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Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3




Second Edition

March 2009




Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Table of Contents


Copyright 1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

ii

Table of Contents


Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.

1

Overview of the Migration

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

1

Process Timeline

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

1

Communications and Reminders

................................
................................
................................
................................

2

Regarding Specialized
Configurations
................................
................................
................................
........................

2

Preparing for the Migration

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

3

Updating Optional Software

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

3

Becoming Familiar with FreeBSD

VPS

v3

................................
................................
................................
................

3

Becoming Familiar with FreeBSD
................................
................................
................................
..............................

3

Using Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

4

Initiating Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
................................
................................

4

Using the Backroom to Manage Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
............................

4

Recopying C
ontent to Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
................................
.........

5

Changing DNS Settings

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

5

Reversing Changes to DNS Settings

................................
................................
................................
........................

6

Completing the Migration

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

6

Canceling the Migration

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

6

Connecting to Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
................................
........................

7

The Migration Staging Directory

................................
................................
................................
................................

8

Using the Automated Migration Tools

................................
................................
................................
.......................

8

Regarding IMAP

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

10

Regarding PHP

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

11

Vinstall Add
-
Ons

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

11

Perl Modules

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............................

12

Before Terminating Your Original Account

................................
................................
................................
...........

13

Verifying Website Configurations

................................
................................
................................
............................

13

Completing the

Migration

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

14

Caveats
................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
........

15



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Table of

Tables

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

iii

Table of Tables

Table 2: Backroom Options Available for Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
...............

5

Table 1: Files Created on Your Shadow Account

................................
................................
................................
.........

8

Table 3: Functions of the
vmigrate

script

................................
................................
................................
...............

10

Table 4: Verifications and Guidelines for Your Website

................................
................................
............................

14

Table 5: Caveats

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

15




Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Introduction

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

1

Introduction

Using the instructions included in this document and b
y applying your previous VPS
experience, you can conduct a successful migration from FreeBSD VPS v2 to VPS

v3. This
introduction provides you with an overview of the migration process, a timeline, and an
explanation of the communications you will receive a
long the way.

Overview

of the Migration

During the period of the migration you will have two accounts: your original FreeBSD VPS
v2 account (
original
), and a new FreeBSD VPS v3 account (
shadow
). At the end of the
process, your original account will termina
te, and your shadow account will completely
replacethe original.

The migration begins when you use the Web Hosting Backroom to request a VPS v3 shadow
account. Within 24 hours of your successful request, an activation notice is sent to you by
email. You ca
n login to your shadow account, which now contains a copy of all content from
your original account, confined to its own staging directory. A migration script is provided to
assist you in copying content and configuration files into their proper locations
within the
shadow account.

The migration script provides automated support for the following:



SSH



System configuration



Users and their data



Email configuration and content



Web server configuration and content



PHP



mySQL



SpamAssassin



ClamAV



CPX



Urchin

It is
your responsibility to verify configuration and content on the shadow account, including
for the applications listed above. In addition, you must configure and verify the configuration
of other applications you use, which may include the following:



Databa
ses: PostgreSQL



E
-
Commerce: ShopSite



Mail services: aliases, mailing lists



Multimedia: Shockwave Flash, Podcasting, WordPress



Web analytics: the Webalizer



Web development tools: Miva Empresa, Java



Web services: Common Gateway Interface (CGI) binaries

Once
you have tested and verified the operation of your shadow account, you can terminate
your original account and successfully complete the migration to VPS v3.

Proc
ess T
imeline



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Introduction

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

2

The standard duration of a migration is 21 days. You may complete the migration i
n less time
or if necessary you can request an extension. A migration consists of the following main
steps:



Configure the content, settings, and applications in your account



Verify all content, settings, and applications



Update
domain name service (
DNS
) i
nformation



Complete the shadow process

Following the migration activation email, you will receive additional
email
notifications to
remind you of these tasks..

After you test all content, be sure to update DNS for all domains associated with your original
account and serviced
by the

secure.net

name

servers such as
ns1.secure.net

and
ns2.secure.net
.

