CATHODIC PROTECTION CATHODIC PROTECTION CATHODIC PROTECTION CATHODIC PROTECTION

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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CLEARLY THE BEST
PROTECTION FOR YOUR
INVESTMENT




CATHODIC PROTECTION
CATHODIC PROTECTIONCATHODIC PROTECTION
CATHODIC PROTECTION


OF REINFORCED CONCRETEOF REINFORCED CONCRETEOF REINFORCED CONCRETEOF REINFORCED CONCRETE
STRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURES



AN OVERVIEWAN OVERVIEWAN OVERVIEWAN OVERVIEW





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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction

Cathodic protection is applied to reinforced concrete structures to either prevent or halt the
problem of corrosion of the reinforcement.

Concrete is a porous material, which readily
absorbs contaminants from the surrounding
environment. The contaminants, which lead to
corrosion of the reinforcement are water,
Oxygen and Chlorides in the form of salts.

The water and oxygen in the presence of the
chlorides, react with the iron to create
corrosion products on the surface of the
reinforcing steel. The growth in volume of
these corrosion products exerts tensile
stresses on the concrete, which eventually
cause the concrete cover to crack,
delaminate and become detached from the
structure (spall).


The inevitable end result of all rebar corrosion is The inevitable end result of all rebar corrosion is The inevitable end result of all rebar corrosion is The inevitable end result of all rebar corrosion is
concrete damage.concrete damage.concrete damage.concrete damage.

The corrosion reaction of reinforcement is catalysed by the chloride ions although these take no
part in the reaction itself. The potential differences between different parts of the reinforcement
cage cause electrons to be released from the most negative areas. This in turn creates positive
areas, i.e. ferrous ions, which dissolve into the pore solution. The electrons that were released are
consumed by electrolysing water and oxygen to make hydroxide ions.

The areas where ferrous ions are created are known as anodes or corrosion sites. The areas
where electrons are released to form hydroxyl ions are called cathodes, i.e. non-corroding sites.
This is shown pictorially as below:









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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Cathodic ProtectionCathodic ProtectionCathodic ProtectionCathodic Protection

Cathodic protection is a technique dating back to the nineteenth century where it was used on
copper clad sailing ships. Later it spread to be applied to pipelines, tanks, jetties and all manner of
steel structures either buried in soils or immersed in waters.

The technique was first applied to airborne concrete structures in1973 in California. Since then it
has been applied to over a million square metres of concrete around the world.

The typical range of structures to which it has been applied is shown pictorially below.

BRIDGESBRIDGESBRIDGESBRIDGES CULVERTSCULVERTSCULVERTSCULVERTS DOCKSDOCKSDOCKSDOCKS REFINERIESREFINERIESREFINERIESREFINERIES POWER STATIONSPOWER STATIONSPOWER STATIONSPOWER STATIONS



PIPELINESPIPELINESPIPELINESPIPELINES POWER LINESPOWER LINESPOWER LINESPOWER LINES MARINASMARINASMARINASMARINAS BUILDINGSBUILDINGSBUILDINGSBUILDINGS VILLASVILLASVILLASVILLAS



In cathodic protection a new anode material is introduced into the concrete, which is artificially
made more negative than any part of the reinforcement. This highly negative material releases it’s
excess electrons. These released electrons are spread to all areas of reinforcement where they
electrolyse water and oxygen to make hydroxide ions. The anodic reaction on the new anode
reverses this process to convert hydroxide ions back into water and oxygen. This is shown below.





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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Practical ApplicationsPractical ApplicationsPractical ApplicationsPractical Applications

Cathodic protection is applied under two distinctly different situations, i.e. where corrosion has
actually already occurred and in new structures to prevent it from starting.

The case of existing deteriorated conditions is typically addressed as shown below.



Protection for existing corroding structures can either be by applying anode mesh and
encapsulating it in an exterior overlay or by cutting saw slots into the concrete and grouting in a
ribbon mesh.

The case where CP is applied to stop corrosion from even starting is more properly known as
cathodic prevention and this has a common approach as shown below.


Cathodic prevention is best achieved by use of Ti/MMO ribbon mesh mounted on the
reinforcement using non-metallic spacers and secured by cable ties.

This technology is endorsed by a wide range of International bodies as under.

