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Brigham Young University

McKay School of Education Department of Teacher Education


Education for Democracy
:

Let Public Schools be Public Schools again.

Public Schools Never were Public Schools to me
1
.



T. Ed. 604 Section
00
1

3 credit co
urse

Summer Term: June

25
-
August 13, 2007


Dr. Brenda G. Juá
rez MCKB 201 F

422
-
4982

Office Hours By Appointment

Juarez@byu.edu

Class on M
on. & Wed. 8:00 a.m.
-
10:50 a.m. in MCKB 160



If you know whence you came, there is really no limit to where you can go.

---
James Baldwin


When white people say “Justice”, they mean “Just us”.

--------
B
lack American folk aphorism

Course Description
:



This graduate level course

is concerned with the
dialectic of democratic ideals and
schooling practices applied to what W.E.B. Du Bois famously referred to as
the problem
of the color line.
2

While the United States has always been culturally diverse, c
l
assrooms
and communities today are undergoing a dramatic racial transformation

heretofore
unknown
while

the teaching profession remains

overw
helmingly white. Unfortunately,
cultural diversity remains tightly correlated with hyper
-
segregated and low
-
funded

neighborhoods and schools, substandard and limited access to healthcare and housing,
and academic and social failure.
“For the 2000
-
2001 time period, high school completers
in Utah was reported as 60.8% for Latina/o students
as
compared to 67.4% for Amer
ican
Indians and Alaskan Natives, 76.8% for Asian and Pacific Islanders, 61.2% for Blacks,
and 84.9% for Whites.”
3

Clearly, U.S. public schools do not serve all children equally
well

despite long cherished national rhetoric of public education for all peo
ple
.



This course

is

thus
designed to interrogate

the
meaning of democratic education
within the context of
the tenacious racial parochialism which continues to characterize

U.S. public schooling. To do so, we will examine

the rich traditions of
m
inoritized
peoples historically positioned on the wrong side of the Enlightenment

which, like “
great
poetry, transport

us to another pla
ce, compel us to relive horrors

and
, more importantly,

enable us to imagine a new society”
4
.
Our purpose

in this course

will be to learn

more
about how
schooling might be [re]imagined and [re]created in ways that
enable
all
students

to

experience more humanized
and democratic
forms of teaching and learning in
today’s classrooms
.





1

This subtitle is a play off of Langston Hughes’ famous poem entitled “Let America Be America”.

2

Du Bois, W. E. B. (1903/1995).
The souls of Black folks
.

3

Aleman, E., & Rorrer, A. (2006).

Closing Educational Achievement Gaps for Latina/o students in Utah:
Initiating a Policy Discourse and Framework. Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Education Policy Center. (p. 8).

4

Kelley, R. D. G. (2002).
Freedom dreams.
Boston: Beacon Press.


2

Course Objectives:


As Richard Delgad
o put it, “to understand how to improve social conditions, one
must have an understanding of how these problems came about.”
5

Similarly
,
democratic
education
in U.S. public schools
can not be realized without
understanding
how the

pervasively and persiste
nt
ly undemocratic outcomes of

schooling for minoritized students

have
come about
.
Educators, therefore,

must be prepared to


understand, analyze, and challenge
racism and ethnocentrism in the larger society as these affect school practices and procedures
that

differentially impact poor children, children of color, and children from diverse linguistic and
cultural groups.”
6

This
course is
thus
designed to

facilitate students’ ability to
:




analyze

the meaning[s]
, theories,
perspectives,
practices, and con
sequences

of
democratic education
.





evaluate the democratic potential and lived realities of contemporary U.S. public
schools for teachers, students, and other stakeholders.




apply

democratic process
es

toward
[beginning]
an endeavor of educational equity.



Course Format:


To address the content of this course, I employ a pedagogical approach based on constructivist
and collaborative understandings of teaching
-
learning processes situated within a community of
learners. My pedagogical approach assum
es that each member of the learning community brings
her/his lived experiences and experti
se to this shared educational experience
. The course is made
up of short lectures, assigned readings, guest speakers, and intensive group discussions.
While I
will
periodically make short presentations of requisite course material, my primary role will be to
pose questions, clarify points, summarize collaboratively produced understandings, and to
challenge commonsensical notions of schooling within a multicultural so
ciety. For students to
take on their role as an actively engaged member of the learning community, it is absolutely
essential that
for
each
class period every
student carefully reads course materials, prepares
questions for class discussion, and participa
tes in class activities.

Finally, I have organized this
course in three major sections guided by the course objectives and which take the
form of three
main questions
---


1.

What is

education

for democracy
?

2.

Are U.S. public schools democratic?

3.

How can democr
atic education be fostered

or hindered
in my classroom
?



Required Texts
:

1.