Note:

If
secure.net

does not service your domain names, you must update your
selected
DNS to point to the IP address of
your

shadow account.
After you have successfull
y
requested a shadow account and conducted the migration, you may complete the process.
Completing the migration terminates your original account. You will receive email
reminders 7, 14, and 20 days after you start the process. On the 21st day, the proces
s is
automatically completed without your intervention and y
ou will receive a
notification

that
the shadow process has been completed (
the
shadow account is now live
,

and
the original
account

is terminated).

Communications and Remi
nders

As your migration t
o FreeBSD

VPS

v3 progresses, you can expect to receive several
communications and remin
ders by email:



Shadow Activation Notice


Delivered when you have initiated the migration process.
This notification will help you understand the steps you will need to

complete for the
migration.



Reminder Notice #1


Delivered (7) days after you have activated a shadow account and
begun the migration to FreeBSD

VPS

v3.



Reminder Notice #2


Delivered fourteen (14) days after you have activated a shadow
account.



DNS Remi
nder #1


Delivered

seventeen (17) days after you have act
ivated a shadow
account. Provides an overview of information specific to DNS.



DNS Reminder #2


Delivered eighteen (18) days after you have activated a shadow
account.



DNS update has occurred


Del
ivered

nineteen (19) days after you have activated a
shadow account.
Informs you

that the DNS change for your account has occurred

and
that

DNS ser
vices are ready and available for your new FreeBSD

VPS

v3 account.



Shadow Completion


Delivered twenty
-
one (
21) days after you have activated a
shadow account, announcing that the migration has been completed.

Regarding Specialized C
onfigurations

Neither this document nor the migration script is designed to address issues associated with a
highly customized VPS
account configuration, including significant changes to filenames,
directory structures, and services of a VPS account. An account that contains a significant set
of customizations will require your expertise to migrate to your new account.


Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Preparing for the Migratio
n

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

3

Preparing for

the Migration

Before requesting a shadow account, update all optional software on the original server to the
latest versions available for VPS v2. You should familiarize yourself with the file layout of
your virtual private server (VPS) and with the Free
BSD operating system.

Updating Optional Software

Before beginning your migration, your original VPS v2 server should be running the latest
available versions of any optional software handled by the
vmigrate

script. This includes
PHP, mySQL, SpamAssassin, C
lamAV, and Urchin. In most cases this can be achieved by
simply re
-
running the
vinstall

script for that package.

MySQL, however, will most likely be more complex, and may require the use of
mysqldump

to dump each database before running the
vinstall

for t
he new software and re
-
importing
the data. Efforts taken on the original server to begin the migration process with up
-
to
-
date
software will be rewarded with a smoother migration.

Becoming Familiar with FreeBSD

VPS

v3

Familiarize yourself with the followi
ng documentation prior to beginning your migration:



FreeBSD VPS v3 Firewall Supplement



FreeBSD VPS v3 Getting Started Guide



FreeBSD VPS v3
IPv6

Supplement



FreeBSD VPS v3 New Feature Supplement

(for Multiple IP address support)



FreeBSD VPS v3 Release Not
es



FreeBSD VPS v3 User's Guide



FreeBSD VPS v3: Frequently Asked Questions

(available on the web)

Becoming Familiar with FreeBSD

You may also wish to refer to the following documentation offered on the web by the

FreeBSD Documentation Project

(
http://www.
freebsd.org/docs.html
):



Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD
5.x and
6.x



FreeBSD Handbook



FreeBSD Hypertext Man Pages

(or
Manual Pages
)



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

4

Using Your Shadow Account

The Backroom provides you with
several

options

to manage your shadow account. Within
your

shadow account
you will find

tools that help automate the tasks associated with your
migration. These tools are used to install

configuration
files and data
from your
original
account

into their correct locations on

your
shadow
account.

