Introduction to Twitter by Huang, Ma, and Li - ZEN Portfolios

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Feb 2, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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10/16/2009




A Beginner's Guide

|
Huang, Li, and Ma.

PROLIFIC

RESISTANCE

I
NTRODUCTION TO
T
WITTER


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Table of Contents

Attribution

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Our Contribution

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Wikipeda

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Creative Commons

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Twitter

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History

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Finances

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8

Tech
nology

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A Twitter profile

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Interface

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Content of tweets

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Demographics

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Outages

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The Twitter fail whale error message

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Privacy and security

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Criticis
m

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Notable usage

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Use in campaigning

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Used to survey opinion

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Use in public relations

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Use
in reporting dissent

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Use in protest and politics

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Use in emergencies

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Use in criminal proceedings

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Use in space exploration

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Similar services

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References

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External links

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Attribution

All the content

in this report, except for the Top Web Links section is from Wikipedia,
licensed under the Creative Commons Share
-
Alike 3.0 Unported License (see below for an
overview of both Wikipedia and the Creative Commons). The following picture shows the
full licen
se below (it is also set up as a hyperlink to the original web source for this license).

(Wikipedia, 2009)

Figure
1

-

Wikipedia Creative Commons License

Our Contribution

We have attempted to add extra

value to the content by structuring it in an easy to read,
business report format and to add an informative “Top Web Links” section. We have also
added an index to help you find what you are looking for. We hope you find it useful and
worth the $1 purchas
e price. We have prepared this report as part of a
MS Word 2007
assignment

for
BSYS 1000


Computer Applications I

that we are taking at the
British
Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT)
. All proceeds will go to student clubs within the
School of Business at BCIT
.

Wikipeda


Wikipedia is a multilingual, Web
-
based
, free
-
content encyclopedia project based mostly on
anonymous contributions. The name “Wikipedia” is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a type
of collaborative Web site) and encyclopedia. Wiki
pedia’s articles provide links to guide the
user to related pages with additional information.


Wikipedia is written collaboratively by an international (and mostly anonymous) group of
volunteers. Anyone with internet access can write and make changes to W
ikipedia articles.
There are no requirements to provide one’s real name when contributing; rather, each
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writer’s privacy is protected unless they choose to reveal their identity themselves. Since its
creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one o
f the largest reference web sites,
attracting around 65 million visitors monthly as of 2009. There are more than 75,000 active
contributors working on more than 14,000,000 articles in more than 260 languages. As of
today, there are 3,062,069 articles in En
glish. Every day, hundreds of thousands of visitors
from around the world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create thousands of
new articles to augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See also:
Wikipedia:Statistics.)


Crea
tive Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is a non
-
profit organization

devoted to expanding the range of
creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has
released several copyright
-
licenses known as

Creative Commons licenses. These licenses
allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for
the benefit of recipients or other creators.



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Twitter

Twitter is a free social networking and micro
-
blogging service that
enables its users to send
and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text
-
based posts of up to 140 characters
displayed on the author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are
known as followers. Senders can restrict delivery to t
hose in their circle of friends or, by
default, allow open access. Users can send and receive tweets via the Twitter website, Short
Message Service (SMS) or external applications. While the service, itself, costs nothing to
use, accessing it through SMS ma
y incur phone service provider fees.


The 140 character limit on message length was initially set for compatibility with SMS
messaging, and has brought to the web the kind of shorthand notation and slang commonly
used in SMS messages. The 140 character lim
it has also spurred the usage of URL shortening
services such as tinyurl, bit.ly and tr.im, and content hosting services, such as Twitpic and
NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters.


Since its creation in 2006 by Jack

Dorsey, Twitter has gained notability and popularity
worldwide. It is sometimes described as the "SMS of the Internet"[3] since the use of
Twitter's application programming interface for sending and receiving short text messages
by other applications ofte
n eclipses the direct use of Twitter.


