WebSphere Interview Questions

Arya MirServers

Feb 10, 2012 (5 years and 4 months ago)

3,863 views

WebSphere Application Server provides the environment to run your Web-enabled e-business applications. An application server functions as Web middleware or a middle tier in a three-tier e-business environment. The first tier is the HTTP server that handles requests from the browser client. The third tier is the business database (for example, DB2 UDB for iSeries) and the business logic (for example, traditional business applications, such as order processing). The middle tier is WebSphere Application Server, which provides a framework for a consistent and architected link between the HTTP requests and the business data and logic.


What is WAS




Provides the infrastructure for running applications that run your business.



Common environment and programming model for your applications.


Platform for developing and Deploying web services and SOA based apps



Secure, Scalable, relia
ble transaction engine for ERP



IBM WebSphere is architected to enable

you to build business
-
critical
applications
for the Web



WebSphere includes a wide range of products that help you develop and serve
Web applications.



They are designed to make it e
asier for clients to build, deploy, and manage
dynamic Web sites more

productively



WAS implements J2EE specification


WebSphere Application Server provides the environment to run your

Web
-
enabled e
-
business applications. An application server functions

as
Web

middleware
or a middle
tier in a three
-
tier e
-
business environment. The first tier

is the HTTP server that
handles requests from the browser client. The third tier is

the business database (for
example, DB2 UDB for iSeries) and the business

logic (
for example, traditional
business applications, such as order processing).

The middle tier is WebSphere
Application Server, which provides a framework for

a consistent and architected link
between the HTTP requests and the business

data and logic.






Wi
th the Base and Express packages, you are limit
ed to single application server
environments. The Network Deployment package allows you to extend this

environment to include multiple application servers that are administered from a

single point of control a
nd can be clustered to provide scalability and high

availability
environments
.








The typical application flow is as follows:

1. A Web client requests a URL in the browser (input page).

2. The request is routed to the Web server over the Internet.

3.
The Web server immediately passes the request to the Web server plug
-
in.

All requests go to the Web server plug
-
in first.

4. The Web server plug
-
in examines the URL, verifies the list of host name

aliases from which it will accept traffic based on the virt
ual host information,

and chooses a server to handle the request.

5. A stream is created. A stream is a connection to the Web container. It is

possible to maintain a connection (stream) over a number of requests. The

Web container receives the request and,

based on the URL, dispatches it to

the proper servlet.

6. If the servlet class is not loaded, the dynamic class loader loads the servlet

(servlet
init()
, then
doGet()
or
doPost()
).

7. JNDI is used for lookup of either datasources or EJBs required by the s
ervlet.

8. Depending upon whether a datasource is specified or an EJB is requested,

the JNDI directs the servlet:



To the corresponding database and gets a connection from its connection

pool in the case of a data source.



To the corresponding EJB contai
ner, which then instantiates the EJB when

an EJB is requested.

9. If the EJB request involves an SQL transaction, it goes back to the JNDI to

look up the datasource.

10.The SQL statement is executed and the retrieved data is sent back either to

the servlet

or to the EJB.

11.Data beans are created and handed off to JSPs in the case of EJBs.

12.The servlet sends data to JSPs.

13.The JSP generates the HTML that is sent back through the plug
-
in to the Web

server.

14.The Web server sends the output page (output
HTML) to the browser.



Functionality of WAS


WebSphere Application Server supports asy
nchronous messaging through the
use
of a JMS provider and its related messaging system.(JMS 1.1 Messaging
Provider)


WebSphere Application Server provides a
uthentication

and authorization
capabilities to secure administrative functions and applications, using LDAP


WebSphere Application Server works with a W
eb server (such as the IBM HTTP
Server) to route requests from browsers to the applications that run in

WebSphere Ap
plication Server. Web server plug
-
ins are provided for
installation

with supported Web browsers. The plug
-
ins direct requests to the
appropriate

application server and perform workload balancing among servers
in a cluster.


Web services enable businesses t
o connect applications to other business
applications, deliver business functions to a broader set of clients and
partners, interact with marketplaces more efficiently, and create new
business models dynamically.


Delivers a high performance and extremely
scalable transaction engine for
dynamic e
-
business applications


Packaging


WebSphere Application Server is available in multiple packaging options.


