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ABSTRACT

BI-AXIALLY LOADED SLENDER REINFORCED CONCRETE

COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO SUSTAINED LOADS

by

Song Gu

A generalized analytical approach is presented in this research to predict the behavior

both of slender and short reinforced concrete columns under sustained biaxial

eccentric load.

The present analysis proposes equations established at a cross section of a

reinforced concrete column by combining force equilibrium, constitutive law, and

compatibility conditions. The strain and curvature of each section and the deflection

of the column can then be obtained and resolved.

The established creep computation models, recommended separately by

American Concrete Institute (ACI) 209R-92 and the Comite' Euro-International du

Be'ton (CEB)-FIP 1990 Model Code have been used to calculate creep and shrinkage

for a member under a constant elastic compressive concrete strain for a given period.

This present analysis also proposes a computerized method for time and strain

adjustment. The Time and Strain Adjustment of Creep Method, combining a creep

calculation with a constant elastic strain such as those mentioned above, the creep

strain at each cross section can then be calculated, stored and adjusted to age of

concrete, load changes and deflection modifications during each time increment

phase.

In the conventional load-deflection analysis process, with projected

transformations, a spatial deflection curve is resolved into a couple of planar curves

located separately in two orthogonal plans. Based on the force equilibrium equations

of inner force at a column section, a set of three simultaneous non-linear differential

equations are derived to establish the relationships between the planar curve functions

with the eccentric load upon the top of column. Using the Green's Integral Formula,

the strain and stress nonlinear functions and column section properties can be solely

integrated into a few important coefficients of the differential equations. Thus, it

makes the approach also suitable for columns with non-rectangular sections and any

kinds of constitutive laws of materials.

The presented rational computer analysis results have been compared with the

existing biaxial and uniaxial experimental data, which are available in literature.

They indicate that the results from the proposed analysis correlate with experimental

data well.

BI-AXIALLY LOADED SLENDER REINFORCED CONCRETE

COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO SUSTAINED LOADS

by

Song Gu

A Dissertation

Submitted to the Faculty of

New Jersey Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engineering

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

May 2002

Copyright © 2002 by Song Gu

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

APPROVAL PAGE

BI-AXIALLY LOADED SLENDER REINFORCED CONCRETE

COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO SUSTAINED LOADS

Song Gu

Dr.

C. T. Thomas Hsu, Dissertation Advisor Date

Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, NJIT

Dr. Methi Wecharatana, Committee Member Date

Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, NJIT

Dr. Dorairaja Raghu, Committee Member Date

Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, NJIT

Professor Walter Konon, Committee Member

Date

Professor and Associate Chair of Department of Civil and Environmental

Engineering, NJIT

Dr. Michael Y. Xing, Committee Member Date

Associate of Thorton-Tomasetti Engineers, Newark, NJ

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Author: Song Gu

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Date: May 2002

Undergraduate and Graduate Education:

• Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engineering

New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, May 2002

• Master's Degree in Structural Engineering

Tongji University, Shanghai, P. R. of China, June 1988

• Bachelor's Degree in Structural Engineering

Tsinghua University, Beijing, P. R. of China, July 1985

Major: Civil Engineering

Publications:

Song Gu and C. T. Thomas Hsu (2002), "Computer Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

Columns Subjected to Biaxial Sustained Loads" 15

th ASCE Engineering

Mechanics Conference, Columbia University, NY, June.

Song Gu, Bolong Zhu and Yuzhou Chen (1989), "Study on Aseismic Detailing of the

Reinforced Concrete Frame Connections", Journal of Structural Engineers, No. 2,

pp. 18-24, Shanghai, China (in Chinese).

iv

This dissertation is dedicated to my whole family members both in United States

and the People's Republic of China

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my Advisor, Professor C. T. Thomas Hsu, for

his guidance, encouragement, and help throughout the course of this research.

Special thanks to my dissertation committee members, Professor Methi

Wecharatana, Professor Dorairaja Raghu, Professor Walter Konon, and Dr. Michael Xing

for their constructive evaluation and valuable suggestions. Thanks also to Professor

Edward G. Dauenheimer, for his evaluation and suggestions in this study.

Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Russell Sage, PE and the company of NK

Architects for their understanding and encouragement.

I wish to thank my friend, Dr. Xianglin Gu, for his suggestions and

encouragement.

Also to thank my parents, Boqi Gu and Ziwen Qian, for their hopes,

encouragement and assistance.

Finally, I wish to express my love to my wife Xun Chen and my children for their

constant encouragement and understanding, throughout the course of this Ph.D. study.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Page

1 INTRODUCTION..

1

1.1 Research Background

1

1.2 Objectives of Research

3

1.3 Statement of Originality

4

1.4 Outline of Research

5

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7

2.1 Classification of Concrete time dependent properties

7

2.2 Mechanism of concrete Creep and Shrinkage....

8

2.2.1 Factors Affecting Creep and Shrinkage

8

2.2.2 Mechanism of Concrete Creep

12

2.2.3 Mechanism of Concrete Shrinkage

14

2.2.4 Different Properties of Creep and Shrinkage between NSC and HSC... 15

2.3 Analytical Models of Concrete Creep and Shrinkage

16

2.3.1 ACT 209R-92 Models

16

2.3.2 Models of CEB-FIP Mode Code 1990

19

2.3.3 Nonlinear Model for Creep

22

2.3.4 Micro-structure Model for Creep 23

2.4 Studies on Slender RC Column Buckling under Sustained Loads

24

2.4.1 Effects of Creep and Shrinkage on Strength of RC Column

24

2.4.2 Experimental Studies

25

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

Chapter Page

2.4.3 Theoretical Analysis

26

2.5 Engineering Approach Specified by Engineering Design Codes

32

2.6 Summary 35

3 PROPOSED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

37

3.1 Analysis Strategies

37

3.2 Analysis Assumptions 39

3.3 Solution Procedures

39

3.3.1 Basic Equations 39

3.3.2 Iteration Controlled Derivative Equations

43

3.3.3 Time and Strain Adjustment of Creep Method

48

3.3.4 Constant Step of Creep Increasing Technique

50

3.3.5 Main Algorithm Flow Chart

51

3.4 Convergence and Stability of Solution

51

3.5 Limitations of Proposed Analytical Model

53

4 TEST DATA VERIFICATION

55

4.1 Slender Columns under Sustained Uni-axial Bending Loads

55

4.1.1 Test Data from Goyal et al. (NSC)

55

4.1.2 Test Data from Drysdale et al. (NSC)

59

4.1.3 Test Data from Claeson et al. (HSC)

61

4.2 Slender Columns under Sustained Bi-axial Bending Loads

64

4.2.1 Test specimens

64

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

Chapter

Page

4.2.2 Test Procedure and Equipment

66

4.2.3 Comparison of Test Results with Numerical Analysis

69

4.3 Discussion of Selection of Ultimate Creep Coefficient Value

73

5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS 75

5.1 Design Examples: Comparison with Current ACI Design Codes 75

5.1.1 Ultimate Strength of Slender Concrete Column under Uni-axial

Bending Load

75

5.1.2 Ultimate Strength of Slender Concrete Column under Bi-axial

Bending Load

80

5.2 Mechanism of the RC Column Strength

82

5.3 Estimation of Lateral Deflection of Bi-axially Loaded RC Slender Column .. 88

5.4 Recommendations.

95

5.4.1 Engineering Practice

95

5.4.2 Future Research

96

6 CONCLUSIONS

97

APPENDIX A FACTORS AND COEFFICIENTS OF

ACI 209-R92

MODELS (1994)

100

APPENDIX B COEFFICIENTS OF

CEB-FIP MODEL CODE 1990 (1993)

103

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

Chapter

Page

APPENDIX C ELASTIC ANALYSIS VERIFICATION RESULTS

106

APPENDIX D PROCESS OF DEFLECTION SOLUTION

108

APPENDIX E NOTATIONS OF SOURCE CODE AND FUNCTIONS OF

PROGRAM C

112

E.1 Notations of Source Code

112

E.2 Functions of the Program 117

E.3 Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart

118

REFERENCES

124

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

2.1 Changes in Strain of A Loaded and Drying Specimen

7

2.2 Relationships between Creep and Various Factors Which Influence Creep 11

2.3 Typical Relationships between Deformations of Elastic, Creep and the

Recoveries 17

2.4 Standard Shrinkage Strain Variation with Time after Moist Curing 19

2.5 A Non-linear Model for Concrete Consisting of Two Springs and One Dashpot 22

2.6 Modified Superposition Method for Calculating Concrete Creep 31

3.1 Projected Curvatures of Ø, and Φy

38

3.2 System of Global Forces and Deflections

39

3.3 Concrete Compressive Stress-strain Relationship 42

3.4 Main Flow Chart of the Algorithm 51

4.1 Reinforcement Details of Specimens of Goyal et al. 55

4.2 Variation of -y with Time at Different Stress Levels 57

4.3a Deflection-time Curve of Column H

58

4.3b Deflection-time Curve of Column G 58

4.3c Deflection-time Curve of Column R

59

4.4a Deflection Results of D.2.A

60

4.4b Strain Diagrams of D.2.A

61

4.5 Details of Columns and Test Equipment in Claeson et al.'s Experiment

62

4.6 Details of Reinforcement in Claeson et al's Experiment

62

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

(Continued)