Twitter is ranked

as one of the 50 most popular websites worldwide by Alexa's web traffic
analysis.[4] Although estimates of the number of daily users vary because the company does
not release the numbe
r of active accounts, a February 2009 Compete.com blog entry ranked
Twitter as the third most used social network[5] based on their count of 6 million unique
monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[5] In March 2009, a Nielsen.com blog ranked
Twitte
r as the fastest
-
growing site in the Member Communities category for February 2009.
Twitter had a monthly growth of 1,382 percent, Zimbio of 240 percent, followed by
Facebook with an increase of 228 percent.[6] However, only 40 percent of Twitter's users
a
re retained.[7]



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History



A blueprint sketch, circa 2000, by Jack Dorsey, envisioning an SMS
-
based social
networkTwitter began in a "daylong brainstorming session" that was held by board
members of the podcasting company Odeo in an attempt to break ou
t of a creative slump.
At that meeting Jack Dorsey introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to
communicate with a small group, a concept partly inspired by the SMS group messaging
service TXTMob.[8]


The working name was just "Status" for
a while. It actually didn’t have a name. We were
trying to name it, and mobile was a big aspect of the product early on ... We liked the SMS
aspect, and how you could update from anywhere and receive from anywhere.

We wanted to capture

that in the name


we wanted to capture that feeling: the physical
sensation that you’re buzzing your friend’s pocket. It’s like buzzing all over the world. So we
did a bunch of name
-
storming, and we came up with the word "twitch," because the phone

kind of vibrates when it moves. But "twitch" is not a good product name because it doesn’t
bring up the right imagery. So we looked in the dictionary for words around it, and we came
across the word "twitter," and it was just perfect. The definition was "
a short burst of
inconsequential information," and "chirps from birds." And that’s exactly what the product
was.



Jack Dorsey[9]

The original product name or codename for the service was twttr, inspired by Flickr and the
fact that American SMS short codes

are five characters. The developers initially
experimented with "10958


as a short code, though later changed it to "40404


for "
ease
of use and memorability."[8] Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey
published the first Twitter messa
ge at 9:50 PM Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up
my twttr".[10]


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The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees, later
launching publicly into a full
-
scale version in July 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan
Wi
lliams, Dorsey and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired
Odeo and all of its assets

including Odeo.com and Twitter.com

from the investors and
other shareholders.[11] Twitter later spun off into its own company in April 2007.[12]


Th
e tipping

point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest (SXSW) festival.
During the event usage went from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[13] "The Twitter people
cleverly placed two 60
-
inch plasma screens in the confer
ence hallways, exclusively
streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference
-
goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the
service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it. So
on everyone was buzzing and posting
about this new thing that was sort of instant messaging and sort of blogging and maybe
even a bit of sending a stream of telegrams."[14] Reaction at the festival was
overwhelmingly positive. Laughing Squid blogger Scott
Beale said Twitter "absolutely
rul[ed]" SXSW. Social software researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter "own[ed]" the
festival.[15] Twitter staff accepted their prize for the festival's Web Award with the remark
"we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less.
And we just did!"[16]



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Finances

Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located on the 4th floor of 539 Bryant StreetIn total,
Twitter has raised over US$57 million from venture capitalists. The exact amounts of funding
have not been publicly released. T
witter's first round of funding was for an undisclosed
amount that is rumored to have been between $1 million and $5 million.[17] Its B round of
funding in 2008 was for $22 million[18] and its C round of funding in 2009 was for $35
million from Institution
al Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an
undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital
and Insight Venture Partners.[17] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital
Garage
, Spar
k Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[19]


The Industry Standard has remarked that Twitter's long
-
term viability is limited by a lack of
revenue.[20] Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could make
money from e
-
commerce noting that many
users may want to buy items directly from
Twitter since they already use it to get product recommendations and since companies
already use it to promote products.[21]


Some of Twitter's documents covering revenue and user growth were published on
TechCrunch after they were retrieved by a hacker. These contained internal projections that
in 2009 they would have revenues of $400,000 in the third quarter (Q3) and $4 million in the
fourth quarter (Q4) along with 25 million users at the end of the year.