WebSphere Application Server
-

Express V6.0




Single Server environment.(No Clustering or multi server ma
nagement)



J2EE 1.4 support


Medium
-
sized business


Contains Rational Web Developer application tool



Doesn’t handle EJB and JCA



Limited to 2 CPU’s


WebSphere Application Server V6.1 (Base)



Slightly differs in packaging and licensing



Contains Appli
cation Server toolkit



Includes a trial version of Rational Application Developer


Unlimited CPU’s


WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V6



Extends Base version


Clustering capabilities


Edge Components which provide high performance and avai
lability (Caching Proxy
and Load Balancer)


HA for distributed configurations


Large Enterprise applications


Scalability, Availability and Performance


Web Server plug
-
in supports weighted WLM





All V6 application servers have the same core and base fun
ctionality


WebSphere Application Server
-

Express V6 node can be upgraded to a WebSphere
Application Server V6 node(.Can be done without any software upgrades .Only a
paper license upgrade is required)


WebSphere Application Server
-

Express V6 and WebSphe
re Application Server V6
node can be federated into a WebSphere Application Server
-

Network Deployment
V6 cell (Can be done without any software upgrades .Only a paper license upgrade is
required)



Differences b/n WAS Version


WAS 5: J2EE 1.2/1.3 support


JDK 1.3 support


Web Services based on Apache engine




WAS 6.0: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support


JDK 1.4 support (JDK 1.4.2)


Web Services based on J2EE 1.4


Hig
h Availability Manager


Java Based Messaging Engine


EJB 2.1, JMS 1.1, JCA 1.5, Servlet 2.4, and JSP 2.0


Supports Java Server Faces (JSF)


Creates Archive of the existing WAS conf
igurations and the archive can
be


used to create new configurations.


Profiles and all profiles use same WebSphere binaries(Less storage)


Node groups


Service integr
ation functionality provides both message
-
oriented and
service


Oriented applications


WAS 6.1: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support


JDK 5.0 support


JSF
-
a framework for Web applications



Integrated Console


Security changes



Secure and Scalable runtime


Edge Components


Using Edge components can reduce Web server congestion, increase content
availability, and improve Web server performance.
As the name indicates, Edge
components usually run on machines that are close (in a network configuration
sense) to the boundary between an enterpri
se’s intranet and the Internet.


Web container


A Web container, which processes HTTP req
uests, servlets, an
d JavaServer
Pages
(JSPs)




Web container transport chains:

Requests are directed to the Web container using the Web container inbound
transport chain. The chain consists of a TCP inbound channel that provides the
connection to the network, an HTTP inbou
nd channel that serves HTTP 1.0 and 1.1
requests, and a Web container channel over which requests for servlets and JSPs are
sent to the Web container for processing




Servlet processing

When handling servlets, the Web container creates a request object an
d a response
object, then invokes the servlet service method. The Web container invokes the
servlet’s destroy method when appropriate and unloads the servlet, after which the
JVM performs garbage collection.




HTML and other static content processing

Requ
ests for HTML and other static content that are directed to the Web container
are served by the Web container inbound chain. However, in most cases, using an
external Web server and Web server plug
-
in as a front
-
end to a Web container is
more appropriate f
or a production environment.

_


Session management

Support is provided for the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession interface as described in
the Servlet application program interface (API) specification.

_



Web services engine

Web services are provided as a
set of APIs in cooperation with the J2EE applications.
Web services engines are provided to support Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).


EJB Container



The Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container provides all the runtime services that are
needed to deploy
and manage enterprise beans. It is a server process that handles
requests for both session and entity beans.



The enterprise beans, packaged in EJB modules, installed in an application server
do not communicate directly with the server. Instead, the EJB c
ontainer provides an
interface between the enterprise beans and the server. Together, the container and
the server provide the enterprise bean runtime environment.



The container provides many low
-
level services, including threading and
transaction suppor
t. From an administrative viewpoint, the container manages data
storage and retrieval for the contained enterprise beans. A single container can host
more than o
ne EJB Java archive (JAR) file.