Figure

Page

4.7 Deflection Results of H201 64

4.8 Column Details of Specimens in Drysdale et al.'s Experiment 66

4.9

Creep Test Results from Drysdale et al.'s Experiment 67

4.10a Deflection Results of B 2 A 68

4.10b Strain Diagrams of B.2.A 69

4.11 Strain Diagrams of B.3.B 71

4.12 Concrete Maximum Elastic Strain History of B.2.A

72

4.13 Concrete Maximum Elastic Strain History of B.3.B 72

5.1 Details of Columns in Design Examples

76

5.2 Short Column P-M Interaction Diagram

76

5.3 Effects of Slenderness 77

5.4

Effects of Eccentricities. 78

5.5 Effects of Longitudinal Reinforcement Ratios 79

5.6

Effects of Concrete Compressive Strength

80

5.7

Effects of Eccentricity Orientations to Columns with Square Cross Sections

81

5-8 Effects of Eccentricity Orientations to Columns with Rectangular Cross

Sections 82

5.9 Slender Column P-M Interaction Diagram 84

5.10 Primary and Secondary Moments and Deflections

85

XI'

LIST OF FIGURES

(Continued)

Figure Page

5-11 Comparison of equations for EI with EI values from Moment-Curvature

Diagrams for Short-Duration Loading

93

C.1 Column Details 107

E.1a Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart I 119

E. 1 b Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart II 120

E. 1 c Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart III 121

E.1d Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart IV

122

E. 1 e Detailed Algorithm Flow Chart V 123

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

4.1

Aggregate Grading of Goyal et al.'s Experiment

56

4.2 Column Details and Ultimate Loads

56

4.3

Composite of Concrete Mixtures, kg/m

3 63

4.4

Hardened Concrete Properties at Different ages for Each Concrete Strength.. ...

63

C.1 Column Specimens

106

C.2

Maximum Moment Results (kips-in)

106

C.3

Maximum Load Deflection Results

107

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background

The study of the behavior of slender reinforced concrete columns under sustained loads

has experienced a history of nearly 50 years.

Ostlund (1957) from Norway is probably the earliest researcher in the world to

study the strength capacity of slender reinforced concrete columns under sustained loads.

He suggested using the reduced elastic modulus of concrete to estimate creep effects.

This concept established the basic direction for the engineering approach afterwards.

From the 1960s, many scholars in North America appeared to be interested in this

research area. Mauch & Holley (1963) at M.I.T., performed theoretical analysis on creep

buckling of reinforced concrete columns and their work became the first publication

appeared in North American academic journals. Just at the same time, ACI Building

Code (ACI Committee 318, 1963) required engineering consideration of creep effects on

deflections of slender columns under sustained loads in some situations. This appeared

the first reinforced concrete (RC) structures building code to specify such effects in

engineering design. Eight years later, in the next generation version of ACI Building

Code (ACI Committee 318, 1971), a formal design method for slender column under

sustained loading was introduced.

Drysdale and Huggins (1971) at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada,

published their study on sustained bi-axial load on slender concrete columns. This is the

first publication in this field to study the slender concrete columns subjected to bi-axial

2

bending moments and axial loads. Their experimental data of bi-axially loaded columns

under sustained loads are still the only test results available in the literature at this time.

Recent advance in high strength concrete (HSC) structures has resulted in using

smaller section sizes of columns. As the time dependent properties of HSC are different

from those of normal strength concrete (NSC), Claeson & Gylltoft (2000) carried out their

experiment on slender HSC column under sustained loads. In their analysis, the method

provided by CEB-FIP Model Code was used.

According to literature research, the most active research period in this field

happened during 1963-1971. During that period, there were more than 10 research

papers being published in academic journals in North America and a formal design

method, named as

Moment Magnifier Method (MMM), was introduced into the ACI

building code (1971). Today, this MMM is still being used in the latest ACI building

code (1999).

The argument to MMM is that, the quantity of concrete time-dependent properties

has not being considered, which means, the capacity of slender column strength is

unchanged no matter how big creep and shrinkage are being developed. This is probably

due to the consideration of simplicity and feasibility in using formulas. On the other

hand, it has reflected the fact that, the concrete time-dependent properties are still not

fully understood at this time. In addition, due to time factor, this type of analysis becomes

four-dimensional analysis assuming that the columns are under biaxial bending loads.

For creep, the time effects are definitely not a linear. Thus, it was very difficult to

perform such an analysis with a typical Personal Computer or even a Work Station in ten

or twenty years ago, which would cost much time and require much storage.

3

Since 1971, more and more research results have been published on time-

dependent properties of concrete. Many theories and analytical methods have been

established and updated to describe the behavior of concrete creep and shrinkage. ACI

Committee 209 and CEB-FIP have developed theoretical analysis models for concrete

creep and shrinkage (ACI Committee 209, 1994, & CEB-FIP, 1993). Although these

theories of concrete time-dependent properties are not perfect, they do provide powerful

theoretical assistance to the study of behavior of long RC columns under sustained loads.

In recent years, the high-speed development of computer technology also makes

it possible to overcome the storage and speed difficulties when tackling three or four-

dimensional nonlinear structural problems.

In engineering practice, it has passed more than a century since the concrete

material was invented. Thousands of skyscrapers in concrete structures have been built

up all over the world. Among those concrete structures, a lot of them have been standing

for more than 50 years. Some of them have stood for even more than 80 years, which are

close to the end of concrete life duration. All these facts have raised a question that needs

to be solved which is, what is really happening to the behavior of those slender columns

inside those old buildings.

1.2 Objectives of Research

The objectives of this research are:

1. To establish a theoretical analysis model and algorithm in order to simulate the

loading and deformation process of slender columns made of NSC/HSC under bi-

axial sustained loads (uni-axial bending is treated as a special case of bi-axial

4

bending). Existing experimental data are to be used to verify the validity of analytical

models developed.

2.To analyze important material and geometry variables that influence the behavior of

slender columns under sustained loads with the established method.

3.To compare and evaluate the current design criteria with design examples.

1.3 Statement of Originality

A generalized theoretical approach is created to predict the behavior of slender reinforced

concrete columns made of NSC/HSC under sustained bi-axial/uni-axial eccentric loads.

This approach includes the following original points:

1.

Applying Green's Integral Transformation to the three balanced force equations, the

strain and stress relationship and column section properties are integrated into a few

important coefficients of the differential equations. Thus, it makes the algorithm

generalized to non-rectangular section columns and all kinds of constitutive

functions.

2.Established a computerized method for the adjustment of creep increments due to the

changes of elastic strain during the sustained loading duration. The method is named

as Time and Strain Adjustment of Creep Method. It is utilized to work with a creep

model for a constant elastic strain. The creep strain at each cross section can then be

calculated, adjusted and stored at each time increment phase, load changes and

deflection modifications.

5

3. Proposed a theoretical mechanism based on both test and analysis results to explain

the behavior of stress and strain developments in slender R/C column buckling under

sustained loading.

1.4 Outline of Research

Three equations are established at a column cross section by combining force

equilibrium, constitutive law, and compatibility conditions. The strains and curvatures at

each section of the column are resolved. Knowing boundary conditions and all

curvatures at each cross section, the deflections at each section can be obtained by using

numerical approximate methods.

In the instant load-deflection analysis process, with projected transformations, a

spatial deflection curve is resolved into a couple of planar curves located separately in

two orthogonal plans. Given coordinates of a point at a cross section, the axial strain can

be calculated with curvatures of the two planar curves and the maximum concrete

compression strain at a corner. Based on force equilibrium equations of inner force at a

column section, a set of three simultaneous non-linear integral equations are derived to

establish the relationships between the planar curve functions with the eccentric load

upon the top of the column. Utilizing the Green's Integral Formula, the strain and stress

nonlinear relationships and column section properties can be solely integrated into a few

important coefficients of the equations. Thus, the approach is suitable for columns with

non-rectangular sections and any kinds of constitutive laws of materials.

During the sustained loading process, creep and shrinkage strains have occurred

and they are added and combined to the total strain and curvature of each section.

6

The present analysis proposes a computerized method to allow creep increment to be

adjusted with increasing of time and variation of strain, the

Time and Strain

Adjustment of Creep Method (TSACM), combining the creep analisis models used for

constant elastic strains, such as those regulated in American Concrete Institute (ACI)

209-92 and the Comite' Euro-International du Be'ton (CEB)-FIP 1990 Model Code. The

creep strain at each cross section can be stored, calculated and adjusted and at each time

increment phase, load changes and deflection modifications.

The present rational computer analysis results have been compared with the

existing biaxial and uniaxial experimental data available in the literature. It is indicated

that the results from the proposed analysis correlate with experimental data well.

Some important material and geometry variables effects on the behavior of

slender columns under sustained loads are analyzed. Results are compared with those per

ACI 318-99 building code.

In this study, C Language is utilized to compose source code.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Classification of Concrete Time-dependent Properties

Time-dependent properties of concrete have played an important part in the buckling of

slender R/C columns under sustained loads. The time-dependent behavior of concrete

members is normally classified as creep and shrinkage.

Creep is defined as the time-dependent increase of strain in hardened concrete

subjected to sustained stress (ACI 209, 1994).

Shrinkage is defined as the decrease in concrete volume with time after hardening

of concrete. That decrease is due to changes in the moisture content of the concrete and

physical-chemical changes, which occur without stress attributable to actions external to

the concrete (ACI 209, 1994). As the shrinkage is not related to loads, analysis results

show that it is far less as important as creep to affect the behavior of slender columns

(Mauch, 1966), which is to be confirmed in this study.