Kunjufu, J. (2006).
An African centered response to Ruby Payne’s poverty theory
.
Chicago: African American Images.

[Available at

BYU Bookstore
.]

2.

Young, I. M. (2000).
Inclusi
on and democracy
. New York: Oxford University Press.
[Availab
le at BYU Bookstore
.]








5

Del
gado, R. (1999).
When equality ends: Stories about race and resistance.
Boulder, CO: Westview
Press.

6

Bell, L. (2002). Sincere fictions: The pedagogical challenges of preparing white teachers for
multicultural classrooms,
Equity & Excellence in
Education, 35
(3), 236
-
244. (see especially p. 236).


3

To save students a substantial amount of money,
additional readings are electronically avai
lable on
Blackboard. Further

readings may
also
be provided by
the profe
ssor or students.



Course Requirements:

1.

Preparation for class & Participation in class: (attendance, professionalism,
assigned readings, regular
& prompt
atten
dance, and

respectful & active
participation in class
):
10% of grade

2.

Daily 1
-
2 page e
-
mail re
spons
es:
20% of grade

3.

one essay on philosophy of democratic education:
15% of grade (due July 16
th
)

4.

one short pape
r (approx. 7
-
10 pages):
20
% of grade

(due July 25
th
)

5.

one

fina
l paper (approx. 18
-
25 pages):
3
5
% of grade

(due August 15
th
)


Your final p
aper is your final exam.
A rough draft of your final paper is due on the last
day of class.
Your final paper is due
August 15
th
, 2007 by 5 p.m.




Further i
nstructions and grading rubrics
for all assignments
will be provided
and
discussed
in class.

No late work will be accepted unless prior arrangements have been
made with me

AND ONLY IN THE CASE OF DIRE EMERGENCIES
.

For each class
period
,
then,

PLEASE BRING
:


1.

A
HARD
COPY OF THE DAY’S READINGS
,

2.
A HARD COPY OF YOUR E
-
MAIL
RESPONSE



Partici
pation & Attendance
: (10% of grade)


Interactive and respectful participation are required for this class.
You can not participate if you are late or not in class. Thus, prompt
attendance is crucial. Students need to take responsibility for coming
to
class
prepared for participation by reading the assignment course
materials and posing thoughtful questions, respectful critiques, and
additional issues to consider.


Pointedly, t
here will likely be times when you disagree with the ideas
and perspe
ctives of the class, the professor, your peers, or the guest
speakers in class. While disagreements may be uncomfortable, it is in
the sharing of different ideas, experiences, and perspectives that we come
to better understand ourselves and
the culturally

diverse world we live
in. I
t is
, therefore, immensely

important that all students are teachable
and ready to engage
worldviews and lived experiences
which may not be
part o
f their own
.


It is

expected
, then,

that we will all contribute to class dis
cussions
and activities and that we will all speak and listen to each other in a
respectful manner. If you anticipate being late or absent from class,
please notify me in advance. Unprofessional mannerisms (e.g., cell
phones/pagers, etc. ringing, disresp
ectful body language
---
talking when

4

another student or the professor is talking, eyeball rolling,
sleeping,
etc.)
and absences beyond one will significantly lower your course grade.



Daily E
-
mail Respons
es: (20
% of grade)

See attached Daily E
-
mail Cri
tique Guidelines.


Essay on Philosophy of Democratic Education
: (15
% of grade)

Due
on July 16
th

See attached Essay Guidelines and grading rubric.


Short Paper
: (
20
% of grade)
----
Due on
July 25th

See attached
Democracy in Action Grading Rubric.


Long Pape
r: (3
5
% of grade)

Due on August 15th

See attached Democracy in Action Grading Rubric.


Special Needs Note
:

BYU is committed to providing a working and learning
atmosphere that reasonably accommodates qualified persons with disabilities. If you have
any d
isability that may impair your ability to complete this course successfully, please
contact the University Accessibility Center (1520 WSC; 422
-
2767). Reasonable
academic accommodations are reviewed for all students who have qualified documented
disabilitie
s. Services are coordinated with the student and instructor by the UAC. If you
need assistance or if you feel you have been unlawfully discriminated against on the basis
of disability, you may seek resolution through established grievance policy and
proced
ures. You may contact the Equal Employment Office at 422
-
5895, D 282 ASB.


Preventing Sexual Harassment

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination against any
participant in an educational program or activity that receives fe
deral funds. The act is
intended to eliminate sex discrimination in education. Title IX covers discrimination in
programs, admissions, activities, and student
-
to
-
student sexual harassment. BYU's policy
against sexual harassment extends not only to employee
s of the University but to students
as well. If you encounter unlawful sexual harassment or gender
-
based discrimination,
please talk to your professor; contact the Equal Employment Office at 422
-
5895 or 367
-
5689 (24
-
hours); or contact the Honor Code Office

at 422
-
2847.