WAS Services

J2EE Connector Architecture services

Transaction

service

Dynamic cache service

Message listener service

Object Request Broker service

Administrative service (Java Management Extensions)

Diagnostic trace service

Debugging service

Name service (Java Naming Directory Interface)

Performance Monitoring I
nterface service

Security service (JAAS and Java 2 security)

Service Integration Bus service

The Web server:

A Web server handles the HTTP protocol. When the Web server receives an HTTP
request, it responds with an HTTP response, such as sending back an
HTML page. To
process a request, a Web server may respond with a static HTML page or image,
send a redirect, or delegate the dynamic response generation to some other program
such as CGI scripts, JSPs (JavaServer Pages), servlets, ASPs (Active Server Pages
),
server
-
side JavaScripts, or some other server
-
side technology. Whatever their
purpose, such server
-
side programs generate a response, most often in HTML, for
viewing in a Web browser.

Understand that a Web server's delegation model is fairly simple. Wh
en a request
comes into the Web server, the Web server simply passes the request to the
program best able to handle it. The Web server doesn't provide any functionality
beyond simply providing an environment in which the server
-
side program can
execute and

pass back the generated responses. The server
-
side program usually
provides for itself such functions as transaction processing, database connectivity,
and messaging.

While a Web server may not itself support transactions or database connection
pooling,
it may employ various strategies for fault tolerance and scalability such as
load balancing, caching, and clustering

features oftentimes erroneously assigned as
features reserved only for application servers.

Eg: Apache HTTP Server, Sun ONE Web Server, iP
lanet Web Server

The application server:

As for the application server, according to our definition, an application server
exposes business logic to client applications through various protocols, possibly
including HTTP. While a Web server mainly deals w
ith sending HTML for display in a
Web browser, an application server provides access to business logic for use by client
application programs. The application program can use this logic just as it would call
a method on an object (or a function in the proc
edural world).

Such application server clients can include GUIs (graphical user interface) running on
a PC, a Web server, or even other application servers. The information traveling back
and forth between an application server and its client is not restr
icted to simple
display markup. Instead, the information is program logic. Since the logic takes the
form of data and method calls and not static HTML, the client can employ the
exposed business logic however it wants.

In most cases, the server exposes th
is business logic through a component API, such
as the EJB (Enterprise JavaBean) component model found on J2EE (Java 2 Platform,
Enterprise Edition) application servers. Moreover, the application server manages its
own resources. Such gate
-
keeping duties i
nclude security, transaction processing,
resource pooling, and messaging.

Like a Web server, an application server may also employ various scalability and
fault
-
tolerance techniques.

Difference between AppServer and a Web server

:

(1) Webserver serves pa
ges for viewing in web browser, application server provides
exposes businness logic for client applications through various protocols


(2) Webserver exclusively handles http requests.application server serves bussiness
logic to application programs through

any number of protocols.


(3) Webserver delegation model is fairly simple,when the request comes into the
webserver,it simply passes the request to the program best able to handle it(Server
side program). It may not support transactions and database conne
ction pooling.


(4) Application server is more capable of dynamic behaviour than webserver. We can
also configure application server to work as a webserver.Simply applic! ation server
is a superset of webserver.



In
J2EE application

modules are packaged a
s EAR, JAR and WAR based on their
functionality .
These files are simply zipped files using
java

jar tool. These files are
created for different purposes.

.jar files:


JAR files (
J
ava
AR
chive) allows aggregating many files into one, it is usually used to
ho
ld Java classes in a library. i.e. Math.jar These files are with the .jar extension.
The .jar files contain the libraries, resources and accessories files like property files.

.war files:


WAR files (
W
eb
A
pplication a
R
chive) stores XML, java classes, and
JavaServer pages
for Web Application purposes. These files are with the .war extension. The war file
contains the web application that can be deployed on the any servlet/
jsp

container.
The .war file contains jsp, html,
javascript

and other files for necess
ary for the
development of web applications.

.ear files:


EAR files (
E
nterprise
AR
chive) combines JAR and WAR files to make a combined
archive for Enterprise Applications. The .ear file contains the
EJB

modules of the
applications
















1. R
oles & Responsibilities

2. Explain your work in your previous environment (Your script)

3. What is wsadmin / jacl scripting



WSADMIN is a scripting interface (or command
-
line interface) into
WebSphere Application Server that permits the automa
tion of many different tasks
that we can do using a (web interface) or graphical user admin console.




JACL scripting is the scripting language that is supported by the
WebSphere Application Server to administer or write any custom
-
based task.