Figure 2.1 Changes in Strain of a Loaded and Drying Specimen (Wang and Salmon,

1992)

Figure 2.1 shows the relationships between elastic, creep and shrinkage strains

subjected to sustained loading; t o is the time of application of load.

7

8

2.2 Mechanism of Concrete Creep and Shrinkage

2.2.1 Factors Affecting Creep and Shrinkage

Normally, creep of concrete is classified as two parts: basic creep and dry creep (ACI

209, 1994). Basic creep is also called real creep, which is developed under the condition

of humidity equilibrium. This creep value is measured from the specimens under sealing.

It is related to constant elastic stress and loading duration (Wang et al, 1985). Dry creep

is the result of the exchange between the environment and tested specimen, which is

increased with time (Wang et al, 1985).

Concrete creep is a complicated phenomenon due to a wide variety of factors

affecting it. Those factors are normally recognized as (Han, 1996):

1.Cement type and fineness of cement:

Different types and fineness of cement result in different hydrated rates of cement

paste. At the same concrete age, cement paste with different hydrated rates will achieve

different proportions of the final strength (CEB-FIP, 1993). It has been concluded (Han,

1996) that the slower the strength is being developed, the larger the potential of creep

strain will pose. This effect has been considered in CEB-FIP Model 90 (1993), for both

calculations of creep and shrinkage. In that model, types of cement are classified as SL,

slowing hardening cement, N or R, normal or rapid hardening cement, and RS, rapid

hardening high strength cements. Refer to Appendix B for more details about cement

classification in CEB-FIP Model 90.

2.Aggregates grading and the property of admixtures:

Normal weight aggregates, stone and sands, exhibit extremely negligible creep

comparing to cement paste. Thus, good grading aggregates effectively resist the creep

9

tendency of cement paste due to stress redistribution inside of concrete admixture. The

main factors of the resistance are the amount of coarse aggregate and the modulus of

elasticity of the aggregate (Han, 1996). ACI-209R-92 (1994) includes this factor by

introducing fine aggregate percentage correction factor The larger the fine aggregate

percentage is, the larger the creep will be. Refer to Appendix A for more details about

correction factor Iv

3.Water cement ratio:

Cement content does not influence concrete creep, but water cement ratio does

(Wang and Salmon, 1992). It is due to the fact that increase water cement ratio that also

will increase free water in concrete admixture. This may firstly increase the amount of

the micro cracks developed in concrete during the hydrated process; secondly decrease

the cement paste strength, which turns out increasing the possibility of stress

redistribution from cement paste to aggregates under sustained loading, thus increases

concrete creep (Han, 1996). Since water cement ratio affects concrete slump value, ACI-

209R-92 introduces the creep correction factor of slump 7, to include water cement ratio

effect on creep. Refer to Appendix A for calculation of correction factor γs.

4.

Curing humidity and temperature:

Relative humidity and temperature are the two important factors for concrete

curing. Obviously, better curing will achieve better quality of concrete products, which

means higher density and less micro cracks, therefore less creep. Thus, a certain level of

relative humidity and temperature are helpful to curb the development of concrete creep.

On the other hand, a long duration of high level relative humidity (such as 100%)

environment for curing process before loading, may also store a lot free water inside of

10

concrete, which turns out enhancing creep (Han, 1996). Steamed curing is better than

the moist for concrete to curb development of creep. This has been reflected in the

ACI-209-92R Model calculation. Refer to Appendix A for detailed calculation.

5.Age of concrete at loading:

The older the age of concrete means the longer the hydrated process endued, thus

less creep potential to develop. Both ACI and CEB-FIP models have included this effect.

6.Relative humidity and temperature after loading:

After the loading, higher relative humidity and a certain level of temperature are

effective to decelerate the loss of free water from admixture and promote the developing

hydrated process of concrete. Thus, less creep would develop. Both ACI and CEB-FIP

models have included this effect.

7.Concrete stress/strength level:

It is generally accepted that until a stress level, the concrete creep is proportional

to elastic compressive stress (Wang and Salmon, 1992). Above that level, significant

internal micro-cracks happen and extend widely, thus accelerate creep (Han, 1996).

Under a certain level of concrete compressive stress level, about 40% of ultimate

strength, both ACI and CEB introduce linear product models. Above that level, CEB

uses a nonlinear exponent function to consider high stress effect. See Appendix B for

detailed calculation.

8.Dimension effect:

Theoretically, dimension effect could be zero if no dry contraction (dry creep)

happens (Wang et al, 1985). In another words, if a specimen is sealed in 100% relative

humidity environment from curing until the end of loading, then the specimen size should

11

have no effects on concrete creep. In practical situations, due to different relative

humidity conditions, that effect does exist, and sometimes very large (Wang et al, 1985).

The ratio of volume/surface areas is used to estimate a dimension effect on creep (ACI

209, 1994). The larger the value is, the slower and the less loss of free water will be in

the admixture, thus, the less creep could happen (Han, 1996).

Figure 2.2 Relationships between Creep and Various Factors Which Influence Creep

The relationships between creep and various factors, which influence creep, are

shown in Figure 2.2 (Han, 1996). Generally, those factors are primarily related to

12

moisture loss, which influence creep, have been found to influence shrinkage as well

(Wang and Salmon, 1992).

Although creep and shrinkage are two different chemical and physical processes

of concrete, but development of each process relates the other one closely. For example,

shrinkage produces micro cracks, which might contribute more creep to happen. On the

other hand, under the external loading pores inside the concrete become smaller, thus

resulting a slow down of the transport of free water to the environment. Therefore, the

development of shrinkage could be slower.

2.2.2 Mechanism of Concrete Creep

1. Viscous Flow Theory

In this theory, cement paste is assumed as to be a high viscous fluid, which

increases viscosity with time as development of chemical changes continues. When

concrete is loaded, the viscous paste is flowing under compressive stress. The movement

will gradually transfer the stress on cement paste to the aggregate. The rate of creep will

progressively reduced as the stress redistribution ends. However, viscous flow theory

cannot explain the phenomena of volume changes within the creep process. Further

more, the theory also assumes proportionality between stress/strain and rate of stress over

rate of strain. It is suitable for concrete compressive stress is in the range of 30 to 50% of

the strength. That stress upper limitation is believed due to the development of micro

cracks. Nevertheless, the viscous flow theory can be used to describe mechanism of

creep with some observations (Neville, Dilger and Brooks, 1983) (Han, 1996).

13

2.Plastic Flow Theory

The plastic flow theory is similar to the one that explains the mechanism of metal

creep. It suggests that creep of concrete is caused by a plastic flow called crystalline, i.e.

a slipping along planes within a crystal lattice. The plastic flow is a result of a slip in a

plan of maximum shear stress. The water inside concrete is assumed to act as lubricant

thus makes flow easier. One of the shortcomings of this theory is, for metals at room

temperatures, the plastic flow occurs only when the applied stress equals or exceeds the

yield point. While in the case of concrete, there is no such a yield point. Additionally,

the theory cannot explain volume changes either. However, at very high stress level, the

theory seems explaining concrete creep better (Han, 1996).

3.Seepage Theory

In this theory, the creep of concrete is explained as seepage of gel water under

pressure. The gel water inside of concrete admixture is in a state of equilibrium under

vapor pressure. When an external load is applied to the concrete, the pressure is changed

and equilibrium broken. The gel water is reorganized to obtain the new equilibrium. It

affects the colloidal stresses and van der Waals force. A new equilibrium is reached by

seepage of gel water inside the cement gel. It is obvious that the density (porous) of the

cement paste has a strong effect on the seepage. One of challenges to this theory is how

to explain the remained creep in the unloading process. According to the theory, after

removal of the external load, due to reducing of pressure of gel water, the original

equilibrium would re-establish. The result of creep recover test cannot support this point.

One basic argument about the seepage theory is that, if the gel water is slowly squeezed

out of the pores and the capillary water evaporates, a considerable weightless could be

14

happened during the creep process. Nevertheless, this could not be proved by experiment

either (Neville, Dilger and Brooks, 1983) (Han, 1996).

4. Micro-cracking Theory

The development of micro-cracks associated with creep has been confirmed by

results from acoustic measurement. It is estimated that micro cracking is taking 10 to

25% of the total creep deformation in concrete. The extent of the development of micro

cracking being due to creep depends on existing micro-cracks prior to loading. At high

stress level, micro cracking contributes considerably to concrete creep (Han, 1996).

Due to its complicity, even though quite a few research results have been

achieved on concrete creep, to clarify the mechanism of concrete creep is still very

difficult. As being described by Illston et al. (1979): " The physical and chemical

happenings that are associated with creep are on a molecular scale, and there is no

convincing direct evidence of what actually goes on; so the explanation of creep has,

perforce, consisted of interpreting engineering level observations in terms of likely

physical and chemical phenomena." It is generally agreed none of the mechanisms

proposed up to date can explain all of observed facts.

2.2.3 Mechanism of Concrete Shrinkage

Shrinkage of concrete is classified as plastic shrinkage, chemical shrinkage and drying

shrinkage (Gilbert, 2001).

Plastic shrinkage, which happens in the wet concrete, may result in significant

cracking during a setting process. This cracking occurs due to capillary tension in pore

water. Since the bond between plastic concrete and reinforcement has not yet developed,

15

the steel is ineffective in controlling such cracks. This problem may be severe in the case

of low water content and existing silica fume concrete. Thus, high strength concretes are

prone to plastic shrinkage (Gilbert, 2001).