Honor Code Standards:

In keeping with the principles of the BYU Honor Code,
students are expected to be honest in all of their academic work. Academic honesty
means, most fundamentally, that any work you present as your own must in fact be

your
own and not that of another. Violations of this principle may result in a failing grade in
the course and additional disciplinary action by the university. Students are also expected
to adhere to the Dress and Grooming Standards. Adherence demonst
rates respect for
yourself and others and ensures an effective learning and working environment. It is the
university’s expectation, and my own expectation in this class, that each student will
abide by all Honor Code Standards. Please call the Honor Cod
e Office at 422
-
2847 if
you have questions about the Honor Code Standards.



5

T. Ed. 604 Education for Democracy Dr. Brenda
G.
Juárez


Guid
elines for Daily E
-
mail Response
s: (20
% of grade)

Writing fosters opportunities for deep learning.

Purpose
:

A.)

To help you to read thoroughly, think carefully about, and synthesize your learning as you engage
course content.

B.)

To provide you with opportunities to concisely express your develop
ing understandings of the
course material through writing.

C.)

To serve as a point of departure for class discussions
.


Basic Format: Making connections in narrative style

that flows as an essay


A.)

Name,
Date
, & Meeting Day (Julie Smith, Jan. 5, 2005, Thur
sday class)

B.)

Title of assigned readings

C.)

Id
entify key themes/ideas from across

readings (1 paragraph).
Be sure to note page
numbers
where these ideas are located in the texts

you refer

to:
(Smith, 1987, p. 16).


D.)

Analyze the readings by challenging, expand
ing, and/or debating one or two of the main
ideas (3
-
4 paragraphs).

Make a case for and support your arguments with evidence
versus your feelings (e.g., I didn’t like it. It made me feel bad. It’s not nice.). Keep in
mind that your personal experiences,

while important, do not constitute adequate
evidence to support your arguments. Indeed, individuals frequently dismiss other
people’s experiences and
ideas, thereby dehumanizing other individuals
, by making
statements like, “Well, that didn’t happen to m
e, so it must not be true.” or “My dad said
that….so it must not be so”.


E.)

Note questions,

concerns
, topics which you would like discussed further in class.

F.)

Your response should answer the following questions with
specific

and
concrete

examples (rather

than just saying, “I liked
/didn’t like

the paper. It was
/wasn’t

nice.”):

1.

What is the author’s main argument and in what ways do you agree or disagree?
What is missing from this argument?

2.

How r
elevant do you think the author
s
’ ideas are to your

teaching
philosophy and
pedagogy?

3.

How do these

reading
s

relate to other previously assigned readings and class
discussions

and activities
?



Due Date:
On the first day of class, you will be placed in e
-
mail groups of about 5 people. As
the professor, I will be a

member of each group. You will e
-
mail your response to your group
at
least 12 hours prior to
the beginning of
each class period

to give us all adequate time to read
responses.
Bring a hard copy of yo
ur response to class each day
. No late responses
may
be
posted or
will be accepted. You may be excused from writing a response once during the
semester. Please let your group know

when you will not be posting

a response.



Grading
:


As a former elementary school teacher, I still use the grading system

that has served me well through the
years. You will receive feedback on your responses to help you to develop well written ones. Your
reading responses form a part of your participation grade for the course.

(plus check) = excellent

(check) = average
/passing

(minus check) = no credit

The criteria I will be looking at include:



Standards of good writing (quality of your ideas, flow of argument, voice, transitions, spelling,
well written thesis statement and supporting ideas, grammar, punctuation)



Your a
bility to think critically and deeply about the readings



The originality, creativity, logic, insightfulness, and thoroughness of your response (quality)


6

T. Ed. 604 Education for Democracy

Dr. Brenda G. Juárez


Essay on Philosophy of Democratic Education
: (15
% of grade)

Due
on July 16
th


Objective:

What is education for democracy?

Students will analyze the meaning[s], theories,
perspectives, practices, and consequences of demo
cratic education

by articulating a
written philosophy of education which (1) identifies the components of democratic
education, (2) compares competing interpretations of democratic education, (3) traces the
historical development of democracy and its relat
ion and influence on contemporary
public spaces in the United States, (4) analyzes the rationale or purpose for democratic
education, and (5) comparatively contrasts own schooling experiences with those of
individuals and social groups different from their

own
.


General Quality Rubric


Quality Score

Quality Descriptor

Words that Describe/level

1

Points possible: 0
-
4



Unacceptable

Work is poor, unclear,
incomplete, undeveloped,
indirect, unorganized, major
factual errors, no effort
apparent, etc.

