WI MAX _ SUBSTITUTE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

auditormineMobile - Wireless

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

A

PAPER PRESENTATION ON


WI

MAX _ SUBSTITUTE


OF WIRELESS
COMMUNICATION














ABSTR
ACT:


The
new era of communication,
currently employed in some
arts of the world, is Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave
Access (WIMAX). It is the
latest technology which is
approved by IEEE 802.16 group,
which is a standard f
or point
-
to
-
mul
tipoint wireless
networking. Wimax vision is to
deliver“lastmile”broadband
connectivity to home
or business
locations, also its data rates
are comparable with Cable and
Digital Subscriber line (DSL)
rates.


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It has the capability
which connects to the ISP
(Internet Service Provider) even
when you are roaming outside
home or office. The Wimax
technology is becoming the way
to avert the impending crisis
of rural connectivity i.e. it will
be acce
ssible till the last mile.
This paper explains about the
purpose of

Wimax, the study
ofWimaxsystems,
its mplications
and applications and its wireless
capabilities



CONTENTS:



1.INTRODUCTION


2.HISTORY


3.TECHNICAL
INFORMATION


4.ARCHITECTURE


5.WI
MAX USAGE IN
MOBILES


6.ADVANTAGES


7.DISADVANTAGES


8.FUTURE DEVELOPMENT


9.CONCLUSION








INTODUCTION:


magine a technology that can
reach even into the remote areas
or the suburbs where the access
to power plants is even difficult.
This innovatio
n technology will
provide transfer rates of multiple
Megabits to the users within a
range of several kilometers. As
we know the demand for wireless
has raised rapidly from 5.7
million in 2002 to 200 million in
2006. The global Wimax market
is growing
at the rate of 30%
per year and is expected to touch
$2.8 billion by 2009 from the
present $ 600 million. The
number of Wimax

users is forecasted to each 14.9
million in 2009. Wimax based
solutions are more flexible and
secured. They provide an
ou
tstanding service and are very
much cost effective.
Topologies of urban and
suburban areas can be controlled
by this technology. Wimax
technology is 30 times faster
than the third generation and 100
times faster than the wireless
data rates.[1
]



HISTORY:



The brief history of WiMAX
is an interesting study in
technology development,
standardization and spin control.
The idea for WiMAX came
about in the wake of the telecom
bubble, when generating hype
about what technologies could do
was
anathema. WiMAX is also
-

by name as well as by function
and association
-

a cousin of Wi
-
Fi, which hasn't exactly become
firmly ensconced as an
indispensable technology tool in
the telecom service provider
quiver. When Wi
-
Fi's new
maxed
-
out cousin came on
to the

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scene, it already had that
(perceived) strike against it.

So it should come as no surprise
that the WiMAX powers that be
-

namely, the WiMAX Forum and
the companies comprising it
-

have been very careful to control
the spin, downplay the hype and
s
hroud the technology's
certification processes in a veil of
mystery. Without that level of
control, excitement about
WiMAX's potential as a
broadband access form could
have continued unabated, with
people within and outside of
telecom making assumptions
ab
out WiMAX that ultimately
could have resulted in letdowns.


But now it's beginning to feel
like the WiMAX community has
taken the protection of its
brainchild too far. A
postponement of the WiMAX
Forum's product certification
process earlier this year led to
rampant speculation that the
forum was changing direction or
its position on support of certain
versions of WiMAX. Tr
ue or not,
the conjecture
-

accompanied by
the forum's relative silence on the
issues
-

didn't do much for the
nascent technology's still
-
forming reputation in service
provider circles.

Those wrinkles in the WiMAX
maturation process seem to be
ironed out,

for the most part, at
this point. But now a new
potential quandary is rearing its
head: potential WiMAX
deployers' impatience with the
process that will bless WiMAX
gear as "certified." As Dan
O'Shea points out in this month's
cover story (page 20), small
er
broadband wireless players such
as wireless ISP NextWeb are
looking at moving ahead with
RFPs for WiMAX gear in
advance of any official
equipment certification. That's
probably not the kind of publicity
the WiMAX Forum wants.

The best answer might be f
or the
forum to let market forces (like
NextWeb's plans) govern the
pace of WiMAX deployment. On
one hand, that action could speed
up the whole process and lead
more quickly to high
-
volume
production and thus lower
component costs. On the other, it
could p
rotect the forum and its
backers from further.