Drying shrinkage is caused primarily by the loss of water during the drying

process. Chemical (or endogenous) shrinkage results from various chemical reactions

within the cement paste and includes hydration shrinkage, which is related to the degree

of hydration of the binder in a sealed specimen (Gilbert, 2001).

Concrete shrinkage strain is usually considered as the sum of drying and chemical

shrinkage components (Gilbert, 2001).

2.2.4 Different Properties of Creep and Shrinkage between NSC and HSC

HSC is not only characterized by superior engineering properties such as higher

compressive strength, elastic modulus and density, but also by remarkably different

material physical properties such as more discontinuous and closed pore structure,

smaller pore sizes, and a more uniform pore distribution. This , among others, is a result

of addition of silica fume or the like. Those differences in the microstructure cause

changes in properties like creep and shrinkage. (Han, 1996)

It has been found that creep is much lower in HSC than NSC, especially under the

drying conditions. The ratio of sustained loading strength to short-term strength is also

higher in HSC than NSC. Results from experiments have confirmed that the mount of

cracks including those related at initial state is much less in HSC. Consequently, smaller

inelastic deformations and higher creep-stress linearity limits have also been observed

(Han,1996). In CEB-FIP Model 90, concrete strength has been considered in calculating

16

the creep and shrinkage coefficients (Refer to Appendix B for more details). The higher

is the strength, the smaller are the values of those coefficients.

2.3 Analytical Models to Predict Creep and Shrinkage

There are three types of models which have been developed to predict concrete creep and

shrinkage. One method is a material science approach. In that approach, the models are

developed on theories about microstructure of concrete material. As pointed out by

Wittmann (1982), the models are very complicated in presentation and therefore very

difficult for use in practical engineering. Another method is to formulate empirical linear

models on basis of test data. Although it still suffers some basic theoretical weakness, it

is a more accrurate method in most practical situations. Particularly, it is much easier to

be adopted in engineering application. The third approach is to create a nonlinear creep

model based on rheology theory (Shen, 1992), (Walraven and Shen, 1993). Compared

with microstructure model, it has avoided using the complicacity of micro-structural

theory and exponent presentation. However, most parameters in the formula are still

needed to be determined from the experiments.

2.3.1 ACI 209R-92 Models

1. Creep Model

A general empirical method, developed by Branson (1971), which has been

accepted by ACI-209, gives a creep coefficient equation under loading ages of 7 days for

moist cured concrete and 1-3 days for steam cured concrete:

where t

is the duration of loading (days) and 14, is the ultimate creep coefficient.

γc denotes the product of the applicable correction factors defined in Eq. (2.3)

hi, denotes the correction factor for loading age

72

denotes the correction factor for ambient relative humidity

rat denotes the correction factor for average thickness of member other than 6 inch

γs

denotes the correction factor for slump

iv denotes the correction factor for fine aggregate percentage

γa denotes the correction factor for air content

See Appendix A for calculations of the factors. In this research, since all test data

collected do not provide air content information. An assumption of 6% is made for the

creep estimation of all concrete specimens.

Figure 2.3 shows typical creep variation with duration of loading (Wang and

Salmon, 1992).

17

Figure 2.3

Typical Relationships between Deformations of Elastic, Creep and the

Recoveries

2. Shrinkage Model

Shrinkage after age 7 days for moist cured concrete is given by:

where t is the time after shrinkage is considered, and (εsh)u

is the ultimate shrinkage

strain.

Shrinkage after age 1-3 days for steam-cured concrete is given by:

In absence of specific shrinkage data for local aggregates and conditions, the

average values suggested for (εsh)

u are:

where,

γsh denotes the product of the applicable correction factors defined in Eq. (2.7)

γcp denotes the correction factor for initial moist curing

γc denotes the correction factor for cement content

See Appendix A for calculations of factors yip

, 72, nit, γs, γc, and

Figure 2.4 shows a typical shrinkage strain variation with time after moist curing

(Wang and Salmon, 1992).

18

Figure 2.4 Standard Shrinkage Strain Variation with Time after Moist Curing

3.

Concrete compressive strength versus time

where, a in days and

/3

are constants, ( f')28=28-day

strength and t

in days is the age of

concrete. The values of a and pi

are related to the type of cement used and the type of

curing employed. Typical values recommended are given in Table 2.2.1 of ACI 209R-92

(ACI Committee 209, 1994).

2.3.2 Models of CEB-FIP Model Code 1990

1. Creep Model:

When stress ac

<0.4f cm(to),

the creep is assumed to be linearly related to the

stress. For constant stress applied at time to this leads to:

where,

fcm(t0) is the mean concrete compressive strength at an age of days to

E ci is the modulus of elasticity at the age of 28 days

20

0 (t, t0) is the creep coefficient. It may be calculated from:

00

is the notional creep coefficient, refer to Appendix B for more information.

βc(t-t0) is the function to describe the development of creep with time after loading (see

Appendix B for more information)

t is t he age of concrete at the moment considered (in days)

t0 is the age of concrete at loading (in days)

For a stress level in the range of 0.4fcm(t0)< σc<0.6fcm(t0)

the non-linearity of creep may

be taken into account using the following Equations:

where,

00.k

is the non-linear notional creep coefficient, which replaces O0

in Eq. (2.10)

2. Development of strength with time

For a mean temperature of 20°C and curing in accordance with ISO 2736/2, the

relative compressive strength of concrete at various ages fcm(t)

may be estimated from

Equations (2.14):

is the mean compressive strength of concrete at an age of 28 days

21

fcm(t) is the mean compressive strength of concrete at an age of

t days

fl (t) is a coefficient, which depends on the age of concrete t days

s is a coefficient which depends on the type of cement: s=0.20 for rapid hardening high

strength cements RS, 0.25 for normal and rapid hardening cements N and R, and 0.38 for

slowly hardening cements SL.

t 1 equals 1 day

3.Strength under sustained loads

The combined effect of sustained stresses and of continued hydration is given by

Equations (2.16) and (2.17)

with

where,

fcm,sus(t,to)

is the mean compressive strength of concrete at time t when subjected to a

high-sustained compressive stress at an age at loading to<t

βc,sus(t,to) is a coefficient which depends on the time under high sustained loads t-to

(days). The coefficient describes the decrease of strength with time under load and is

defined for (t-t0)>0.015days (=20 min)

4.Shrinkage Model

The total shrinkage strain εcs(t,to) may be calculated from:

εcs0 is the notional shrinkage coefficient

22

/3 is the coefficient to describe shrinkage with time

t is the age of concrete (days)

t s is the age of concrete (days) at the beginning of shrinkage

Refer to Appendix B for more details of calculations.

2.3.3 Non-linear Model for Creep

According to Walraven and Shen (1993), the nonlinear model contains two nonlinear

springs and a non-linear dashpot (see Figure 2.5).

Figure 2.5 A Non-linear Model for Concrete Consisting of Two Springs and One

Dashpot [after Shen (1993)]

A general constitutive equation can be derived in the following:

where,

w is the creep rate factor

ck is the nonlinearity factor for spring Hk

23

θk is the strain level, in. Hk i.e. εk/εku

εku is the ultimate strain of spring

Hk

am is the stress level, i.e. σm/fm

.1=0, for creep

to is the concrete age at loading

The characteristics of the spring H can be described in the following:

where,

is the nonlinearity factor for spring Hm

is the strain level, in. H

m

i.e.

en /Emu

is the material factor for unloading

is the ultimate strain of spring Hm

is the highest stress level in the history

2.3.4 Micro-structure Model for Creep

Wittmann et al. (1982) used the activation energy approach to describe the creep of

concrete. It is assumed that the movement of solid particles is responsible for the creep

of concrete.

24

where,

εcr is the creep of concrete

A 1,A2 and 113 are constants

V, is activation volume

Qo is a constant

R is gas constant

T is absolute temperature

a is the applied stress

me is a constant

t is the concrete age

2.4 Studies on Slender RC Column Buckling under Sustained Loads

2.4.1 Effects of Creep and Shrinkage on Strength of RC Column

Except for non-eccentrically loaded columns, any occurrence of creep will increase

geometrically the bending curvature of a section in a column, because the higher

compressive strain yields the higher creep strain. As a result, the increasing of bending

curvatures of column sections yields the increasing of the lateral deflection of the

column, which in turn increases the axial load's eccentricities to column sections thus

affecting the internal concrete and reinforcing steel strains and stresses. Although the

development of creep may help redistribute part of concrete compression stress to steel

reinforcing in compression zone, concrete creep might still decrease the buckling

capacity of slender columns.

25

As it is not caused by concrete stress changes, shrinkage will tend to relax the

concrete compression stress and redistribute the force difference to longitudinal

reinforcement. That is, to increase the compressive stress in steel reinforcement

previously in compression, and /or to decrease the tensile stress in steel reinforcement

previously in tension. As a result the moment curvature of a section decreases, this, in

general, is beneficial to the increase of buckling strength of the slender columns.

2.4.2 Experimental Studies

From the mid 1950s, academic researchers started to pay attention to studying the slender

RC columns under sustained axial loads. During 1960 through 1970, the research and

experiments in this field became very active. Breen and Green (1969) from University of

Texas investigated behavior of restrained and unrestrained reinforced concrete columns

under sustained loads in their Ph.D. programs. Goyal (1971) from Scotland, performed

study of (pinned) slender columns under sustained loads. Lately, Gilbert and

Mickleborough (1993) studied the creep effects in slender reinforced and pre-stressed

concrete columns. When HSC is widely used in engineering practice, some researchers

began their focus on the experiments with the R/C column made of HSC (Claeson, 2000).