This section provi
des information about initiating your shadow account, using the Backroom
to manage your shadow account, connecting to your shadow account, using the automated
migration tools, and installing add
-
ons and Perl modules.

Initiating Your Shadow Account

T
he
Back
room

inclu
des a

Shadow

Selected

Account

option which initiates

a
migration for
the VPS account(s) you select
.

After you initiate the migration, an email will be sent to you
including the login name, server host, and IP address of your new FreeBSD VPS v3 sh
adow
account.

Follow these steps to
locate the
Shadow Selected Account

option

and t
o initiate

a
shadow
account:

1.

Start your w
eb browser to access the Backroom.

2.

Type the correct username and password and then press
Log in
.

3.

Verify your account contact email
address is correct. If it is not, correct it immediately.

4.

Select the
FreeBSD

VPS

v2

account(s) you wish to
migrate

to
FreeBSD

VPS

v
3
.

5.

Select
Review
. The
Account Information Interface

appears.

6.

Select a
FreeBSD

VPS

v3

server location. For example, you can se
lect
VPS v
3
Standard


Dulles, VA FreeBSD VPS

v
3
.

7.

If you have not done so previously, select the link titled “Learn More About Migrating
to FreeBSD

VPS

v3.”

8.

Select
Shadow Selected Account
.

9.

Look for email confirming the following information for your shadow

account(s):



login

name



server

host



IP

address

Using the Backroom

to Manage Your Shadow Account

The Backroom provides you with options you can use to re
-
copy content from your original
account, to update DNS on your shadow account, to return to original DN
S settings, to
complete the migration, and to cancel your shadow account. This section provides
information about using the Backroom to perform these tasks.

The following table provides an overview of migration
-
related options located in the
Backroom.

Opti
on


Purpose

Recopy

Content


Copies all content from your original account and places
the copy in a
/.migrate

directory on your shadow
account. For details, see “
o散opying Con瑥n琠瑯 奯ur
卨慤ow 䅣Aount
” on page
5
.



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

5

Opti
on


Purpose

Update DNS


Update DNS

is a time
-
sensitive option. It provides

function
s

which would otherwise

occur
automatically and
without your input. If you never select this option, you
receive an email notification when the update is going to
occur.

And if you do not need to speed

up (or slow down)

the
migration
, you can
simply
wait for
your

migration

to
make the update automatically.

For details, see “
Changing
DNS Settings
” on page
5
.

Revert

D
NS


This option reverses DNS updates you initiated the last
time you used
Update

DNS
. For details, see “
Reversing
Changes to DNS Settings
” on page
6
.

Complete

Shadow


This option concludes the migrat
ion. The account is
terminated and is no longer accessible. Once you select this
option, you cannot revive the original account or return to
that configuration. For details, see “
Completing the
Migration
” on page
6
.

Cancel

Shadow


Use this option to cancel your shadow account and end the
migration. This option cancels it and does not begin or
finish any further shadow tasks. This option terminates
your shadow account, and any configuration on that
acc
ount is lost. For details, see “
Canceling the Migration

on page
6
.

Table
1
: Backroom Options Available for Your Shadow Account

Recopying Content to Your Shadow Account

The
Re
copy

Content

option copies all content from your original account and places the
copy in a
/.migrate

directory on your shadow account.

Note:

Before you select
Recopy

Content
, verify that you have sufficient disk space
available. If you previously copied all cont
ent

and migrated

that content to the correct
directories, selecting
Recopy

Content

means that you are u
si
ng as much as two times the
disk space
that
your
original account

required. When you select
Recopy

Content

, and then
run functions from the
vmigrate

u
tility,
you c
ould
potentially overwrite modifications you

have
made to the configuration of your shadow account. Any changes y
ou made to
customize the mail, w
eb content, or databases on your shadow account
may be

lost when you
combine these actions.

If y
ou are concerned about recent email, web content, or databases now located on your
original VPS account, run
Recopy Content

from the Backroom, then run the menu
-
driven
vmigrate

command inside your shadow account, choosing the specific function that copies
the newer content from the
/.migrate

directory to its proper location in your shadow
account.