What are t
he different wsadmin objects.



AdminConfig



AdminControl



AdminApp



AdminTask



Help


How do you invoke wsadmin command



Go to the appropriate <profile_home> and type wsdmin.


How do you execute a jacl script



>wsadmin
-
f myScript.jacl


What did you
use wsadmin / jacl scripting for.


4. Explain



Session affinity:



Most servers use the term "Session Affinity" to indicate that within a
cluster of servers, requests from the same client
always

get routed back to the same
server. (or) In a cluste
red environment, any HTTP requests associated with an HTTP
session must be routed to the same Web application in the same JVM.



Session Persistance:



You use session persistence to permanently store data from an HTTP
session object to enable failover a
nd load balancing across a cluster of WebSphere
Applicaiton Servers.





Sessiontracking:



Session tracking enables you to track a user's progress over multiple
servlets or HTML pages, which, by nature, are stateless.


How do you set session time out

:



You can specify an interval of time after which HTTP sessions expire.




click Servers > Application servers > server_name > Web container
settings > Sessi
on management > Session Timeout



What are the different levels at which session timeout can be
set



application level, web module level, server level


5. How do you upgrade WAS



GUI Upgrade


Silent Upgrade

Logs files and their paths for both



6. Back Ups


How do you take back ups in WAS



backupConfig.sh [filename]
-
nostop


What is th
e out put file



WebSphereConfig_yyyy
-
mm
-
dd.zip


How do you restore back ups



restoreConfig.sh <filename.zip>
-
nostop



What is the Backup policy in your previous company



Incremental Backups every week.



7. Explain profiles and what is the equiva
lent command in WAS 5.x



In WAS 5.x
----
> wsInstance.sh
-
name instanceName
-
path
instanceLoacation
-
host hostName
-
create | delete


8. What are the different kinds of sync operations



1. Automatic synchronization.



2. Manual synchronization.



3.
Startup synchronization.


How do you disable auto sync



System Administration > nodeagent > file synchronization service >
Uncheck
automatic synchronization.


What is the default interval for auto sync



60 seconds.


9
. What are the different UserRo
les in WAS



1. Monitor

2. Operator

3.

Configurator

4. Administrator


10. Explain JNDI in WAS




Each application server hosts a name service that provides a Java
Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) name space. The service is used to register
resourc
es hosted by the application server. The JNDI implementation in WebSphere
Application Server is built on top of a Common Object Request Broker Architecture
(CORBA) naming service (CosNaming).




JNDI provides the client
-
side access to naming and presents t
he
programming model that application developers use. CosNaming provides the
server
-
side implementation and is where the name space is actually stored. JNDI
essentially provides a client
-
side wrapper of the name space stored in CosNaming
and interacts with

the CosNaming server on behalf of the client.


Simple



Simple name



The simple name binding is guaranteed to succeed if lookup is within
the same server or when connected directly to the name space of the server
containing the target of the lookup. It c
an be used in a servlet or EJB, if it is certain
that the object is located on the same application server. Here is an example of a
simple name:



ejb/webbank/Account


Corba



Corbaname



The corbaname binding is always guaranteed to work. However, it
req
uires that you know the correct path to the object at deployment time. Here is
an example of a corbaname:



corbaname::myhost1:9812/NameServiceServerRoot#ejb/webbank/A
ccount


Complex names



Compound name/remote/complex



Applications that do not run in
the same server cannot use simple
name lookup because the simple name is not local to the application. Instead, an
application of this type must look the object up directly from the name server. Each
application server contains a name server. System artifa
cts such as EJB homes are
bound relative to the server root context in that name server. The fully qualified
(compound name) JNDI name is always guaranteed to work.



Here is an example of a compound name:



cell/nodes/node1/servers/server1/ejb/webbank/Ac
count


When do you use dumpNameSpace.sh



Run the
dumpNameSpace
command against any bootstrap port to
get a listing of the names bound with that provider URL.





11. Explain JDBC Connection Pooling



Each JDBC data source has a pool of JDBC connections
that are
created when the data source is deployed or at server startup. Applications use a
connection from the pool then return it when finished using the connection.
Connection pooling enhances performance by eliminating the costly task of creating
databa
se connections for the application.