TECHNICAL INFORMATION:




WiMAXand the IEEE 802.16
The current WiMAX revision is
based upon IEEE Std 802.16e
-
2005, approved in December
2005. It is a supplement to the
IEEE Std 802.16
-
2004, and so

4

the
actual standard is 802.16
-
2004 as amended by 802.16e
-
2005. Thus, these specifications
need to be considered together.

IEEE 802.16e
-
2005 improves
upon IEEE 802.16
-
2004 by:

Adding support for mobility (soft
and hard handover between base
stations). This is s
een as one of
the most important aspects of
802.16e
-
2005, and is the very
basis of Mobile WiMAX.

Scaling of the Fast Fourier
transform (FFT) to the channel
bandwidth in order to keep the
carrier spacing constant across
different channel bandwidths
(typical
ly 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10
MHz or 20 MHz). Constant
carrier spacing results in a higher
spectrum efficiency in wide
channels, and a cost reduction in
narrow channels. Also known as
Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA).
Other bands not multiples of 1.25
MHz are defined in t
he standard,
but because the allowed FFT
subcarrier numbers are only 128,
512, 1024 and 2048, other
frequency bands will not have
exactly the same carrier spacing,
which might not be optimal for
impl
ementations. Carrier spacing
is10.94kHz.
Advanced antenna
diversit
y schemes, and hybrid
automaticrepeat
-
request(HARQ)

AdaptiveAntennaSystems (AAS)
andMIMOtechnology
Dense
rsub
-
channelization,thereby improving
indoorpenetration
Introducing
Turb
o Coding and Low
-
Density
Parity
Check(LDPC)Introducing
downlink
s
ubchanneliz
ation,
allow
ing administrators to trade
coverage for capacity or vice
versa .



ARCHITECTURE:



The IEEE 802.16e
-
2005 standard
provides the air interface for
WiM
AX but does not define the
full
end
-
to
-
end WiMAX network.
Th
e WiMAX Forum's Network
W
orking
Group (NWG), is
responsibl
e for developing the
end
-
to
-
end
network requirements,
architecture, and protocols for
WiMAX, using IEEE 802.16e
-
2005 as the air interface.

The WiMAX NWG has
developed a network reference
model to serve as an architecture
fra
mework for WiMAX
deployments and to ensure
inter
operability among various
WiMAXequipment
and operators.

The netw
ork reference model
envisions
unified network
architecture

for supporting fixed,
nomadic,and
mobile deployments
and is based on an IP service
mode
l. Below is simplified
illustration of an IP
-
based
WiMAX network architecture.
The overall network may be
logically divided into three parts:

1.

Mobile Stations (MS)
used by the end user to
access the network.

2.

The access service
network (ASN), which
comprises

one or more
base stations and one or
more ASN gateways that
form the radio access
network at the edge.


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3.

Connectivity service
network (CSN), which
provides IP connectivity
and all the IP core
network functions.

The network reference model
developed by the W
iMAX
Forum NWG defines a number
of functional entities and
interfaces between those entities.
Fig below shows some of the
more important functional
entities.



Base station (BS):

The
BS is responsible for
providing the air interface
to the MS. Additiona
l
fun
ctions that may be part
of the
BS are
micromobility
management functions,
such as handoff triggering
and tunnel establishment,
radioresourcemanagemen
t,QoSpolicy enforcement,
trafficclassification,DHC
P
(Dynamic Host Control
Protocol) proxy, key
management, s
ession
management,andmulticast
group management.



Access service network
gateway (ASN
-
GW):

The ASN gateway
typically acts as a layer 2
traffic aggregation point
within an ASN.
Additional functions that
may be part of the ASN
gat
eway include intra
-
ASNlocation
management
and
pa
ging, radio resource
managementand
admissio
n control, caching of
subscriber profiles and
encryption
keys, AAA
client
functionality,
establishme
nt and management of
mobility tunnel with base
stations, QoS and policy
enforcement, foreign
agent
functionality for
mobile IP, and routing to
the selected CSN.



Connectivity service
network (CSN):

The
CSN provides
connectivity to the
Internet, ASP, other
public networks, and
corporate networks. The
CSN is owned by the
NSP and includes AAA
servers that s
upport
authentication for the
devices, users, and
specific services. The
CSN also provides per
user policy management
of QoS and security. The
CSN is also responsible
for IP address
management, support for
roaming between
different NSPs, location
managemen
t between
ASNs, and mobility and
roaming between ASNs.