For example, email messages can accumulate during the shadow process. Use this
combination of actions to place the most current email data on your shadow account
.

Changing DNS Settings

The
Update

DNS

option
is time
-
sens
itive
. It provides functions which would otherwise
occur automatically
.

Note:

Do not update your DNS within the first 72 hours of initiating a shadow account.
It

can take up to 72 hours for
the new

10
-
sec
ond
time
-
to
-
live (or
TTL
)

setting change to take


Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

6

affect. If you do select the option to update your DNS before the first 72 hours then wait at
least a day to verify the changes. After you allow 72 hours and your shadow account’s TTL
setting are at 10 secon
ds, you might still encounter propagation concerns. F
or example, the

settings on your accounts can only influence Internet (and other) service providers which
accept them. Any connector who overrides your TTL settings receives the new DNS
information only
when they refresh their cache.

If you never select this option, you
will
receive an email notification when the update is to
occur.
I
f you do not need to speed

up (or slow down) the process
, you can
simply
wait for
your

shadow account
migration

to make th
e update automatically.

This automatic update
occurs to all DNS settings 48 hours (two days)

before the completion deadline (
21

days
).

If you select this option, it is available 72 hours after you initiate your shadow account.
Before you select this option
, be sure you have completed all of the migration tasks and
configured and tested all aspects of your shadow account.

This option updates DNS for all domains associated with your
original account

using

secure.net

name servers (for example,

ns1.secure.net
,
ns2.secure.net
)
as the
authoritative name servers. This option updates DNS with the IP address of
your

shadow
account.

The correct TTL setting for domains on the
secure.net

is 10 seconds. This means that
when you update DNS on your shadow account, the chan
ges take affect within 10 seconds,
enabling you to verify the change is successful within a much shorter period of time.

If you use this option and subsequently request an extension of the migration, changes to the
DNS and TTL settings should not occur. Yo
ur request for an extension overrides this option.

Reversing Changes to DNS Settings

Located in the Backroom, the
Revert

DNS

option reverses any DNS updates that you
initiated the last time you used the
Update

DNS

tool
. This option changes DNS using the IP

address of your original account which means all website traffic is routed to your original
account rather than your shadow account.

Note:

TTL settings on your shadow account can only influence Internet (and other) service
providers which accept them. Any conn
ector who overrides your account’s TTL settings
receives the new DNS information only when they refresh their cache.

Completing the Migration

The
Complete

Shadow

option finishes the migration by terminating your original account.
Your shadow account become
s your live, active VPS account.

Note:

This option removes your
original account
. Once you select this option, you cannot
access

the
original account

or return to that configuration.

Verify that you have performed the following tasks before you use
Complete

Shad
ow
:



Run the
vmigrate

utility and desired functions.



Manually configure
your

shadow account for all configurations

outside the scope of the
vmigrate

command
.



Verif
y

the
executable files and other contents located in the
cgi
-
bin

directory.



Test
your

shadow
account to ensure it is functioning properly.



Update the DNS to point to
the IP address of your

shadow account using
Update DNS
.


Canceling the Migration



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

7

Use this option to cancel your shadow account and stop the migration to FreeBSD

VPS

v3.
This option si
mply cancels the migration. It does not begin or finish any further shadow
-
related tasks. Since this option terminates your shadow account, any configuration on that
account will be lost.

Note:

There are no email notifications sent to confirm your cancellation.
Once you select
Cancel

Shadow
,
your

shadow account is terminated and cannot be reinstated. You cannot
have an extension of the standard 21 day migration period on the accounts for which you
select
Cancel

Shadow
and then reinitiate a shadow. Selecting
Cance
l

Shadow

for one
account, however, does not affect your eligibility

for an extension on
any
other VPS accounts
you own.