Until now, most test data are still from the specimens made of NSC.

Drysdale et al. (1971) published their research on sustained biaxial load on

slender concrete columns. This is the only published paper that has focused on the

experiments in bi-axially loaded slender RC columns under sustained loads. Due to the

loading equipment and other conditions limits, the scales of test specimens are about 1:5

1:2; the sustained load durations are less than 3 years; all specimens are pinned top and

26

bottom and loaded eccentrically and symmetrically. Per ACI-129-R92 model, concrete

could have reached 87% of the total creep strain in 3 years. Per CEB-FIP 90 model, that

number becomes 7790%. Thus, most of creep has developed in that period, which

means, the 3 year experimental results should have reflected the real creep process from

this point of view. Refer to Chapter 4 for more discussions of the experimental results.

2.4.3 Theoretical Analysis

Ostlund (1957) suggested the Reduced Modulus of Elasticity (RME)

to estimate the

effect of creep on buckling load of RC column. According to Ostlund, the reduced

modulus of elasticity of concrete E r can be obtained from the following formula:

where,

a denotes liquidity constant in the creep law for the method of superposition

y

o denotes liquidity constant in the creep law for the rate of creep method

a denotes time constant in creep law

E denotes concrete elastic modulus

Ostlund's study opened the theoretical analysis in this field. The advantage of the

method is its simplicity and easy to be applied in engineering. In fact, this concept has

provided the basic direction for the ACI-318 Building Codes since 1971.

The difficulty with this approach is that the value of

E/Er is not directly known

and varies in a large arrange. In ACI-318, (1+

βd) is used instead of

(1+αE)

to get the

27

reduced

El

value. It has neglected the value variations of concrete creep. In particular,

the reduced modulus approach could not be used reliably to determine the resistance of a

column to a long- duration (dead) load, followed by an additional (live) load. (Mauch,

1966)

Bresler and Selna (1964) proposed a powerful method for creep buckling of RC

slender column analysis. It is called the Relaxation Procedure. In this method, during a

time interval, the strain distribution is initially held unchanged. Under the situation, if the

creep and shrinkage components change, the elastic components of total strain must also

change by the same amount in the opposite direction. The internal force equilibrium

could not be kept unless both a change of axial force AN and a change of bending

moment AM are applied to this section. The strain state is thawed (relaxed) after the

changes of internal forces being applied to the section. This approach is accurate for the

material that is linear elastic at short-term.

That is, at section i,

where,Δε0i

is the change in strain of the top fiberΔki

is the change in curvature of the section

A=fdA is the area of the transformed sectionB=∫ydA

is the first moment of the transformed area about the top surface of the section

28

I is the secondary moment of the transformed area about the top surface of the section

E,

is the concrete elastic modulus

AM, is the change of bending moment

AN, is the change of axial force

Bazant et al. (1972) proposed the Age-adjusted Effective Modulus Method

(AEMM) to model the effects of creep.

where,

E" (t,t0) is the age-adjusted effective modulus

E(t0) is the instantaneous elastic modulus in time t0

Φ(t,to) is the increment of the time-dependent concrete creep coefficient associated with

the time interval and load increment under consideration

X(t,to ) is the aging coefficient for concrete during the same interval

Combining Bazant's AEMM and Relaxation Procedure proposed by Bresler and

Selna (1964). Gilbert et al. (1993) proposed a non-linear procedure for the time-

dependent analysis of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete columns under uni-axial

sustained eccentric compression. In their method, both material and geometric non-

linearites are taken into account in an iterative computer-based solution procedure, in

which, for short-term analysis, stress-strain relation for concrete is bilinear with crack

point in between. Individual cross-sections are analyzed using the age-adjusted effective

modulus method to include the effects of creep and shrinkage. In which,

29

where,

Aso, is the change in strain of the top fiber

AK, is the change in curvature of the section

A, is the effective area of the transformed section

Be is the first moment of the effective transformed area about the top surface of the

section

I, is the secondary moment of the effective transformed area about the top surface of the

section

AM, is change of bending moment

AN, is change of axial force

Dividing the time scale into several increments, the gradual development of time-

dependent cracking can be traced as the lateral deflection of the column and the internal

secondary moments increase with time due to creep. In the numerical analysis part, the

variation of curvature along the member is assumed to be parabolic. That is:

where,

6 is the lateral deflection of column at mid-height

kA is the curvature of top section

30

KB is the curvature of bottom sectionkC

is the curvature at mid-height section

L the length of column

Claeson et al. (2000) presented the analysis of slender HSC columns under uni-

axial sustained eccentric loads by using CEB-FIP 90 Model Code (1993). The analysis

used a moment-curvature approach. The calculations were based on a cross-sectional

analysis. The second order effects were taken into account by assuming a sine curve

deflection shape. In addition, the confining effect of the stirrups was carried out. Creep

of the concrete was taken into account using the Equation (2.8) from CEB-FIP.

The modulus of elasticity for concrete was not assumed to increase with respect to

time. The experiment pointed out that, HSC columns exhibited fewer tendencies to creep

and could sustain the axial load without much increase in deformation for a longer

period. They also exhibited less nonlinear creep.

For the RC slender columns under sustained bi-axial bending loads, Drysdale et al

presented an analysis method in 1971. To describe two-dimensional distribution of strain

on sections, cross section was divided into a grid. Using the symmetric feature for

loading at top of a pinned column, only half was analyzed. The half column was divided

into four segments. The distributions of strain on sections were assumed first manually

and then corrected by computerized iteration process controlled by three internal force

equilibrium equations at each section and the moment eccentricity at the end of column.

For creep prediction, a nonlinear creep model was used and the

Modified Superposition

Method for Creep Prediction

was adapted to this computerized analysis.

31

Figure 2.6 Modified Superposition Method for Calculating Concrete Creep (Drysdale,

1967)

From Figure 2.6 the total creep at t2 equals:

where,

creep]: creep strain under initial constant elastic strain EL,1 during time to to ti

creep2: creep strain under initial constant elastic strain EL.2 during time t1 to t2

and

Cc EL,2

during time to to t2-ticreep2": creep strain difference between lines of cc EL,

Cc EL,1: creep strain line under constant stress σ1

Cc EL,2:

creep strain line under constant stress 0

-2

32

Obviously, the shortcoming of this method is that the concrete creep will be over

estimated when stress is decreasing, which frequently occurs at early phase of sustained

loading.

Mauch (1965) also performed theoretical study on RC slender column creep

buckling based on rheology theory, which resulted in a very complicated mathematic

formula. According to his research, slender column reductions in carrying capacity due

to creep were 40 to 50 percent for columns with a slenderness of L/D=25 to 40, where L

is the length of column and D is the diameter of column. Smaller reductions occurred for

shorter columns.

2.5 Engineering Approach Specified by Engineering Design Codes

In 1963, ACI made substantial modifications to the design procedures applicable to

slender columns, including the effects of sustained loads in some cases. The Code

required that for a certain type of restrained column with L/D>30, an analysis taking into

account the effect of additional deflections on moment was required. The Code retained

the use of a long column reduction factor. The reduction factor was expressed as a linear

function of the slenderness ratio and applied equally to load and moment (ACI-318,

1963).

In 1971, ACI introduced the Moment Magnifier Design Method for design of

slender columns under both short term and sustained loads. The design method has been

adopted till today.

33

1. ACI 318-99 Provisions:

In ACI 318-99 Building Code, the effect of sustained load on slender column is

considered in calculation of Stiffness Parameter EL which is taken as following:

where,

E, denotes concrete modulus of elasticity

/g denotes gross moment of inertia of concrete section

lid

denotes proportion of the factored axial load that is considered sustained

factored sustained axial load

factored total axial load

Es denotes steel modulus of elasticity

Is denotes gross moment of inertia of reinforcement

The value of El

is needed for calculating the Euler buckling load P e of a column,

which affects the strength of a RC slender column.

where,

kL, is the effective length of column

In case of a braced slender column, the design moment Mm

is:

34

where,

M2b is the larger end moment acting on the member

M1b is the smaller end moment acting on the member

M2b/ MTh

positive for single curvature

Mm is primary bending moment due to transverse loading

Cm is a factor in Moment Magnifier for braced Frames

End moments only:

where,

Pu

is a factored axial force

Here the effect of the sustained load directly reflects on the value of β

d. Ai is a

component of the column section stiffness parameter

El. El affects the Euler buckling

capacity of column

Pc,

which influences the value of magnifier

81)•

MacGregor et al (1970) indicated the reason to choose

d,

(Rm

noted at that time)

for creep consideration:" This factor has been chosen to give the correct trend when

compared to analysis and tests (Green, 1966) of columns under sustained loads".

35

Obviously, there are two problems about the Moment Magnifier Method. First, it

is not based on any theories of concrete time-dependent behavior. Second, it needs to

analyze more test data results to improve the method.

2. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990:

In CEB-FIP 90, the creep effects have been introduced as the creep eccentricity ec

where,

e0 denotes the first order eccentricity

ea denotes the additional eccentricity introduced by the effects of geometrical

imperfections

Nsg

denotes the axial force in the element, under the quasi-permanent combination of

actions

NE

denotes the critical Euler-load of the column.