The projections for
the end of 2013 were $1.54 billion in revenue, $111 million in net earnings, and 1 billion
users.[1] No information about how Twitter plans to achieve those numbers has been
published. Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting legal a
ction for revealing the details
was a possibility.[22]



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Technology



A Twitter profile
Twitter has been described as akin to a Web
-
based Internet Relay
Chat

(IRC) client.[23] The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework.[24] From
the spring of 2007 until 2008 the actual messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue
server called Starling[25] but since 2009 this has been gradually replaced wit
h software
written in Scala.[26] The service's API allows other web services and applications to
integrate with Twitter.[27] Searches on the system make use of hashtags, words or phrases
prefixed with a #. A search for "beer" would turn up all messages tha
t included #beer.[28]
Similarly, the @ sign followed by a username allows users to send messages directly to each
other. A message with @example would be directed at the user "example" although it can
still be read by anyone.[29]


Through SMS, users can co
mmunicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short
codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man
-
based number
for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only
accessible to those on

the Vodafone and O2 networks.[30]


Interface

Technology author Steven Johnson describes the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably
simple:"[31]


As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to
follow another
Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on
your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down
the page: breakfast
-
cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even
musi
ngs on the future of education.

On April 30, 2009, Twitter tweaked its web interface, adding a search bar and a sidebar of
Trending Topics

the most common phrases currently appearing in messages. "Every public
update sent to Twitter

from an
ywhere in the world 24/7 can be instantly indexed and made
discoverable via our newly launched real
-
time search," explained Biz Stone. "With this newly
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launched feature, Twitter has become something unexpectedly important

a discovery
engine for finding out

what is happening right now."[32]


Content of tweets



Content of Tweets according to Pear Analytics.San Antonio
-
based market research firm Pear
Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the US and in English) over a 2
-
week
period from 11:00a to 5
:00p (CST) and separated them into six categories:[33]


News

Spam

Self
-
promotion

Pointless babble

Conversational

Pass
-
along value

The firm found

that "pointless babble" was the largest category of Twitter content, making
up 811 tweets or 40.55 percent of the total number of messages sampled.


Conversational messages accounted for 751 messages or 37.55 percent, tweets with "pass
-
along value" i.e. r
etweets


accounted for 174 messages or 8.70 percent, self
-
promotion by
companies made up 117 tweets or 5.85 percent, spam was 75 tweets or 3.75 percent and
tweets with news from mainstream media publications accounted for 72 tweets or 3.60
percent.[33]


S
ocial networking researcher Danah Boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing
that what the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as
"peripheral awareness" or "social grooming".[34]



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Demographics

Most of Twitter
's usage share comes from older adults who might not have used other
social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media.
"Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years," he said.[35]


Just 11
percent of Twitter's users are aged 12 to 17, according to comScore
.[35]


comScore attributes this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first
gained popularity in business settings and news outlets, which resulted in

an older
-
skewing
early adopter profile. However, comScore as of late, has noted that as Twitter has begun to
"filter more into the mainstream, along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney
Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twi
tterati."[36] Nielsen Online estimates
that retention rate for Twitter is 40%.[37]



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Outages



The Twitter fail whale error message
.When Twitter experiences

an outage,
users see the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying L
u,[38] an illustration of
red birds using nets to hoist a whale from the ocean along with the text [39] "Too many
tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."[39]


Twitter experienced approximately 98 percent uptime in 2007, or about six full days of
downt
ime.[40] Twitter's downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with
the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote
address.[41][42] During May 2008 Twitter's new engineering team made architectural
changes to dea
l with the scale of growth. Stability issues resulted in down time or temporary
feature removal.