If you have previously updated the DNS to point to the IP address for your shadow account,
the DNS is automatically pointed again to the

IP address for your original account. This
option cancels the migration and does not begin or finish any further shadow tasks. Since this
option terminates your shadow account, any configuration on that account is lost. You can
initiate and then cancel th
e migration only once. If you cancel the migration and then begin
another, you may no longer have an option to cancel. There are no email notifications sent to
confirm your cancellation.

Connecting to Your Shadow Account

This section includes information a
bout using Secure Shell (SSH) to connect to your shadow
account.

Note:

When you connect to your shadow account to perform shadow tasks, you must first
connect as the Admin

User. Use the IP address of
your

shadow account. Once connected, use
the
su

command to acc
ess the root user profile.

In a Unix
-
style operating system, a root user (also called
super

user
) has unlimited abilities
including the ability to execute commands that the
Admin User

cannot. You make most of the
changes on your server as the root user, no
t as a user with administrative permissions. As a
security measure, you cannot use a Secure Shell (SSH) client to connect directly to the server
as the root user even when you use a correct password.

Instead, you must use an SSH client to connect to the se
rver as the
Admin User

and after you
have performed the necessary task, use the
su

command to become the root user. Do this to
assure your root password is secure, to execute the commands you need, and to navigate from
the
Admin User

to become the root use
r.

After you connect using the new IP address of your shadow account with the
Admin User
password authentication, run the
su

l root

command to become the root user. After
issuing the command, enter the root password (the same as the
Admin User

password).

As Administrative User you can do some simple administrative tasks such as adding users and
web administration. The
sudo

command enables you to perform the following commands:

vlist pw vaddhost

vlistuser

adduser apachectl

vadduser rmuser restart_apache

vedituser quota su webadmin

vrmuser edquota su

l webadmin

The following example shows
how to add a user using
vadduser

with the
sudo

command:


% sudo vadduser


By default, you can perform the above commands without a password; however,
sudo

can be
set to require a password for additional security. To add additional functionality to t
he
sudo

command, edit the /
usr/local/etc/sudoers

file as root. For more information on
sudo

see the
sudo

man pages:



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

8


% man sudo

As you navigate, you can verify the user with which you logged in most recently by issuing
the
whoami

command, as in the
following example:

/home/
examplev3
# whoami

root

The Migration Staging Directory

Initiating a shadow account creates the following files and directories
on

your shadow
account
:

File/Directory

Description

/.migrate

Staging directory where the process automa
tically
places content and data from your original account.

Caution:

Do not edit the content of the
/.migrate

directory.


/.migrate/bin


A subdirectory of
/.migrate

containing executable
programs to aid you in your migration, including the
vmigrate

script.

Table
2
: Files Created on Your Shadow Account

Using the Automated Migration Tools

The
vmigrate

utility assists you in propagating configuration and content from the
/.migrate

directories to the shadow account. The utility includes a numb
er of functions
which help to automate specific aspects of the migration.

To run the
vmigrate

command, login to your shadow account and issue these commands as
the root user:

cd /.migrate/bin

./vmigrate

Note:

Whenever possible, functions should be run in the seq
uence presented by the menu
-
driven
vmigrate

command. Items may be skipped, but results are best when the sequence
is followed.



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

9

The
vmigrate

menu displays as follows:

VPS v2 to v3 Migration Utility



0) quit


1) SSH


2) config


3) users


4) email


5) Apach
e


6) PHP


7) mySQL


8) SpamAssassin


9) ClamAV

10) CPX

11) Urchin


Selection: [0]


The following table describes the tasks performed by special
-
purpose functions within the
vmigrate

program:

Function

Tasks performed

0) quit

Exits the program.

1) SSH

Co
pies SSH configuration and root key files to their standard
locations on the shadow server.

2) config

Sets the appropriate time zone for the shadow server.

Merges settings from
/etc/rc.conf
.

Copies root
cron

tables.

Copies system
-
wide shell defaults.

Copi
es
inetd

configuration and restarts
inetd
.

3) users

Creates any non
-
existing users and groups from the
/etc/passwd

file.