International Bodies Endorsing Cathodic Protection
International Bodies Endorsing Cathodic ProtectionInternational Bodies Endorsing Cathodic Protection
International Bodies Endorsing Cathodic Protection




European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
British Standards Institute (BS)
Concrete Society, UK
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
Federal Highway Authority (FHWA)
American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


A typical endorsement from such bodies is that from National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE) who state:

“Cathodic protection is the only means to control corrosion on steel reinforced concrete structures
that have chloride contaminated concrete.”

The TechnologyThe TechnologyThe TechnologyThe Technology

The key component of any cathodic protection system is the anode material as this determines the
lifetime of the applied system.

Concrete structures are designed with typical lifetimes ranging from 25 to 120 years. Thus it is
essential for the installed anodes to match this lifetime requirement without any need for
replacement, which would be extremely expensive and in many cases impossible.

For this reason we promote the use of the Elgard range of anode materials manufactured by
Eltech/DeNora as these have proven their capabilities even in the harshest environment for over
30 years.

ElgardElgardElgardElgard
TMTMTMTM
Anodes Anodes Anodes Anodes –––– The FactsThe FactsThe FactsThe Facts

Using patented technology, Elgard
TM
anodes have
been proven to prevent rebar corrosion and they
are the market leader in this field. Manufactured
from an expanded titanium substrate, onto which is
applied a mixed metal oxide coating, the anode
material is lightweight and easy to install.
Key FeaturesKey FeaturesKey FeaturesKey Features



• Design life in excess of the concrete
structure.
• Proven track record.
• Mesh and mesh ribbon formats to
suit all applications.
• Suitable for both new build and repair
applications.
Comparison of Cathodic Protection with Other TechniquesComparison of Cathodic Protection with Other TechniquesComparison of Cathodic Protection with Other TechniquesComparison of Cathodic Protection with Other Techniques

TechnologyTechnologyTechnologyTechnology
EffectiveEffectiveEffectiveEffective
LifeLifeLifeLife
CommentsCommentsCommentsComments
Cathodic Protection
Cathodic ProtectionCathodic Protection
Cathodic Protection


>100 Years Permanent protection. Proven track record.
Longest effective life.
Stainless Steel Bars
Stainless Steel BarsStainless Steel Bars
Stainless Steel Bars


Not known Expensive option. Lifetime unproven. Possible
issues with galvanic couples. Not suitable for hot
marine environments.
Coated Reinforcement
Coated ReinforcementCoated Reinforcement
Coated Reinforcement


Highly
variable
Very sensitive to contractor handling. There is
inevitably coating damage during the fabrication
and concrete pouring.
Chemical Inhibitors
Chemical InhibitorsChemical Inhibitors
Chemical Inhibitors


Highly
variable
Limited “active” life. Conflicting data as to
effectiveness.
Patch Repair
Patch RepairPatch Repair
Patch Repair


<5 to 10
Years
Incipient anode effect renders corrosion
inevitable in adjacent parts of the structure






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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


CASE HISTORY OF APPLYING CATHODIC PROTECTION TO NEW REINFORCED CONCRETE CASE HISTORY OF APPLYING CATHODIC PROTECTION TO NEW REINFORCED CONCRETE CASE HISTORY OF APPLYING CATHODIC PROTECTION TO NEW REINFORCED CONCRETE CASE HISTORY OF APPLYING CATHODIC PROTECTION TO NEW REINFORCED CONCRETE
COOLING WATER STRUCTURES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
COOLING WATER STRUCTURES IN THE MIDDLE EASTCOOLING WATER STRUCTURES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
COOLING WATER STRUCTURES IN THE MIDDLE EAST




Receiving BasinReceiving BasinReceiving BasinReceiving Basin


PPPPipe Bridgeipe Bridgeipe Bridgeipe Bridge

Discharge ChannelDischarge ChannelDischarge ChannelDischarge Channel

Finished Project
Finished ProjectFinished Project
Finished Project






Installation Details
Installation DetailsInstallation Details
Installation Details





















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CATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURESCATHODIC PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


Cathodic Protection Co. Limited have a license agreement with Eltech Systems Corporation for the
distribution of their ELGARD range of Mixed Metal Oxide anodes.
The range includes anodes for the protection of steel reinforced concrete structures including




Mesh and Ribbon Mesh Anodes for concrete structures (NACE standard test TM0294-
2001 exceeds 75 years of operation at 110mA/m
2
)




Tubular Mesh discrete anodes for protection of piers, wharfs and other difficult to protect
steel reinforced concrete structures.