Each data source that you configure contains a pool of database
connections that are created when the data source instance is created
-
when it is
deployed or targeted, or at server startup
.


Connection Timeout



This

value indicates the number of seconds a request for a connection
waits when there are no connections available in the free pool and no
new
connections can be created.

Max Connections


Specifies the maximum number of physical connections that you can crea
te in
this pool.

Min Connections


Specifies the minimum number of physical connections that you can create in
this pool.

Reap Time


Specifies the interval in seconds between run
s of pool maintenance thread.



Unused Timeout


Specifies the interval in secon
ds after which an idle or unused connection is
discarded.

Aged Timeout


Specifies the interval in seconds before a physical connection is discarded.

Which one should be the highest and which one should be the lowest in
the reap/unused/aged timeouts.



Aged

timeout should be the highest and Reap

timeout should be
lowest.

Purge Policy



Specifies how to purge connections when a stale connections or fatal
connection error is detected.

What are stale connection exceptions



When an application receives a stale

connection exception on a
database operation, it indicates that the connection currently held is no longer valid.







(or)



Whenever a troubled connection is encountered, a
staleConnectionException is raised. (A troubled connection is an inconsitent
co
nnection object in a connection pool)


12. Explain the Deployment steps of a J2EE application to WAS


13. How would you go about when a new application comes into ur
environment (resources, settings, heaps etc)


14. What is rollover update



It is us
ed to rollover the updates to all the cluster members in a
cluster whenever any changes are made to even one of the cluster member.




15. What is ripple start



RippleStart combines stopping and starting operations. It first stops
and then resta
rts each

member of the cluster.


16. Explain 2 Troubleshooting scenarios


17. How would you set up introscope profiles/probes



Wily's Introscope is an enterprise application performance monitoring
tool. It provides an overview of application and server health

and statistics.






18. VerboseGC







VerboseGC is the logging mechanism implemented by the JVM
to diagnose memory/storage problems. Here Garbage collection identifies and frees
previously allocated storage that is no longer in use. An understanding
of the way
that the Garbage Collector works will help you to diagnose problems.





Verbose logging is intended as the first tool to be used when
attempting to diagnose garbage collector problems; more detailed analysis can be
performed by invoking one or

more (trace garbage collector) traces.





How do set it up




In Admin Console goto Servers > Application Servers > Java
and Process Management > Process Definition > Java Virtual Machine >
Check

Verbose Garbage Colletion option.



What files have verbo
segc information



That particular server's (<profile_home>/logs/servername/)
native_stderr.log


What tool did you use to analyse verbosegc logs



GCAnalyzer


19. What is process definition.




A process definition specifies the run
-
time characteristics
of an
application server process. A process definition can include characteristics such as
JVM settings, standard in, error and output paths, and the user ID and password
under which a server runs.


What is the effect of changing max heap and min heap siz
e of a jvm




Max Heap Size:

When you have established the maximum
heap size that you need, you might want to set the minimum heap size to the same
value; Using the same values is not usually a good idea, because it delays the start
of garbage collection

until the heap is full. The first time that the Garbage Collector
runs, therefore, becomes a very expensive operation. Also, the heap is more likely to
be fragmented and require a heap compaction. Again this is a very expensive
operation.




Min Heap Size
:

The recommendation is to start your
application with the
minimum heap

size
that it needs
. When it starts up, the
Garbage Collector will run often and, because the heap is small, it runs efficiently.


Whats the max heap allowed by AIX




Minimum heap siz
e allowed




AIX:


4 MB




LINUX:

4 MB




WINDOWS:

4 MB





Maximum heap size allowed


AIX:
Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and a maximum of
512 MB


LINUX:

Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and a
maximum of 512 MB


WINDOWS: Half the real (physical or RAM) memory with a minimum of 16 MB
and a maximum of 2 GB


What are the effects of large initial heap/max heap



The time between garbage collections will increase, but the garbage
collection will take longer, which ind
irectly effects the turn
-
around
-
time of the
applicaiton performance.






(or)




B
ecause it delays the start of garbage collection until the heap
is full. The first time that the Garbage Collector runs, therefore, becomes a very
expensive operation. Als
o, the heap is more likely to be fragmented and require a
heap compaction. Again this is a very expensive operation.