Re
-
constructs group memberships from the original account.

Copies user quota files.

Copies contents of home directories and sets corre
ct file and
directory ownerships.

Copies user
cron

tables.

4) email

Copies Sendmail, and Procmail configuration files, and restarts
Sendmail.

Copies mail spool files.

Copies Maildir and mail subdirectories for each home
directory. (This overlaps with wor
k done during the user
migration, but it allows the mail files to be updated


Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

10

independently from other user data.)

Copies Dovecot configuration and restarts Dovecot.

5) Apache

The default (and recommended) action is to convert the Apache
configuration file

from the original server to allow it to operate
with Apache 2.2, installed by default on the shadow server. It
copies the server root
htdocs
,
cgi
-
bin
, and
logs

directories
from the original account.

If the
vmigrate

command line

a

option is set to
1
, the

original Apache 1.3 configuration file is used with only minor
modifications (new IP address, etc.), and ‘
vinstall
apache13’

is run in order to install Apache 1.3 on the new
shadow server.

6) PHP

Determines from the original PHP configuration file which
shared extension were loaded, and then runs
vinstall

to
install PHP 5 on the shadow server, configuring it with the
same shared extensions wherever possible.

Optionally, the

p 4

option to
vmigrate

may be used to
install PHP 4 instead, but this is not reco
mmended.

7) mySQL

Copies mySQL data and configuration files when they exist in
default locations. Invokes
vinstall

to install mySQL 5 on
the shadow server. Runs
mysql_upgrade
on the pre
-
existing
data.

8) SpamAssassin


Copies SpamAssassin configuration
files and invokes
vinstall

to install SpamAssassin on the shadow server.

9) ClamAV

Copies ClamAV and freshclam configuration files and uses
vinstall

to install ClamAV on the shadow server.

10) CPX

Copies
vsapd

and CPX configuration files into place and r
uns
the
vinstall

script for CPX.

11) Urchin

Recursively copies the default Urchin directory into place, then
runs
vinstall

to install Urchin.

Table
3
: Functions of the
vmigrate

script

Regarding IMAP

If your original account is con
figured to use IMAP exclusively, the mailbox on that account is
a file named as in the following example:

/var/mail/
username

In addition, mailbox information is located in the following files:

/usr/home/
username
/mbox

/usr/home/
username
/mail/saved
-
messages

/usr/home/
username
/mail/my
-
favorites

/usr/home/
username
/mail/
other_names_of_choice



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

11

Notes:

On your
original account
:



IMAP clients can automatically empty the contents of
/var/mail/
username

and add it
to
/usr/home/
username
/mbox

when the IMAP client begins to run.



You have additional mailbox files, each file is located in the following location:

/
usr/home/
username
/mail
.



Some IMAP clients change the
/usr/home/
username
/mail

directory.

When you run the
vmigrate

command “users” option, mailbox content is copied to the
following directories and files in your shadow account:

/home/<username>/mbox

/home/<username>/mail/saved
-
messages

/home/<username>/mail/my
-
favorites

/home/<username>/mail/other_names

Note:

The default configuration for FreeBSD

VPS

v3 currently uses the
mbox

for
mat.
However, the
maildir

format (and Dovecot) is supported by means of a
vinstall
. The
examples included in this document refer to the
mbox

format only.

Regarding PHP

PHP 5 is the default version for VPS v3 and is the version installed by the
vmigrate

scr
ipt.
One of the settings of PHP 5 relates to the use of short open tags. These are the tags that
indicate embedded PHP code in an HTML file. By default, PHP 5 expects them to look like
this:
<?php

However, there is a great deal of existing PHP code in
which short open tags are used, which
look like this:
<?

For your convenience, Verio provides a simple Perl script to help convert short tags to normal
tags in PHP files. The script is called
php
-
fix
-
short
-
tags

and is located in the
/.migrate/bin

directo
ry.