In August 2008, Twitter withdrew free SMS services to users in the United Kingdom[43] and
for approximately five months instant messaging support via a XMPP b
ot was listed as being
"temporarily unavailable".[44] On October 10, 2008, Twitter's status blog announced that
instant messaging (IM) service was no longer a temporary outage and needed to be
revamped. Twitter aims to return its IM service at some point b
ut says this requires some
major work.[45]


On June 12, 2009, in what was called a potential "Twitpocalypse", the unique identifier
associated with each tweet exceeded the limit for 32
-
bit signed integers.[46] While Twitter
itself was not affected, some th
ird
-
party clients found that they could no longer access
recent tweets. Patches were quickly released, though some iPhone applications had to wait
for approval from the App Store.[47] On September 22, the identifier exceeded the limit for
32
-
bit unsigned i
ntegers, again breaking some third
-
party clients.[48]


On August 6, 2009, Twitter and Facebook

suffered from a denial
-
of
-
service attack, causing
the Twitter website to be offline for several hours.[49] It was later confirmed that the
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attac
ks were directed at one pro
-
Georgian user around the anniversary of the 2008 South
Ossetia War, rather than the sites themselves.[50]



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Privacy and security

Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third
parties. The service considers that information an asset, and reserves the right to sell it if the
company changes hands.[51] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target
users based on their history of tweets and sometimes may quote tweet
s in ads.[52]


A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since
Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication,
malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SM
S spoofing.[53] The
vulnerability could only be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their
victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery Twitter introduced an optional
personal identification number (PIN) that its users could sp
ecify to authenticate SMS
-
originating messages.[54]


On January 5, 2009, 33 high
-
profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter
administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack.[55] Falsified tweets

including
sexually explicit and dru
g
-
related messages

were then sent from the accounts.[56]


Twitter launched the beta version of its Verified Accounts service on June 11, 2009, allowing
famous or notable people to make it clear which Twitter accounts belongs to them. The
home pages of thes
e verified accounts display a badge to indicate this special status.[57]


Reception



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Criticism

The Wall Street Journal wrote that social
-
networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed
feelings in the technology
-
savvy people who have been their early a
dopters. Fans say they
are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel "too"
connected, as they grapple with check
-
in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and
the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing

what they're having for dinner."[58]
"Using Twitter for literate communication is about as likely as firing up a CB radio and
hearing some guy recite ‘The Iliad’ ", said tech writer Bruce Sterling.[59] "For many people,
the idea of describing your blow
-
by
-
blow activities in such detail is absurd," hypothesized
writer Clive Thompson. "Why would you subject your friends to your daily minutiae? And
conversely, how much of their trivia can you absorb? The growth of ambient intimacy can
seem like modern narciss
ism taken to a new, supermetabolic extreme


the ultimate
expression of a generation of celebrity
-
addled youths who believe their every utterance is
fascinating and ought to be shared with the world."[60] On the other hand Steve Dotto
opines that part of T
witter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in
tight constraints.[61] "The qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half
-
baked are what
makes it so powerful," says Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law
School
.[62]


Nielsen Online reports that Twitter has a user retention rate of 40 percent. Many people
drop the service after a month so the site may potentially reach only about 10% of all
Internet users.[63] In 2009, Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby

Award.[64][65]


During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition, Daniel
Schorr noted that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact
-
checking and other
editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two exam
ples of breaking
news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first
-
hand accounts and
sometimes debunked stories.[66]


In an episode of The Daily Show on February 26, 2009, guest Brian Williams derided tweets
as only referring to the condi
tion of the author in any given instant. Williams implied that he
would never use Twitter because nothing he did was interesting enough to publish in
Twitter format.[67]


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During another episode of The Daily Show on March 2, 2009, host Jon Stewart negativel
y
portrayed members of Congress who chose to "twitter" during President Obama's address
to Congress (on February 24, 2009) rather than pay attention to the content of the speech.
The show's Samantha Bee satirized media coverage of the service saying "there
's no surprise
young people love it

according to reports of young people by middle aged people".[68]


In March 2009, the comic strip Doonesbury began to satirize Twitter. Many characters
highlighted the triviality of tweets although one defended the need t
o keep up with the
constant
-
update trend.[69] SuperNews! similarly satirized Twitter as an addiction to
"constant self
-
affirmation" and said tweets were nothing more than "shouts into the
darkness hoping someone is listening".[70]



