach to next generation computer interfaces recently
demo'd

by NEC corp.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

FEATURES
GY



FIRST PHASE OF SIXTH GENERATION COMPUTERS HAVE THE KEY
FEATURES LIKE CLUSTER
-
TO
-
CLUSTER PARALLELISM,TURELY
MASSIVE PARALLELISM.


VERY LARGE MEMORIES WITH HIERARICHAL ORGANIZATION, VERY
HIGH SPEED WITH PEAK PERFORMANCE,NETWORKING AND
DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS.


MAKING SIGNAL RECOGNITION ENGINES MORE STRONG,EXPERT
-
SYSTEMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WITH SYSTEM AND
APPLICATION SOFTWARES.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

NEURAL COMPUTING

o
NEURAL COMPUTING AIMS TO DEVELOP IDEAS FROM NUEROSCIENCE INTO A
FORM THAT IS PROMISING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRESENT
GENERATION.


o
IT IS BASED ON COOPERATIVE COMPUTATION,THAT MEANS THE COMPUTER
WILL PE PRACTICALLY A PROBLEM
-
SOLVING


NETWORK, RATHER THAN A SINGLE SERIAL


MACHINE.


o
ISPIRED FROM THE HUMAN BRAIN WHICH


IS DIVIDED INTO SEVERAL PARTS,COMPUTER


WILL THUS BE A NETWORK OF SPECIAL


PURPOSE MACHINES.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011


NANOTECHNOLOGY


NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED COMPUTER
SYSTEMS WILL USE MEMORY MADE OF
GRAPHENE.


GRAPHENE IS A FLAT ONE
-
ATOM THICK
SHEET OF CARBON,IT NEVER STOPS
CONDUCTING.


GRAPHENE MEMORY COULD BE USED
AS A MEMORY TO EXCEED THE
PERFORMANCE,AND AMOUNT OF
STORAGE BY A FACTOR OF 5 USING
NANOCABLES.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

image of a G

SiO2
nanocable

two
-
terminal device. Scale bar = 250 nm

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011

H
OWEVER THE GENERATIONS ARE VERY HARD TO
CONCLUDE,AS CONTINUOS WORK AND SEARCH ALONGWITH
IMPLEMENTATION IS IN PROCESS.

M
OST OF THE DOCUMENTATION AND SEACRH IS DONE FOR
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY.


W
HICH WILL COMPLETELY CHANGE THE PRESENT CONCEPT
ABOUT COMPUTERS AND MAKE THEM THINK AND BEHAVE
MORE PERFECT THAN A HUMAN BEING.

Copyright (c) Future IT 2011