In this model, the creep coefficient Φ(t,t0)

(see Eq.(2.9)) has been included, which reflects

the quantity level of creep influence.

2.6 Summary

1. Results of Previous Studies

a).

Creep decreases the carrying capacity of slender reinforced concrete columns.

b).

HSC columns exhibit fewer tendencies to creep and can sustain the axial load and

exhibit less nonlinear creep.

36

2. Unsolved problems

a).

There are no experimental test data available for bi-axial bending slender HSC

columns. Only one experimental work is known for NSC columns under biaxial

sustained loads.

b).Due to the conditional limit, the experimental longest duration of sustained loads is

less than 3 years, which means a possible 15-20% creep effects have not been studied.

c).In theoretical analysis, the calculation of creep due to stress changes has not been

thoroughly studied.

d).Most analysis research were performed in 1960s, the models for creep and shrinkage

are needed to be updated.

e). Unlike CEB-FIP 90 Models, the design method in the ACI building codes is not

established on the studies of concrete creep and shrinkage. Consequently, the current ACI

building code is based on the results on concrete slender columns under sustained loads

around 1970.

CHAPTER 3

PROPOSED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

A new numerical method is developed to study the behavior of bi-axially loaded slender

RC columns, made of NSC/HSC, under sustained loads. In this approach, both material

non-linearity (concrete) and geometry non-linearity are considered. Latest concrete time-

dependent models are adopted. It is also a generalized method in terms of loading

history, column supports, material (concrete) stress-strain behavior and shapes of column

sections (unchanged through length of column). Except for basic dimension, loading

history, support condition, and material properties, no further manually initial input data

are needed.

3.1 Analysis Strategies

As it is a biaxial bending problem, all forces, (axial force, moments and stresses) and

deformation variables (strains, curvatures, and deflections) are projected to

XZ and YZ

planes separately. For example, the curvatures on a section 0 are divided into c,

and Φy

respectively,

The solution process is based on an iteration method:

1.The columns are divided into a number of segments. At start end of each

segment, a cross section is recorded to present the segment on which three

simultaneous differential equations of internal force equilibrium are established.

2.For the short-term loading process, the concrete maximum compressive strain ece

and two orthogonal projected curvatures 0, and of a section can be solved from

37

38

the three simultaneous differential equations on a cross section. The initial

iteration data is obtained from linear elastic analysis.

Figure 3.1 Projected Curvatures of

O

and Φy

3.Knowing the curvatures of all segments, the deflection line of the column can be

obtained accurate enough with a numerical method.

4.

To include the effects of second order deflection, a second round of iteration is

performed. The control of the iteration is the error allowance between the two

consecutive rounds of maximum deflection of the column.

5. For sustained load duration, the loading period is divided into a series tiny time

intervals. At each interval, the creep and shrinkage strain components are

calculated by concrete creep and shrinkage theoretical models and adjusted

according to the TSACM,

the method generated herein. The key point is that,

TSACM

is able to adjust creep under the situation while concrete elastic stress is

decreasing, which is a typical phenomenon for reinforced concrete column creep

buckling. Concrete strength and modulus of elasticity are age adjusted at each

time interval.

39

3.2 Analysis Assumptions

The following basic assumptions are made for the analysis:

1.

Linear distribution of strain across the section is valid.

2.Concrete is treated as continuous uniformed medium.

3.No tensile stress is considered for concrete.

4.

Bond between concrete and reinforcement is perfect.

5. Under sustained loading, the age and /or stress adjusted concrete stress-strain

equation of short term is valid for describing the elastic stress-strain changes.

3.3 Solution Procedures

3.3.1 Basic Equations

1. Equilibrium Equations

According to the co-ordinate system shown in Figure 3.2, the force and moments

equilibrium equations on a cross section are:

Figure 3.2

System of Global Forces and Deflections

Substitute symbols of external and internal forces of into the above equations, thus:

where,

P denotes axial load

Moy

denotes Moment at top of column rotating over y axis

Mox denotes Moment at top of column rotating over -x axis

Nz[σz(x,y)] denotes stress resultant along z axis

My [σz(x,y)] denotes stress moment resultant rotating over y axis

Mx[σ(x,y)] denotes stress moment resultant rotating over-x axis

u(z)

denotes deflection at the center of the section projected along x axis

v(z)

denotes deflection at the center of the section projected along y axis

σz(x,y) denotes concrete compressive stress at point (x,y,z)

x, y, z denote global coordinates

2. Constitutive laws:

Since tension in concrete is neglected, only compression is considered. For both

NSC and HSC, the Modified Hognestad Formula (Park, et al, 1975) (Kent, et al., 1971) is

applied:

40

a is the concrete compressive stress

s is the concrete compressive strain

f' is the concrete cylinder strength

s0 is the concrete strain refers to maximum strength, take 0.002

εu is the concrete ultimate strain, use 0.003

6.50 , 550u

and

550h,

refer to Figure 3.3 for physical meanings

b" is the width of confined core measured to outside of hoops

sh is the spacing of hoops

ps is the reinforcement ratio

42

Figure 3.3

Concrete Compressive Stress-strain Relationships (Park and Paulay, 1975)

4.

Stress and Strain relationship of steel reinforcement:

where,

as is the stress in steel reinforcement

es is the strain in steel reinforcement

E, is the modulus of steel

fy is the steel yield point

4. Compatibility Equations:

43

where,

s

is the strain of a point (x,y,z) at the section z

ec0

is the strain of the point (0,0,z) at the section

z

Ox

is the projected bending curvature on plan XOZ

is the projected bending curvature on plan YOZ

5. Time Dependent Models:

Use ACI-129-92R Models for NSC analysis, and CEB-FIP 90 Models for HSC.

For concrete strength changing versus time under sustained loads, use CEB-FIP model.

3.3.2 Iteration Controlled Derivative Equations

The internal forces can be represented by stresses from the balance of the internal

stresses:

where,

D refers to the domain of concrete compression.

44

denotes the reinforcement area at j point

yj denote the global coordinates at j point

Stresses can be represented further by strains from the basic concrete and steel

constitutive equations:

re-organize:

Introducing:

Since

where,

εec0, Φxand Φyare constants

Therefore

Derivate both sides of Eq (3.28):

45

Thus the first term of right side of Eq (3.25) becomes:

Notice Green's Integral Formula:

In that L represents the line envelop of the region D. And the line integral goes with

anti-clock direction.

For rectangular sections, Eq. (3.37) can be changed to:

Substitute Eq. (3.39) into Eq. (3.38):

Bring results of Eq. (3.40) into Eq. (3.25), therefore:

Using the same method, Eq.(3.26) can also be modified to the following:

Derivate both sides of Eq (3.29), i. e.

Substitute Eq. (3.30) into Eq.(3.42) and reorganize it :

Bring result of

Eq. (3.43) into the second term at right side of Eq. (3.26):

Applying Green's Formula, the first part at right side of Eq. (3.44) becomes:

the right side of Eq. (3.45) can be changed into:

46

while the second part at right side of Eq. (3.44) becomes:

For rectangular section, right side of Eq. (3.48) becomes:

47

Then Eq. (3.26) becomes:

48

These three equations are the core equations for iterative solutions. The curvatures Ox,

and boundary conditions, the solution of deflection along column length could be

obtained. Refers to Appendix D for details.

3.3.3 Time and Strain Adjustment of Creep Method

Assuming t0 is the age of concrete when instant eccentric axial load is loaded and

T is the

duration of the sustained load, divide T

into n numbers of minor phases, (1, 2, 3, ...,

n-1,n), and denote t, as the age of concrete at the end of i phases. Thus, at a age

t„

the

49

strain of the top fiber in compression stress on a cross section, which, in fact is at a corner

point, would be:

where,

ε(t0,ti) denotes the total strain at top fiber in end of t; phase

t0 is the age of concrete while loaded

Δεe(ti) is the change of elastic strain happened at

ti phase

v(tj,ti) is the coefficient of concrete creep strain developed from tj phase to ti phase

εs'h (to , ) is the effective shrinkage strain developed at end of

ti phase

εsh(t0,ti) is the concrete shrinkage without reinforcement from t 0 to ti

A, is the cross section concrete area

As

is the reinforcement total area of cross section

E, is the concrete elastic modulus

Es is the reinforcement elastic modulus

Let Δεe(t0) denotes εe(t0):

50

3.3.4 Constant Step of Creep Increasing Technique

For reasons of stability and convergence of iteration process, it is preferred to be able to

control the increment step of creep strain constant. Thus:

where,

51

C denotes constant,

i denotes number of steps

since il l (x) is nonlinear and close to log function, thus when i→∞,

3.3.5 Main Algorithm Flow Chart

The main flow chart of the algorithm is shown in Figure 3.4. Refer to Appendix F for the

information of a detailed algorithm flow chart.

Figure 3.4 Main Flow Chart of the Algorithm

3.4 Convergence and Stability of Solution

To solve the equilibrium equations of force and moment on a section (3.53), (3.54), and

expressed in the following:

t) is the vector of external force on the top of column,

s

the vector of lateral deflection at the center of the section concerned,

the vector function of iteration.

The equations for convergence are:

52

Under each grade of load actions

Pi(e

x,e

y,t), the convergence of the lateral

deflection curves controls the second round iteration cycle procedure. The k+1 th round

of iteration solution of deflection vector can be expressed as follows:

53

3.5 Limitations of Proposed Analytical Model

In this study, there are some limitations to the application of the proposed analytical

model due to the following reasons:

1.The constitutive law of concrete used in this model is originally generated from the

study of unconfined NSC by Hognested (Wang et al., 1985), and modified by Park et

al. (1975) in research of confined NSC plus some specimens of HSC. It is one of

many approaches to establish a unified formula for both NSC and HSC in this field.