20. Heap Dumps/ Core dumps


What is a heap dump




Heapdump is a JVM facility that generates a dump of all live
objects that are on the
Java heap at a certain point in time; that is, those that are



used by the Java application. When the java heap is exhausted the
JVM will g
enerate a heap dump by default.



By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You do
not get heapdumps

in crashes or through a signal to the JVM.





It shows the objects that are using large amounts of memory on the
Java heap, and what is preventing them from be
ing collected by the Garbage
Collector.


What is a core dump/thread dump




Java thread dumps
provide detailed information about all active
Java threads. It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers.


How to generate Heap dump both WAS 5/6







By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You
do
not

get heapdumps
in crashes or through a signal to the
J
VM. In order to manually
generate a
heapdump, you must first enable signal
-
based heapdumps by setting

the
IBM_HEAPDUMP=TRUE and
IBM_NOSIGHANDLER=TRUE environmental variables
and through wsadmin follow the below proce
ss:




>set myheap_dm [$AdminControl queryNames type=JVM,process=server1,*]

>$AdminControl invoke $myheap_dm generateHeapDump


How to generate core dump/thread dump both WAS 5/6

Through wsadmin

>set mythread_dm [$AdminControl completeObjectName
type=JVM,pr
ocess=server1,*]

>$AdminControl invoke $mythread_dm dumpThreads



Whats the difference between kill
-
3 command executed on WAS5 JVMs
and WAS 6 JVMS




kill
-
3 command generate core dumps.

What tools did you use to analyse core dump/thread dump




IBM Threa
dAnalyzer

What tools did you use to analyse heap dumps




IBM HeapAnalyzer

In what scenarios is a core dump/thread dump useful



It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers or hung
thread situations or thread deadlock situations.

In w
hat scenarios is a heap dump useful




It is useful in situations, most notable for memory leak
problems or memory allocation problems for exaple OutOfMemoryExceptions.

What are the respective extensions (jdk 1.3 and 1.4)




jdk 1.4 heap dump format genera
tes a .phd format






21. How do you make a jvm run as a service in windows and why
.




WASService.exe. The reason we can utilize this service on
Windows platform is because the Windows OS automatically starts this service
whenever the system is up and
we can flexibily start and stop the server from
windows services.


22. What is activity log and how do you view it
.



These are IBM Service logs which are in binary format, which logs
activity of various WebSphere Application Server

components. Log Analy
zer is
used
to view the activity.log files.


23. How do you set up traces.



In Admin console Troublshooting > logs and trace > servername >
choose Diagnostic trace


24. What is a PMR and explain how you worked with IBM on a PMR


PMR: Problem Managemen
t Record
----

PMR is created wehn a customer
submits a request to fix a software prob
lem via ESR. A PMR number is
assigned to
track the request. You can attach files to your PMR to provide the IBM engineer more
information to better assist you.

ESR: Electr
onic Service Request
--------



25. What all parameters did you tune in WAS (other than JDBC connection
pool and heap sizes)




We can tune some of these other aspects such as




1. Application server (parameter : )




2. JVM tunings (parameter : )




3. Applications (parameter : )




4. Database (parameter : )




5. JMS (parameter : )




6. Security




7. Hardware capacity and settings (parameter : )




8. Operating System (parameter : )




9. Web Servers (parameter : )


26. What other connection p
ools do you know in WAS other than JDBC
connection pool




J2C connection pool




MQ connection pool




Thread pool



27. How do you enable global security in WAS




1. Configure User registries (it can be custom, LDAP, or local
OS)




2. Configure Authe
ntication mechanisms (LTPA)




3. Configure Authorization (if there is any)




and then
check
Enable global security.



How do u configure an LDAP


1.
In the Deployment Manager Admin Console, select
Security
-
> Global
Security > User Registries
-
> LDAP
.


2
.
Provide the details for the fields in the Configuration panel as listed below:




Serverid, Serverpassword, Type, Host, Port, Base DN, Bind DN,
Bind password (please get this info from LDAP admin)


3. Click
Apply


4. Save the configuration for WebSphere
.


5. We need to define the configuration for Global Security in the
Administrative Console. Navigate to
Security
-
> Global Security
.