The script descends through the current working directory and all nested sub
-
directories,
working on any file it finds with a
.php

extension, replacing all short tags within the file with
normal tags. Its options are as follows:


-
d <directory>

Use th
e specified directory as the base directory within which to work.


-
f <filename>

Replace short tags in the file specified.


-
q

Operate in quiet mode.

Vinstall Add
-
O
ns

Since your shadow account is a new
one
, use
vinstall

for additional programs that you may

have installed on your
original account
. There may not be a
vinstall

for some of the
programs that you previously installed in
your

FreeBSD

VPS

v2

account with
vinstall
. If
this is the case, install the program using
the FreeBSD p
orts collection. For info
rmation on
how to install programs using the ports collection
refer to

the
Virtual Private Server
Administrator’s Guide
.



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Using Your Shadow Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

12

Perl Modules

If you are using Perl and you have installed modules that you use, install these modules on
your FreeBSD

VPS

v3 account as

well. FreeBSD

VPS

v3 uses the default Perl method of
installing modules. To install a module using Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN),
type the following at the shell prompt:

%
perl
-
MCPAN
-
e shell

The first time you run CPAN, you are prompted for
your preferences regarding where to
download your modules and other settings. For most settings, just accept the default. When
you select your mirror preferences, select from four to five mirrors.

Note:

You do not have to know anything about the mirror sites or
where they are located.
They serve

your account just as well if you simply choose the first five (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) as
any others.

Configuring your CPAN settings rarely require reconfiguration, making this a one
-
time task,
in general. From a CPAN command
line (
cpan>
), type the following command in order to get
and install the module:

cpan> install <Module_name>

Clean up after your installation by typing the following at the CPAN command line to save
space by deleting all unnecessary files the server used d
uring installation:

cpan> clean <Module_name>




Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Before Terminating Your Original Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

13

Before Terminating Your Original Account

Prior to the end of the 21
-
day period allowed for your shadow account, and before you use the
Complete

Shadow

option located in the Backroom,

you must perform a series

of
verification tasks.
This section provides guides to veri
fying website configurations, email
setup, and Urchin w
eb analytics. This section also provides descriptions of how to
verify

your
custom
digital certificate
,

how to terminate your
original accoun
t,

and
how
make your shadow
the active

FreeBSD

VPS

v3

account.

Verifying
Website

Configurations

Verify the following before you point DNS to the new IP address and direct your traffic to the
websites:



All w
eb content
has been
saved from your
original accou
nt

to a local computer



All necessary w
eb content
has been
uploaded to your shadow account



Website access is unobstructed



Virtual hosting operates correctly



Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts run without conflict



SSL certificates and keys have been inst
alled and configured correctly



Sendmail configuration files are correct

Before you verify website configurations, refer to the email notification this process to ensure
that you have access to the correct IP address for your shadow account. You can also fi
nd this
information in the
Shadow Details

page located in the Backroom. The following table
provides you with a few guidelines to help you to verify your website configurations:

Verifications

Guidelines

Website access is unobstructed

Use your w
eb browser
to verify your main
w
ebsite
functions correctly
.
Access your main
w
ebsite by using
the IP address of your shadow account
.

Virtual hosting functions correctly

Use your web browser to verify each virtual host
configured for your shadow server. Access a virt
ual host
by creating a temporary mapping of the virtual host
domain name to the new IP address in the /
etc/hosts

file on your local workstation. (Be sure to remove the
temporary mapping after testing.)

CGI scripts run without conflict


Use your web browse
r to check all CGI scripts employed
by your main host or any of your virtual hosts. Verify
that your CGI’s are executable, and owned by the correct
us敲 慮d group.