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The WiMAX architecture
framework allows for the flexible
decomposition and/or
combination of f
unctional
entities when building the
physical entities. For example,
the ASN may be decomposed
into base station transceivers
(BST), base station controllers
(BSC), and an ASNGW
analogous to the GSM model of
BTS, BSC, and Serving GPRS
Support Node (SGSN).


DATA TRANSMISSION
RATE:




WiMAX supports
very robust data throughput.

The
technology at theoretical
maximums could support
approximately 75 Mbps per
channel (in a 20 MHz channel
using 64QAM ¾ code rate).

Real world performance wi
ll be
considerably lower
---
perhaps
maxing out around 45
Mbps/channel in some fixed
broadband applications.

Remember however, that service
across this channel would be
shared by multiple customers.

Actual transmission capabilities
on a per customer basis
could
vary widely depending on the
carrier's chosen customer base,
which is actually an inherent
strength because it can be
defined by QOS in a deliberate
fashion to offer different
bandwidth capabilities to
customers with different needs
(and different bu
dgets).

Mobile
WiMAX capabilities on a per
customer basis will be lower in
practical terms, but much better
than competing 3G technologies.

WiMAX is often cited to possess
a spectral efficiency of 5 bps/Hz,
which is very good in
comparison to other broad
band
wireless technologies, especially
3G.





APPLICATIONS:

Of course, no conversation about
emerging technology is complete
without the question, “What can I
do with it?” At the very basic
level, WiMAX will offer the
capacity for service providers to
dep
loy next generation
broadband service more cost

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effectively than today, to a wider
customer base, while adding a
mobility aspect to those services.


More specifically, however,
WiMAX will provide a means
for service providers to offer
Quadruple Play servi
ces (voice,
video, data, mobile), or Triple
Play plus Mobile. Certainly,
there are alternatives, as the
market has already witnesses
with providers partnering with
and reselling other providers’
offerings. But, those
arrangements afford neither the
profit
margins from nor optimal
control
o
ver those services. Service
providers that are able to, on
their own, deliver all these

services, will have a distinct
advantage.


So, with WiMAX, providers
have the bandwidth and speed to
provide VoIP, IPTV (including
video on demand), and Internet
access. The key, then, lies in its
wireless access means, which
allow

is to provide each of
these services on a
fixed and mobile basis


turning it into
Quad Play.


HOW WIMAX WORKS:

We
can single out the
WiMax

(Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access) technology
that is widely used for setting up
wireless internet. High speeds
can be ach
ieved over a wireless
network using this technology.
Based on the IEEE 802.16
communications standard, this
technology if fast replacing
cumbersome cable and expensive
satellite networks.


The WiMax network consists of
base stations (similar to mobile
towe
rs) set up by the service
provider, and a receiving antenna
(similar to a mobile phone
antenna) at the user end. The user
pays the service provider for
wireless internet access, just as
they would for a normal internet
connection via a cable network.
The s
ervice provider provides the
end user with the software, a
login and a password. Most of
the laptop manufacturers today
equip high
-
end models with a
built in antenna bundled with the
required software for the unit to
be WiMax compatible.


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The service provi
der beams the
internet signals from the base
station. The antenna at the user
end catch the signals, providing
uninterrupted internet as long as
the signal is available. With a
laptop equipped with an antenna
you could be connected to the
internet wherever

the signal is
available from the base station.
As with mobile phones that catch
a signal from the nearest tower of
the particular service provider, so
is it with new generation WiMax
services. One WiMax base
station can send signals over
distances of seve
ral miles
depending on the terrain. The
more flat the terrain, more the
coverage. Once you move from
one base station area to another,
your laptop receiver will hook up
to the other base station (of the
same service provider) with a
stronger signal. As WiM
ax
service providers spread out their
operations, everyone will be
connected to really high
-
speed
internet 24X7 wherever they are.