2


Poi
nts possible: 5
-
10

Minimal

Work is vague, incomplete,
partially developed, factual
errors, little interpretation
and/or analysis, restricted,
limited, single perspective,
little effort, etc.

3


Points possible: 11
-
15

Adequate

Work is relevant, more
deve
loped, naïve, novice,
minor errors, routine, shows
effort, uncritical, show some
creativity, etc.

4


Points possible: 16
-
18

Commendable

Work is clear, well crafted,
fully developed, thorough,
imaginative, creative,
sensitive, complete, sound,
correct, pr
oficient, solid,
skilled, etc.

5


Points possible: 19
-
20

Exemplary

Work is effective, novel,
unique, mature, creative,
imaginative, profound,
revealing, makes an original
contribution, above and
beyond, polished, elegant,
sophisticated, precise, deep,
et
c.




7

T. Ed. 604 Education for Democracy Dr. Brenda
G. Juárez


Short Paper: (20
% of grade)
----
Due on
July 25th

Democracy in Action:

A Collaborative Project for Education as a

Moral Endeavor

Learning Outcome:
Candidates will interrogate the notion of education for democracy and its
potential consequences for schooling by employing the democratic process to organize grass
-
roots venues for promoting inclusive discussion and col
laborative efforts toward solving shared
problems justly.

GUIDELINES

INSTRUCTOR COMMENTS

Short Report: Project Proposal

1.

7
-
10 pages (approx.)

2.

Define shared issue/problem

3.

Identify stakeholders

4.

Outline the logistics of your
democracy in action project
in
cluding
why it is important, aims,
how it will be enacted, resources
needed, evaluation criteria,
evidences, & methods, stakeholder
roles, and timeline
.

5.

Note the democratic model (i.e.,
aggregative or deliberative) applied,
why it was selected, and the
mod
el’s limitations and
possibilities.

6.

Discuss how your project addresses
inclusive democratic
communication under conditions of
structural inequality and cultural
differences (i.e., James Baldwin’s
notion of inclusion into the burning
building of education).


7.

Evidence supporting your project
from research and other sources.

8.

Reference list.

9.

APA format

10.

Clarity (e.g., concise, headings,
reader map, transitions,
page
numbers, spell check, etc.).











































/20

points Total


8

Long Report: Project Implementation
& Evaluation to Date

(3
5% of grade)

1.

18
-
25 pages

2.

Describe what you did
(or are
doing)
and how you applied what
you learned about your project
through research and other sources.
(Attach any releva
nt products
---
if
you wrote a bill, attach that, hand
-
outs from an in
-
service, etc.)

3.

Address how your project manifests
evidence of the democratic process:

a) it reflects shared decision
-
making and other forms of
communication; b) it manifests
inclusiveness

where all
stakeholders experienced respect
and opportunities to learn with and
from others through robust
participation; c) all stakeholders’
backgrounds and experiences were
counted and drawn upon as
legitimate knowledge; d) it extends
to and links schoo
ls and other
public spaces and communities.

4.

Reviews project outcomes

to date

supported by evidence.

5.

Problems and successes
encountered

to date
.

6.

Future plans

睨a琠湥t琿† 桡琠
睯畬搠y潵⁨ove⁤潮 ⁤楦晥牥湴ny?



Self
-
evaluation
---
what grade would
you assign you
rself and why?

8.

Reference list

9.

APA format

10.

Clarity (e.g., concise, headings,
reader map, transitions, page
numbers, spell check, etc.)




Instructor Comments

TOTAL

/3
5

points

Total






9

Recommended Readings for Democratic Education
: A Beginning to
continue

adding to on your own
---



Chapman, J., Froumin, I., & Aspin, D. (Eds.). (1995).
Creating and managing the
democratic school
. New York: The Falmer Press.



Haberman, M. (1991). The pedagogy of poverty versus good teaching,
Phi Delta
Kappa
n, 73
, 290
-
294.



Landsman, J., & Lewis, C. W. (2006).
White teachers/diverse classrooms: A guide
to building inclusive schools, promoting high expectations, and eliminating racism
.



Levine, D., Lowe, R., Peterson, B., & Tenorio, R. (Eds.)
. (1995).
Rethinking
schools: An agenda for change
. New York: The New Press.



Kohl, H. (
1967).
36 children
. New York: The New American Library.



Meier, D. (1995).
The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small
school i
n Harlem
. Boston: Beacon Press.



Oakes, J., et. al. (2000).
Becoming good American schools
. San Francisco: Jossey
-
Bass.




Paley, V. (2000).
White teacher
. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.



Rose, M. (1989).
Lives on th
e boundaries
. New York: Penguin Books.



Smith, G. A. (1993).
Public schools that work: Creating community
. New York:
Routledge.



Tatum, B. D. (1997).
Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?
:
And other conversat
ions about race
. New York: Basic Books.