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Notable usage

Use in
campaigning

Twitter was used by candidates in the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign throughout the race.
Democratic Party nominee Barack Obama used it for publicity.[71] The Nader

Gonzalez
campaign updated its ballot access teams in real
-
time with Twitter an
d Google Maps.[72]
Twitter use increased by 43 percent on the day of the United States' 2008 election.[73]


Used to survey opinion

During the CBC News television coverage of the Canadian federal election on October 14,
2008, the CBC cited tweets regarding
Elizabeth May and Stéphane Dion along with a graph
of items mentioned on Twitter as evidence that people were calling for Dion to step down in
response to the election results.[74]


Use in public relations

In Britain, the Department for Business, Innovatio
n and Skills released a Twitter strategy
written for the use of other departments. The strategy advised the departments on why
Twitter was used by the Government and how they could tweet and promote their doing so
effectively.[75] The ICAEW suggested that
the document could also be useful to the private
sector or as a general introduction to Twitter.[76]


In October 2008, a draft U.S. Army intelligence report identified Twitter as a "potential
terrorist tool". The report said it "is already used by some mem
bers to post and/or support
extremist ideologies and perspectives."[77][78]


David Saranga of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that on December 30,
2008, that Israel would be the first government to hold a worldwide press conference via
Tw
itter to take questions from the public about the war against Hamas in Gaza.[79]


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Use in reporting dissent

On April 10, 2008, James Buck, a graduate journalism student at University of California,
Berkeley, and his translator, Mohammed Maree, were arrested

in Egypt for photographing
an anti
-
government[clarification needed] protest. On his way to the police station Buck used
his mobile phone to send the message “Arrested” to his 48 "followers" on Twitter. Those
followers contacted U.C. Berkeley, the U.S. Emb
assy in Cairo, and a number of press
organizations on his behalf. Buck was able to send updates about his condition to his
"followers" while being detained. He was released the next day from the Mahalla jail after
the college hired a lawyer for him.[80]


O
n April 7, 2009, thousands of young anti
-
communist[according to whom?] protesters
stormed the presidency and the parliament building in Chişinău, the capital of Moldova,
accusing the government of electoral fraud. Information about these events was
dissemi
nated through Twitter using hashtag #pman. This hashtag came from the name of
the central square in Chişinău: Piaţa Marii Adunări Naţionale.[81] Twitter was also used to
mobilize for the protests.[82]


Use in protest and politics

In June 2009, following al
legations of fraud in the Iranian presidential election, protesters
used Twitter as a rallying tool and as a method of communication with the outside world
after the government blocked several other modes of communication.[83][84][85][86] On
June 15 Twitte
r rescheduled a planned 90
-
minute maintenance outage after a number of
Twitter users and the US State Department asked Twitter executives to delay the shutdown
because of concerns about the service's role as a primary communication medium by the
protesters

in Iran.[87][88] CNN's coverage of the conflict was criticized in tweets with the
hashtag #CNNfail.[89] Twitter was also used to organize DDoS attacks against Iranian
government websites.[90]


In August 2009, when American opponents of President Barack Ob
ama's health insurance
reform proposals attacked the British National Health Service, thousands of NHS users took
part in a Twitter campaign expressing their support for the NHS with use of the
#welovetheNHS hashtag. The hashtag was initiated by Irish come
dy writer Graham Linehan,
who said he wanted to use a twitter campaign "as a counterweight against the lies of the
American right".[91] The campaign also received the support of several politicians including
British Prime Minister Gordon Brown.[92][93][94]


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New York City activist Elliot Madison used twitter to report an order to disperse message
from the Pittsburgh police during the 2009 G
-
20 Pittsburgh protests. Police raided Madison's
hotel room, and one week later Madison's New York home was raided by FB
I agents, who
conducted a sixteen
-
hour search. Police claim Madison and a co
-
defendant used computers
and a radio scanner to track police movements and then passed on that information to
protesters using cell phones and the social networking site Twitter.
Madison is being
charged with hindering apprehension or prosecution, criminal use of a communication
facility, and possession of instruments of crime. The FBI took miscellany such as refrigerator
magnets, and a Curious George stuffed animal, despite that t
he warrant issued actually
asked for evidence that indicated that potentially there were violations of federal rioting
laws. In light of the United States Department of State's recent public support of twitter use
in the politics of Iran, Moldova, and Hond
uras it is asked whether the State Department
supports speech in the United States.[95][96][97]