6. "Check" 'Enable global security' option


7. "Uncheck" 'Enforce Java 2 Security' option


8. From the Active User Regist
ry drop
-
down list select
LDAP
as the active
user registry.


9. Click
Apply
; this will validate the settings.


10. Save the configuration for WebSphere, and then restart the server.


How do u configure LTPA


Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA

> provide the password
and
Apply


How do u configure SSO


Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA > SSO >
check
'Enabled' option


What is the limitation of SSO



It is applicable only to a single domain. It cannot span multiple
domains. Example:

mail.google.com (every resource under google.com can be
accessed) but outside of that domain SSO cannot be applied.





How do you make SSO work across multiple cells



The LTPA token keys must be exported to the target cell and the LTPA
token key from th
e target cell must be imported into the current cell.


Does WAS support multiple LDAPs?



Yes, from 6.0 version onwards


28. What is SSL



Secure Socket Layer is the technology to establish secure
communication along with data integrity and encryption ov
er the network or between
the nodes (machines)





29. Did you ever work with certificates



Yes,


30. What is the utility that comes with WAS / IHS to manage certificates




ikeyman.sh


31. What is the defualt key store location for WAS




<profile
_home>/etc


32. How do you change the port number for admin console


Logging into the admin console




http://<hostname>:<admin_port>/admin




ex: http://localhost:9060/admin


Without logging into the admin console




C:
\
WebSphere
\
profiles
\
dmgr
\
config
\
ce
lls
\
dmgr_cell
\
nodes
\
dmgr_node
\
servic
eindex.xml (dmgr starts but cannot open the admin console because the port hasn't
been changed in virtual host xml file)


C:
\
WebSphere
\
profiles
\
dmgr
\
config
\
cells
\
dmgr_cell
\
virtualhosts.xml


33. How do you disable secur
ity for Deployment manager without logging
into the console




security.xml , enable=false


34. If you have to change the ports of a jvm manually without logging into
the admin console which file would you edit.




serverindex.xml


35. Explain virtual
hosts concept



A virtual host is a configuration that enable a single host machine to
resemble multiple host machine.


What are the two virtual hosts that come with WAS installation




admin_host, default_host


36. What is the plugin configuration file
and where is it located


The plug
-
in configuration file (
plugin
-
cfg.xml
) contains routing information for
all applications mapped from the web server to the application server.


How do u regenerate the plugin config file



The GenPluginCfg command is used
to regenerate the plug
-
in
configuration file. Depending on the operating platform, the command is:




Linux and Unix:
GenPluginCfg.sh




Windows:
GenPluginCfg.bat


When do u regenerate the plugin config file



The plug
-
in configuration file needs to be reg
enerated and propagated
to the Web servers when there are changes to
your WebSphere configuration
that
affect how requests are routed from the Web server to the application server.




These changes include:





_
Installing an application





_
Creating or

changing a virtual host





_
Creating a new server





_
Modifying HTTP transport settings (i.e HTTP ports)





_
Creating or altering a cluster


When do you manually edit the plugin config file



When enabling SSL (specifying the key file name), LoadBal
anceWeight,
and minimum number of connections.


What is the information in a plugin config file



Plugin config file contains routing information along with information
on virtual hosts , clusters (cluster members), and URIs.






When the request comes to

a webserver how does the webserver know
the JVM that is capable of handling that request.




The webserver first takes the request and if it can't serve, it
forwards the request to the plugin config file . The plugin co
nfig file routes the
request

to the

appropriate application server (or cluster member or jvm)
according to the mapping information it has.


What is the refresh interval of plugin.




60 seconds


If a change is made to the plugin config should the webserver be
restarted?



Not Required becau
se the plugin's automatic refresh interval is 60
seconds.


37. What webserver did you work on




I have on on IBM HTTP and Apache web servers.


What is the configuration file for IHS




httpd.conf


If changes are made to the config file should the webser
ver be restarted



Yes. The webserver must to restarted so the changes made to the config
file become effective.


What changes are made to this config file (automatically) during plugin
installation on the webserver




The plugin's binary module file (.
dll) path and the plugin's
configuration file (plugin
-
cfg.xml) path will be copied to the httpd.conf file
automatically.


38. What is collector tool



The collector tool gathers information about your WebSphere Application
Server installation and pack
ages it in a Java archive (JAR)
file that you
can send to
IBM
Customer Support to assist in determining and analyzing your problem.
Information in the JAR file in
cludes logs, property files,
configuration files, operating
system and Java data, and the pres
ence and level of each software prerequisite.
Colle
ctor tool can be run by only
root or administrator.