ADVANTAGES::

Advantages

of wimax



Through Wimax wireless
networking is possible
through longer distances



Wimax can run in licensed
and non licensed frequencies



Wimax avoi
ds interference



Wimax has Cost advantages



It has the capacity to offer
different types of services in
one platform

DISADVANTAGES:

Wimax cannot provide quality of
service because huge number of
people trying to access the same
tower. But wimax has its ow
n
advantages, many think that the
tower becomes overloaded due to
high number of requests from
users but wimax has a innerbuilt
algorithm which transfer the user
to another wimax tower . In other
cases, wifi if you want to access
it, you need to be near th
e
Wireless Access Point ( Wap)
which has capacity to serve not
more than 30 clients at a time in
the range of
about

50 to 150
metres distance.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT:

WiMax technology is considered
to be
a next generation
technology because this
technology is aimed at replacing
most of the present wireless
technologies like wifi, Bluetooth,
microwave and mobile phone
technologies. This technology
would give rise to a broad
consumer market for wireless
digi
tal devices. This wireless

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connection does not only provide
compatibility with exiting
devices but in the near future it
would help in further inventions.
The world would witness many
inventions which are now even
hard to imagine. WiMax is a
technology whi
ch considered as
the first step toward 4G. Today
WiMax is operating as second
generation and third generation
technology but in near future it
would be substantial 4G
technology.

Future in Emerging Markets


WiMax is the next generation
high speed internet
connection
which can be accessed with any
digital portable device like palm
top, laptop and smart phones. It
can be forecasted that the number
of subscribers for this technology
would reach to 70million. So far
it has captured the market of
Korea with the
help of its sister
WiBro. This connection operates
at range of frequencies this is the
reason why further development
in this technology would not stop
or hamper. The future of WiMax
forum is also attached to the
growth of this technology. This
technology
is bread and butter
for many. Therefore the further
development in this technology
would generate more jobs. The
WiMax forum is working hard to
create more awareness about the
benefits of this technology. We
can say hat their efforts are
somewhat successfu
l because
now there are more than 170
vendors attached to this
technology. WiMax standard is
based on the 802.16 standards
and it has many forms like the
fixed wireless technology and the
mobile WiMax technology. The
wireless market is shifting to
basic se
rvice connections to
providing multimedia services.
Companies like Telco’s are
already enjoying huge profits
using this blessing.

WiMax as a Broadband
Technology



Besides limitations like limited
bandwidth over large
geographical area it would
emerge as t
he best broadband
wi
reless connection. Wired
technologies have already been
rejected due to their difficult
management an
d expense.
Wireless broadband connections
are now in the hearts and pockets
of the mobile users. This
technology would make the
communication world ubiquitous
for us. It is also a part of almost
all new digital devices. The user
just has to subscribe and p
ay and
the fast broad band connection
would be available. The WiMax
can be deployed at variable
frequencies. WiMax is using 2
GHz to 11 GHz and up to 63
GHz frequency for its operation.

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However this is not the limit. The
speed and efficiency of this
connec
tion can be increased. It is
already providing multimedia
services to ultimate users like
video streaming, video
conferencing, voice chat and
voice over the internet. The
broadband infrastructure of this
technology is really simple as
compared to the other
s of its
type. Its current broadband speed
is 34 Mbps and 1 GB. This speed
would further increase with the
development in the
infrastructure. The line of sight
connection provides fast internet
connections even in remote
areas. Imagine a world where a
natu
ral disaster has destroyed
everything. This is the only
network technology which would
help us recover from it quickly.
WiMax has already helped
revived the communication needs
in tsunami. The future of WiMax
is very dazzling ahead.


CONCLUSION:

WiMAX is
a technology in its
infancy. It supplies solutions for
backhaul connectivity for
existing wireless hotspots and
also offers end
-
user access in the
unlicensed portion of the wireless
spectrum. Local regulations may
prevent WiMAX from reaching
its full poten
tial in the unlicensed
spectrum.

WiMAX is intended to
make point
-
to
-
multipoint
broadband network access
widely available, without the
expense and distance limitations
associated with wired options.
Critical to this emerging
technology and the overall
succe
ss of WiMAX applications
is the ability to generate, detect,
demodulate, and troubleshoot
PHY layer signals. As a leader
in

wimax.

Agilent Technologies
has, and continues to deliver a
broad range of solutions for
addressing the unique challenges
brought ab
out by the Fixed and
Mobile WiMAX specifications.
Agilent was first to market with
R&D
-
based WiMAX solutions
and is an active member of the
WiMAX Forum. Agilent's
measurement solutions are
currently used in WiMAX
certification testing.

Agilent's innovative

solutions
play a critical role in helping to
grow the WiMAX market, while
its technical expertise enables it
to stay ahead of any engineering
challenges that may arise. With
its ongoing commitment to
supporting WiMAX,

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

www.massbunkz.com


http://www.techzone360.com/vie
wette.aspx?u=http://www.techzo
ne360.com/news/2011/02/09/529
9478.htm



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