When The Guardian newspaper was served in October 2009 with an unprecedented "super
-
injunction" banning it from reporting on a parliamentary matter, it
published a cryptic
article reporting what little it could. The paper claimed that this case appears "to call into
question privileges guaranteeing free speech established under the 1688 Bill of
Rights".[98][99] Alan Rusbridger, the paper's editor, credite
d Twitter users with taking the
initiative to uncover the muck that the press was not allowed to print, namely that the
injunction was taken out by the London solicitors Carter
-
Ruck on behalf of commodities
trader Trafigura, who did not want public discuss
ion of the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste
dump scandal and the resulting Minton Report (available on Wikileaks [100]) The reporting
injunction was lifted the same day, as Carter Ruck withdrew it before The Guardian could
challenge it in the High Court.[101
] Rusbridger credited the rapid back
-
down of Carter
-
Ruck
to Twitter[102], as did a BBC article[103]; the Wikipedia Reference Desk also quickly figured
out what the cryptic article referred to[104].


Use in emergencies

Research reported in New Scientist in
May 2008[105] found that blogs, maps, photo sites
and instant messaging systems like Twitter did a better job of getting information out during
emergencies than either the traditional news media or government emergency services. The
study also found that t
hose using Twitter during the fires in California in October 2007 kept
their followers (who were often friends and neighbors) informed of their whereabouts and
of the location of various fires minute by minute. Organizations that support relief efforts
are

also using Twitter. The American Red Cross started using Twitter[106] to exchange
minute
-
to
-
minute information about local disasters including statistics and directions.[107]


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During the 2008 Mumbai attacks eyewitnesses sent an estimated 80 tweets every 5

seconds.
Twitter users on the ground helped compile a list of the dead and injured. In addition, users
sent out vital information such as emergency phone numbers and the location of hospitals
needing blood donations.[108] CNN called this "the day that soc
ial media appeared to come
of age" since many different groups made significant use of Twitter to gather news and
coordinate responses.[108]


In January 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 experienced multiple bird strikes and had to be
ditched in the Hudson Rive
r. Janis Krums, a passenger on one of the ferries that rushed to
help, took a picture of the downed plane as passengers were still evacuating and sent it to
Twitpic before any other media arrived at the scene.[109][110]


The Australian Country Fire Authori
ty used Twitter to send out regular alerts and updates
regarding the February 2009 Victorian bushfires.[111] During this time the Prime Minister of
Australia, Kevin Rudd, also used his Twitter account to send out information on the fires,
how to donate mon
ey and blood, and where to seek emergency help.[112]


Also in April, public health departments used Twitter to provide updates on H1N1 cases.[113]


Use in criminal proceedings

The first criminal prosecution arising from Twitter posts began in April 2009. A
gents of the
FBI arrested Daniel Knight Hayden. Hayden was accused of sending tweets threatening
violence in connection with his plan to attend a Tea Party protest in Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma.[114]


In July 2009, Horizon Realty Group, a Chicago real estate
management company, sued a
former tenant, Amanda Bonnen, for libel based on a Twitter message sent to friends.
Horizon contends that Bonnen defamed Horizon by posting a tweet to her friends that said,
"You should just come anyway. Who said sleeping in a mo
ldy apartment was bad for you?
Horizon realty thinks it's ok." Horizon asked for at least $50,000 for the alleged libel.[115]
The lawsuit prompted widespread comment from journalists, bloggers, and legal
experts.[116]


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Use in space exploration

In February
2009, NASA won a Shorty Award for its near real
-
time status updates in 2008 of
the unmanned Mars Phoenix Lander mission.[117]


In May 2009, astronaut Mike Massimino used Twitter to send updates of the Hubble Space
Telescope repair mission, the first time T
witter was used in space.[118][119]