Ribbon mesh anodes are supplied in 5 sizes / ratings as follows, specific data sheets are available
at
www.cathodic.co.uk

Product Product Product Product

Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions

Current rating Current rating Current rating Current rating @ @ @ @
110mA/m
110mA/m110mA/m
110mA/m
2
2 2
2
(10mA/ft
(10mA/ft(10mA/ft
(10mA/ft
2
22
2
)
))
)



Coil Width Coil Width Coil Width Coil Width

Coil Coil Coil Coil
Length
Length Length
Length

85 Ribbon
Mesh

2.5 x 4.6 x 0.6mm
(0.10"x0.18"x0.025")

2.8mA/m

(0.85mA/ft)

10mm
(0.4")

76m

(250 ft)

100 Ribbon
Mesh

2.5 x 4.6 x 0.6mm
(0.10"x0.18"x0.025")

3.5mA/m (1.05mA/ft)

13mm
(0.5")

76m

(250 ft)

150 Ribbon
Mesh

2.5 x 4.6 x 0.6mm
(0.10"x0.18"x0.025")

5.28mA/m

(1.61mA/ft)

19mm
(0.75")

76m

(250 ft)

170 Ribbon
Mesh

2.5 x 4.6 x 0.6mm
(0.10"x0.18"x0.025")

5.3mA/m

(1.62mA/ft)

20mm
(0.8")

76m

(250 ft)

200 Ribbon
Mesh

2.5 x 4.6 x 0.6mm
(0.10"x0.18"x0.025")

7.0mA/m

(2.13mA/ft)

25mm
(0.8")

76m

(250 ft)

Expanded mesh anodes are supplied in 3 sizes / ratings as follows, specific data sheets are
available for download on the data sheets page.

Product Product Product Product

Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions Diamond Dimensions

Current rating Current rating Current rating Current rating @ @ @ @
110mA/m110mA/m110mA/m110mA/m
2 2 2 2
(10mA/ft(10mA/ft(10mA/ft(10mA/ft
2222
))))

Roll Roll Roll Roll
Width Width Width Width

Roll Roll Roll Roll

Length Length Length Length

150 Anode
Mesh

34 x 76 x 0.64mm
(1.33"x3.0"x0.025")

18.8mA/m
2

(1.71mA/ft
2
)

1.22m
(4ft)

76m

(250 ft)

210 Anode
Mesh

34 x 76 x 0.89mm
(1.33"x3.0"x0.035")

24.4mA/m
2

(2.22mA/ft
2
)

1.22m
(4ft)

76m

(250 ft)

300 Anode
Mesh

25 x 51 x 0.89mm
(0.923"x2.0"x0.035")

37.8mA/m
2

(3.44mA/ft
2
)

1.22m
(4ft)

76m

(250 ft)

Cathodic Protection Co Ltd have supplied and installed these anode systems on projects in
Australia, UK, USA, Europe, Hong Kong and throughout the Middle East. We can offer in house
design expertise to enable the most cost effective and technically suitable package for your
project.
In-Built Protection of Reinforced Concrete
Structures for Their Entire Working Lifetime

Cathodic Protection Co. Limited
Venture Way
Grantham
Lincolnshire
NG31 7XS
United Kingdom
Tel: + 44 (0)1476 590666
Fax: + 44 (0)1476 570605
Email: cpc@cathodic.co.uk
Cathodic Protection Co. Limited
Electra House
Crewe Business Park
Crewe
Cheshire
CW1 6GL
United Kingdom
Tel: + 44 (0)1270 500440
Cathodic Protection Co. Limited
Abu Dhabi Branch Office
P.O. Box 52937
Abu Dhabi
United Arab Emirates
Tel: + 971 2 671 6895
Fax: + 971 2 674 2342
Email: cathodic@emirates.net.ae
HEAD OFFICEUK BRANCH OFFICEABU DHABI OFFICE
www.cathodic.co.uk
accreditations
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