Since there is a big difference in the strain and stress relationships between NSC and

HSC, this formula modified by Park et al. (1975) might not work quite well with HSC

as it with NSC. Therefore, for the analysis of columns made of HSC, further studies

are still needed to study the suitability of Park et al's formula and other constitutive

laws of concrete describe HSC.

2.

As the ACI 209-92R models have not included the studies of time dependent

properties of HSC, thus the CEB-FIP mode code 90 is used here to estimate the creep

ultimate creep coefficient for HSC columns. Same efforts are made for considering

the creep effects on the concrete with high compressive stress level and the

development of strength with time under sustained loads (see Chapter 2.3.2 for more

details). Since the models of ACI and CEB-FIP are established separately, it should

be very careful when using them in some situations (see Chapter 4.3 for more

discussions about the selection of the ultimate creep coefficient value).

3. During the derivation process (Green integral transformation), the concrete is

assumed as continues uniformed medium. It is a simplified approach to the practical

situation. The practical situation is that the concrete in core is confined by stirrups

54

while the rest outside the stirrups is unconfined. As the concrete constitutive laws for

the two different concrete areas are different, it needs special judgment before an

analysis to assume one equivalent concrete constitutive law representing for the entire

cross section. An alternative approach is to make Green integral transformation to

the two concrete zones with different concrete constitutive laws separately. Then, a

new set of derivative equations would need to be set up.

4.

In this model, the creep of reinforcement or reinforcement relaxation has been

neglected. This is due to the facts that, first, for the normal reinforcement at room

temperature the reinforcement of creep or relaxation is much lower as compared with

concrete creep (less than 4.5% for high stress leveled (0.9 6y ) reinforcement

relaxation in 1000 hours to 50% creep for concrete during the same time). Second,

the development of creep or relaxation of reinforcement is much faster than that of

creep (Wang et al., 1985). Third, during most of sustained period the reinforcement

stress level in a slender column is not at high level until the column fails. Since low

level of stress develops low level of creep or relaxation (Wang et al., 1985), the creep

or relaxation of reinforcement could be neglected. As for the situation of using high

strength reinforcement and or sustained high stress level in reinforcement such as

situation in pre-stressed concrete, the relaxation of reinforcement might need to be

considered.

5.The Proposed analytical model experiences convergence difficulty when the lateral

displacement of a slender column becomes very large.

CHAPTER 4

TEST DATA VERIFICATION

4.1 Slender Column under Sustained Uni-axial Bending Loads (NSC, HSC)

4.1.1 Test Data from Goyal et al. (NSC)

Goyal et al. (1971) performed a total of 46 slender column specimens, 20 of which were

subjected uni-axial bending under sustained loads, while other specimens were short

term loaded. See Figure 4.1, Tables 4.1 & 4.2, for concrete column details, concrete

aggregate grading and ultimate loads information.

Figure 4.1 Reinforcement Details of Goyal et al. (1971)

The specimens were casted and cured at a temperature of 20±1°C with a relative

humidity of 4560% and tested at 28 days of age.

55

Table 4.1

Aggregate Grading of Goyal et al.'s Experiment (1971)

Table 4.2 Column Details and Ultimate Loads

Table 4-1 Column Detais and Ultimate Loads

56

Creep tests were also carried out in the same environmental conditions. The creep

test results are shown in Figure 4.2. Where, y = creep strain/ initial elastic strain, with a

maximum value of 2.4 at end of 5000 hours of sustained loading duration.

57

Figure 4.2 Variation of y with Time at Different Stress Levels (Goyal et al., 1971)

Specimens R, H & G are subjected to ui-axial sustained loading for 5000 Hours

(208.333 days) and failed under additional instant load after that. The eccentricity is 0.5

inch at top and bottom. From Table 4.1, the predicted short-term capacity for R is 7.5

kips, for G 12.45 kips and for H 11.92 kips. The constant sustained load for R equals 4.5

kips, for G 7.5 kips and for H 5.0 kips. Thus, the ratio of sustained load/short term load

capacity for R, 0.6; for G, 0.6 and for H, 0.42.

From the companion creep test (Figure 4.2), the ultimate creep coefficient can be

derived as:

Substitute t=208,

2.40 into Eq.(4.1):

vu=3.375

Figure 4.3a Deflection-time Curve of Column H

58

Figure 4.3b Deflection-time Curve of Column G

59

Figure 4.3c Deflection-time Curve of Column R

From Figures 4.3a, b & c, the results of analysis using ACI-209 Model with

vu=3.375, conform with the test data well. Except for deflection values of Column G at

5000 hours, the data of test are always larger than those of analysis. It might imply a

modified factor to compensate the differences between test and analysis of all columns.

4.1.2 Test Data from Drysdale et al. (NSC)

Drysdale et al. (1971) completed their experiments of sustained uni-axial and biaxial

loads on slender concrete columns in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of

Toronto. Of the test, eight specimens were subjected to sustained uni-axial bending loads.

See Section 4.2. for more information about the experimental program.

D-2-A is a specimen subjected to uni-axial sustained loading for 83 days until

failure. The eccentricity is 1-in at X axis. From Table 4-1, the short-term test capacity is

60

39.9 kips, the constant sustained load equals 30 kips. Thus, ratio of sustained load/load

capacity = 0.75

Per ACI-209, one has: vu=1.98, rsh=7.02x10e-4

Per CEB-FIP 90 Model: 0,

4 =3.10, εcs0=6.47x10e-4

Per creep test (see Section 4.2): vu=3.51

From Figures 4.4a & b, the results of analysis using ACI-209 92 Model with

vu

=3.62 agree with the data except the results of deflection curves at 80 days of loading.

Since the column fails at 83 days, the difference between test and analysis becomes larger

at 80 days of loading.

Figure 4.4a Deflection Results of D-2-A

Figure 4.4b Strain Diagrams of D-2-A (strain unit: 1x10 -4)

4.1.3 Test Data from Claeson et al. (HSC)

Claeson and Gylltoft (2000) performed 6 slender columns subjected to uni-axial bending

load. One of the specimens was made of HSC and subjected to sustained load. Figures

4.5 and 4.6 present the details of columns and test equipment. In Table 4.4, fc,cy1 and

fc,cube

refer to compressive strengths on compression tests of sizes 0150x300 mm and

150x150x150 mm, respectively and fc,prism fc,prism refers to compressive strength on compression

test of 200x200x800 specimen.

Deformed bars of 016 used as longitudinal reinforcement, were made of Swedish

Type Ks60s with yield strength 636 MPa, hardening strain 36%o, ultimate strength 721

MPa, ultimate strain 142%0, and modulus of elasticity 221 GPa. While those of 08 used

as stirrups, wree made of Swedish Type Ks40s with yield strength 466, hardening strain

62

22%o, ultimate strength 636 MPa, ultimate strain 87%o, and modulus of elasticity 207

GPa.

Figure 4.5 Details of Columns and Test Equipment in Claeson et al.'s Experiment

(Cleason et al., 2000) (Unit: mm)

Plastic sheeting was used to covere the columns in the first day after pouring. Then the

molds were removed and the columns were cured under the lab room conditions

(18±2°C) and RH=30% for next 27 days. During sustained loading, the environment

conditions were unchanged.

Figure 4.6 Details of Reinforcement in Claeson et al.'s Experiment

Per CEB-FIP 90: 00=1.90

Per ACI-209: vu=2.06

Table 4.3

Composite of Concrete Mixtures, kg/m3 (Claeson et al., 2000)

63

Table 4.4 Hardened Concrete Properties at Different ages for Each Concrete Strength

(Claeson et al., 2000)

Since the specimens have been cured for just one day, the creep would be larger

than those of the specimens with normal curing process, which are 3 days of steamed

curing or 7 days of moist curing. It is difficult to make this adjustment of the ultimate

creep coefficient values calculated from ACT or CEB-FIP. From Figure 4.7, it shows,

Except the at 23 days of loading, the results of analysis with v,, =2.50 match with the data

of test specimen H201 quite well.

64

Figure 4.7 Deflection Results of H201

4.2 Slender Columns Under Sustained Biaxial Bending Loads

4.2.1 Test Specimens

Drysdale et al. (1971) performed an experimental program of sustained biaxial load on

slender concrete columns. There were totally 58 test specimens being tested in this

program. All specimens were the same in column dimension, reinforcing, concrete

strength design, pouring and curing conditions. See Figure 4.8 for the information of test

column dimension and reinforcing.

The following factors were influenced in design of the specimens:

1.Make the scale as large as possible to reduce the size effects.

2.Columns were pinned loaded at both ends with the same eccentricities to provide a

simple and reliable test method.

65

3.

High slenderness ratio was chosen to enlarge creep effects to the total column

deformations.

4.

A square cross section with symmetric reinforcing was chosen to make orientation of

eccentricity selection as less as possible.

Concrete: A standardized mix for a 28 days compressive strength of 4000 psi was

used for all. The mix proportions by weight were: Portland Cement Type 1-14%, Water-

9.1%, Sand-46.6%, 3/8" in. crushed limestone-30.8%. A slump of 2-3 in. was obtained.