On October 21, 2009, Nicole Stott and her Expedition 21 crewmate aboard the International
Space Station, Jeff Williams, are scheduled to participate in the first tweetup from the
station with members of the public gathe
red at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. This
will involve the first live Twitter connection for the astronauts[120]. Previously, astronauts
onboard the Space Shuttle or ISS have sent the messages they desire to send as tweets
down to Mission Control w
hich then posted the message via the Internet to Twitter.[121]


NASA also provides an aggregate feed of all official NASA astronauts' tweets via NASA
Astronauts on Twitter.



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Similar services

Main article: Micro
-
blogging

A number of services like Twitter

exist, including some which send text messages to multiple
people at once. Some services use a similar concept as Twitter but add country
-
specific
services or combine the micro
-
blogging facilities with other services, such as file sharing.
Other services
provide similar functionality, but within closed networks for corporations,
nonprofits, universities, and other organizations.[122]


See also

Comparison of micro
-
blogging services

List of Twitter services and applications



Introduction to Twitter by Huang, Li, and Ma


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Resources

Here is a list of what we feel are the top websites to help new users of Twitter get started.

Table
1
-

Top Web Sources

Top Web Source

Source

URL

Twitter, Google and Bing

Tips from the T
-
list

http://www.tipsfromthetlist.com/17061.html


Twitter

CrunchBase

http://www.crunchbase.com/company/twitter


Twitter

in Plain English

Commoncraft

http://www.commoncraft.com/Twitter


Newbie's guide to Twitter

Cnet
news

http://news.cnet.com/newbies
-
guide
-
to
-
twitter/


Twitter: Why
it’s

So Great And How To
Effectively Use It

LOB

http://www.lostartofblogging.com/twitter
-
guide


TED2009 Twitter Guide

Billions With Zero Knowledge

http://www.billionswithzeroknowledge.com/2009/02/06/ted2009
-
twitter
-
guide/


So what does twitter do for businesses?

Twitter 101

http://business.twitter.com/twitter101/


24

MarThe Ultimate Guide for Everything
Twitter

Webdesigner Depot

http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/03/the
-
ultimate
-
guide
-
for
-
everything
-
twitter/


Twitter Guide: How To Do Interesting
Things With Twitter

Digital inspirati
on

http://www.labnol.org/internet/twitter
-
guide
-
do
-
everything
-
with
-
twitter/4916/


Twitter Guide For Writers

Subscribe

http://www.blatherings.com/2009/08/twitter
-
guide
-
for
-
writers/



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A

All the content ∙ 3

C

Chat ∙ 9

comScore ∙ 11

E

experiences ∙
12

F

Facebook ∙ 12

G

Garage ∙ 8

O

organization ∙ 4

R

ranked ∙ 5

T

The firm found ∙ 10

The tipping ∙ 7

Twitter ∙ 9

W

wanted to capture ∙ 6

Web
-
based ∙ 3


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External links


Look up twitter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Twitter


Official website

Twitter Search

Twitter Demographics and Audienc
e Profile at Quantcast

Twitter in Depth Archive by The Daily Telegraph

[show]v • d • eTwitter



Clients List of Twitter services and applications ∙ Tweetie ∙ Twitterrific



People Jack Dorsey (founder/chairman) ∙ Evan Williams (CEO) ∙ Biz Stone (creative

officer)



Other Twitpic



[show]v • d • eSocial network



Social network for fun Bebo ∙ Friendster ∙ Facebook ∙ Hi5 ∙ MySpace ∙ Twitter



Social network for work LinkedIn



Historical social networks SixDegrees.com ∙ Tribe.net



White label social networks and platforms Ning ∙ XING



Introduction to Twitter by Huang, Li, and Ma


Page
39

of
39


Software, tools, features, and infrastructure Facebook Connect ∙ OpenSocial ∙ Social
network analysis software



Theory and related concepts Small world experiment ∙ Small
-
world network ∙ Socia
l
network ∙ Social network service



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter"

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