卓i 捥r瑩t楣i瑥猠慮d keys have
b敥n 楮s瑡汬敤 慮d 捯nf楧ur敤
捯rr散瑬t

Ch散k your Ap慣h攠c
onfigura瑩tn fi汥lfor 慮y 慣瑩v攠
卓iC敲瑩f楣慴i䙩c攠慮d ppiCer瑩t楣慴i䭥y䙩汥ld楲散瑩t敳⸠
䵡k攠sur攠瑨慴a敡ch d楲散瑩t攠po楮瑳 瑯 愠v慬楤 p慴a and
f楬inam攬 慮d 瑨慴ath攠捥r瑩f楣i瑥t慮d key hav攠瑨攠捯rr散琠
own敲sh楰 慮d p敲m楳s楯ns. (Th攠key fi汥lshou汤
b攠root
-
own敤I 慮d r敡d慢汥lon汹 by roo琮t Th攠捯n瑥t瑳 of 愠
捥r瑩t楣慴i may b攠數amin敤 us楮g th攠捯mm慮d:

openssl x509

in <filename>
-
text
-
noout



Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Before Terminating Your Original Account

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

14

Verifications

Guidelines

Sendmail configuration files are
correct

Check the following files to verify they are configured
correctl
y:

/etc/mail/aliases

/etc/mail/virtusertable

/etc/mail/access

/etc/mail/local
-
host
-
names

Table
4
: Verifications and Guidelines for Your Website

Completing

the
Migration

The duration of your shadow account is 21 days. At the end of
that period, the migration
completes automatically, and your original account is terminated. Prior to that time, you can
choose to finish (or
complete
) the migration ahead of schedule. The option to complete the
migration is available in the Backroom. When

you select the
Complete Shadow

option, your
original account is terminated, and the shadow account becomes your active VPS, one that is
updated with FreeBSD

VPS

v3 features..

Before you complete the migration (prior to the conclusion of the 21
-
day period
), thoroughly
test all configuration, content, and applications. Also, verify and test any time
-
sensitive
aspects of your shadow account such as DNS, email, and database content.


Migrating to FreeBSD

VPS

v3


Caveats

Copyright
1996
-
2009

Verio Inc.

All rights reserved.

15

Caveats

The following table provides information about special concerns regar
ding FreeBSD

VPS

v3
accounts and the migration:

Topic

Special Concerns

Manual configuration
changes

Once you initiate a shadow account, changes you make to
the configuration of your original account do not
automatically become part of your shadow account
configuration. During the migration, any changes you
manually perform for your original account

must also be

perform
ed

for your shadow account.

Disk s
pace

If you have added additional disk space to your original
account the additional space is
automatical
ly
added to your
shadow account also. You cannot remove the additional
space until after the migration is complete. Once you
complete the migration, you can then remove additional disk
space from the Web Hosting Backroom.

Databases

By default, FreeBSD

VPS

v3 is configured to
use

version
5.0.
x

of MySQL. You can configure your account to
use

the
default version (5.0.
x
) or you can use the provided vinstall
to configure your new account to
use

the legacy version of
MySQL (4.1.
x
). Since FreeBSD

VPS

v2 includes
support
for version 4.1.
x

by default, you must take action: verify the
configuration of your databases for the newer version, or
configure your FreeBSD

VPS

v3 account to support the
legacy version.

For PostgreSQL, be aware that your original account
suppor
ted version 7.4.
x

where FreeBSD

VPS

v3 supports
version 8.2.
x

by default. There is not a vinstall to assist you
with a configuration of FreeBSD

VPS

v3 to support a
legacy version of PostgreSQL.

CPX:Control Panel

If you use the CPX: Control Panel, refer to

release notes
and other guides, available from the FreeBSD

VPS

v3
Documentation Libr
ary, to verify the versions of web
development tools, w
eb services, and databases supported
.


Web development tools

The default configuration of your FreeBSD

VPS

v3 serve
r
includes an installation of PHP Hypertext Processer (PHP),
version 5.2
.x

where FreeBSD

VPS

v2 includes version
4.4
.x
.

Web services

The default configuration of your FreeBSD

VPS

v3 server
includes an installation of Apache HTTP Server, version
2.2
.x

whe
re FreeBSD

VPS

v2 includes version 1.3
.x
.

Table
5
: Caveats