All tests were loaded at 28 days age of concrete. Instant load tests were completed the

same day while sustained load specimens were subjected under load and along with

control prisms and cylinders in a temperature (75±1°F) and humidity (50±2%) controlled

tent. Standard 6-in, diameter by 12-in, high cylinders and 5-in. by 5-in. by10-in. prisms

were used to determine the concrete stressstrain relationship.

For shrinkage measurement, 16-in, long plain concrete prisms, with 5-in. by 5-in.

cross sections containing identical reinforcement, were cast with each group. For creep

in concrete, some 32-in, long creep prisms with 5-in, square cross sections were cast with

some of the early groups of columns. At age of 28 days, the prisms were subjected under

concentric axial load in the same temperature and humidity-controlled tent. Figure 4.9

shows creep test results of this experiment.

Per both ACI and CEB-FIP, the linear creep models are only applied to concrete

stress 0.4f. It is noticed that, when =0.41 at 200 days after loading, the creep

f,

strain 1150x10-6. Applying Eq. (4.1), one has vu=3.51.

66

Figure 4.8

Column Details of Specimens in Drysdale et al.'s Experiment (Dysdale,

1967)

4.2.2 Test procedure and Equipment

1. Loading Sequences:

The following loading sequences were designed for the experimental tests.

(1)

Short term loading to failure at concrete age of 28 days;

(2)

Constant sustained loading from 28 days of age to failure;

67

(3) For those in (2) not failed for 2 years, unloaded sustained loads and replaced instant

loading until failure.

Figure 4.9 Creep Test Results from Drysdale et al.'s Experiment (Drysdale, 1967)

All tests were performed in identical pairs in order to guaranty the quality of test

data. The columns are classified by Test series according to the end eccentricities, e.

Series A (data ruined) and B, using e=1.00 in at 45 degree from X axis;

Series C, using e=1.00 in at 22.5 degree from X axis;

Series D, using e=1.00 in along X axis;

Series E, using e=1.50 in at 22.5 degree from X axis;

Series F, using e=0.50 in at 22.5 degree from X axis;

See Table 4.2 for the summary of test and analysis results for column test series.

68

2.Strain Measurement:

Demec mechanical gage (8 in. gage length) points were attached on all sides at

five points spaced over the column length. The accuracy of the Demec mechanical strain

indicator is 1x10e-5 in/in.

3.Deflection Measurement:

A deflection measurement instrument was used with triangulation to determine

the position at various levels.

4. Test Equipment:

Short-term load test: 1200 kip capacity, hydraulically operated Baldwin Testing

Machine. Sustained load test: A specially designed loading platform was used.

Figure 4.10a Deflection Results of B-2-A

4.2.3 Comparison of Test Results with Numerical Analysis

1. Test of Specimen B-2-A:

69

Figure 4.10b

Strain Diagrams of B-2-A (strain unit: 1x10

-4)

Column B-2-A was a specimen subjected to biaxial sustained loading for 730

days and failed under an additional instant load. The eccentricity is 1-in at 45 degree

from X-axis. From Table 4.2, the predicted short-term capacity is 36.2 kips, the constant

sustained load equals 19.218.2 kips.

70

Although ACI-209-92R model is used to perform the sustained load analysis, it is

still very important to choose a proper ultimate creep coefficient for the computer

analysis program.

Using all original input data for ACI-209-92R Model, one has:

Per CEB-FIP 90 Model: o0=3.62, εcs0=6.47x10e-4.

Per creep test: vu=3.51

From Figures 4.10a and b, the analysis using ACI-209 Model with vu=3.51 does

not agree with test well when time of loading is over 185 days of loading.

Test of Specimen B-3-B:

Column B-3-B was a specimen subjected to biaxial sustained loading for 631 days

and failed under an additional instant load. The eccentricity is 1-in at 45 degree from X

axis. From Table 4.2, the predicted short-term capacity is 36.8 kips, the constant

sustained load equals 23 kips. Thus, ratio of sustained load/load capacity = 0.625.

Per ACI-209: vu=1.98, rsh=7.02x10e-4;

Per CEB-FIP 90 Model: Øo=3.33, εcso=6.47x10e-4

Per creep test: 17,

4

=3.51

From Figure 4.11 the results of analysis using ACI-209-92R Model with v3.51

agrees with those data of test well.

71

Figure 4.11 Strain Diagrams of B-3-B (strain unit: 1x10 -4)

Figures 4.12 and 4.13 display the maximum concrete elastic strain history at mid-

column cross section. The test points in the figures are obtained from the recorded

concrete total strains minus the nominal creep strain values recorded from the companion

creep tests. The analysis in both figures do not agree with tests as well as other

comparisons as shown above, since the creep values are more complicated than what they

appear.

Figure 4.12 Concrete Maximum Elastic Strain History of B-2-A

Figure 4.13 Concrete Maximum Elastic Strain History of B-3-B

According to Figures 4.12 and 4.13, both tests and analysis results show that the

maximum concrete elastic compressive strain at mid-column cross sections normally

experiences a drop process due to the stress redistribution to longitudinal reinforcement

73

during the sustained loading period. There is a possibility that the elastic strain becomes

increased (Figure 4.13) while the total deflection keeps increasing.

4.3 Discussions of Selection of Ultimate Creep Coefficient Values

The most important step for an analysis to become successful is to get the right ultimate

creep coefficient value, vu of ACI 209-92R Models or the notional creep coefficient

value, Ø0 of CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. They are very critical and sensitive to the

theoretical results. In those data verification examples, the test data from the companion

creep tests are used for the analysis. Those values are normally close to the numbers

from CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 than ACI 209-92R Models. It shows the analysis

results due to using the ultimate Creep Coefficients from the experiments are satisfied.

The reasons are probably due to:

1. The scales of the experimental specimens are relatively smaller than those used in

practical engineering projects. For concrete creep, the smaller the specimen

dimension is, the larger the creep would happen. It seems that the ACI specifications

are established from the specimens tested with relatively larger scale, thus the

ultimate coefficients calculated per ACI-129 92R Model are comparatively smaller.

In CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, the scales of specimens tested are smaller, thus the

dimension effects are larger. The creep coefficients per CEB-FIP are more suitable

for small-scale test specimens. Since the specimens in those slender RC column tests

are in small scale. Thus, CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 describes the creep behaviors

for those test specimens better than ACI 209-92R Models.

74

2. Concrete creep is a very complicated phenomenon. The current theories are still not

sophisticated enough to describe the comprehensive picture of the phenomenon. In

ACI-129-92R models, the effects of the concrete strengths have not been included;

the calculation for creep under the high concrete stress is not addressed either, which

are both included in CEB-FIP 90. On the other hand, CEB-FIP 90 has failed to

include effects of concrete slump and air content that is considered by the ACI-129

92R, which might have an impact on the creep development.

CHAPTER 5

DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Design Examples: Comparison with Current ACI Design Codes

The purpose of this part is to analyze examples and compare with the current ACI

building codes. Under uni-axial bending loads, the effects of slenderness, eccentricities,

reinforcement ratio and concrete strength will be discussed. Under biaxial bending loads,

the effects of the eccentricity orientation and the influence of length over width ratio of

cross section will also be studied. To capture typical engineering situations, the value of

the ultimate creep coefficient 1/, is assumed to equal to 2.0 and the sustained duration is

selected as 30,455 days (83 years). The analysis model is pinned-ended and equally

eccentrical at column top and bottom.

5.1.1 Ultimate Strength of Slender Concrete Column under Uni-axial Bending

Loads

Figures 5.1, and 5.2 show the column geometric dimension, material information and P-

M strength interaction diagram of a cross section.

1. Effects of slenderness

There are five theoretical specimens included in this group. Keep the same cross

sectional dimensions, longitudinal reinforcement, and concrete strength for all specimens.

At strength boundary of M-P diagram, select five different points on the diagram. Let

δb=2 for all specimens.

75

Figure 5.1 Details of Columns in Design Examples

76

Figure 5.2 Short Column P-M Interaction Diagram

77

Figure 5.3 shows the results of both computer analysis and ACI-318 99 Building

Code. The results show that if columns are relatively shorter, the ultimate strengths

under sustained load calculated per ACI code are closer to those from the present

computer analysis.

2. Effects of eccentricity

Five other theoretical specimens are included in this group. Keep the same

column length, the cross sectional dimensions, longitudinal reinforcement, and concrete

strength for all specimens. Select five different (M, P) strength points in the M-P

diagram. Thus, all specimens have different loads and eccentricities at the ends of each

member.

Figure 5.3

Effects of Slenderness

Fig. 5.4 displays the results of analysis from the effects due to eccentricity. It

shows that the larger the eccentrically loaded columns is, the less the buckling strength

78

can be obtained, as per ACI code. This means that the creep influences more to the

column loaded with larger eccentricites.

Figure 5.4 Effects of Eccentricities

3. Effects of reinforcement ratio

Five theoretical specimens are included in this group. Keep the same length of

column, the end eccentricities, the cross sectional dimensions, and concrete strength for

all specimens. Select different longitudinal reinforcement ratio for each member.

Figure 5.5 displays the present computer analysis results. It shows that, the lower

the longitudinal reinforcement ratios in the columns is, the less buckling strength can be

obtained. The results of strength-decreasing rate vs. reinforcement ratio from present

analysis are larger than the design method as per ACI building code. This could be

explained as: on one hand per ACI building code, when the reinforcement is low enough,

79

the influence of steel would be neglected by using the concrete stiffness only. On another

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