Syntax



It must be invoked from a temporary work directory >
C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer
\
bin
\
collector.sh | bat




Use



It
can be used to send it to
the IBM Customer Support to assist in
determining and analyzing your problem.


Output file



The output will a .jar file. For example: node31
-
dmgr_cell
-
dmgr_node
-
dmgr
-
WASenv.jar



39. When on a system there is an existing installation of websphere
federa
ted to the DM. You make one more installation and federate this to
another/same DM.


Will it work??



We can federate it to the same DM. This works.


If it doesnt, how will you make it work




40. What is the difference between horizontal/vertical cluste
ring.


Clustering is a mechanism which provides workload management (WLM) and
failover for applications that reside on the application server cluster.


Horizontal clustering: For high availability and horizontal scalability.


Vertical clusterin
g: For high availability and vertical scalability.
Disadvantage: Single point of failure.


When would you use them



For workload management (WLM) and failover requirements.


41. When an application is deployed, where can the application binaries be
fo
und



In the
Applications
folder when the application is deployed. Ex:
C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
profiles
\
dmgr
\
config
\
cells
\
dmgr_cell
\
applications


42. Unix commands

43. How do you create a JDBC resource





To view this administrative console page, click
Resou
rces >JDBC Providers
> New.



Step 1: Select the database type. Choose a supported database type.


Step 2: Select the JDBC provider type. Choose a supported JDBC Provider
type.


Step 3: Select the implementation type. Choose a supported imple
mentation
type.


Step 4: Apply


Step5: Now create the required Data Sources





To view this administrative console page,
click Resources > JDBC
Providers > JDBC_provider > Data sources > New


44. What is the difference between webserver handling in WA
S 5 and 6


45
. New features in WAS 6


46. What is the pre requisite for syncnode command



The nodeagent on the node must be in a stopped state when this
command is executed.


47. What are the logs in IHS



access.log, error.log



48. How do you ch
ange the log format in IHS



In httpd.conf file change the following line to your required parameters
-----

LogFormat"%t %h %u %m"


49. What are the configuration files in IPlanet web server



magnus.conf, obj.conf


50. What is TAI, and how do you en
able it.


TAI = Trust Association Interceptor. Trust association is used to connect
reversed proxy servers to WebSphere Application Server.







(or)


Trust association enables the integration of IBM WebSphere Application
Server security and third
-
party
security servers.





Global Security > LTPA > TrustAssociation >
Check
Enable trust association
and
Apply










1) What is the recommended free disk space in /tmp to install WAS.

1 GB

2) What is the default installation location of WAS in Linux.

Opt/IB
M/WebSphere/AppServer

3) What is the default installation location of WAS in Sun Solaris.

Opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer

4) What is the default installation location of WAS in AIX

Usr/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer


5) List any 10 parameters in response file

-
W sile
ntInstallLicenseAcceptance.value="true"

-
P wasProductBean.installLocation="C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer"

-
OPT disableOSPrereqChecking="true"

-
OPT installType="installNew"

-
OPT createProfile="true"

-
OPT profileType="deploymentManager"

-
OPT PROF_enableAdminSec
urity="true"

-
W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.nodeName="krishna_node"

-
W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.hostName="localhost"

-
W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.winServiceQuery="true"

-
W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.accountType="
localsystem"

-
W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.startupType="manual"


6) Write the complete command to execute a response file.

<was
-
setup>./install

options “<absolute path of response file>”


silent


7) Which registry file will get updated after instal
lation of WAS.

vpd.properties


8) What is the use of SOAP Connector port and what is the default soap port number
for DMGR profile.

Client Applications like wsadmin uses Simple Object Access Protocol and
that is listening to the port 8879. If we want fed
erate a profile by using
SOAP protocol and SOAP connector port number, we can federate a profile.


9) What is the default Http transport port number for Application Server profile and
what is the use.

9080, (if ssl was enabled 9443) If we want to invoke ap
plications running
on AppServer we are using HTTP transport port


10) What is the default Bootstrap port number in App.Serv profile and what is the
use.

2809. To access the EJB’s, JNDI use bootstrap port to obtain initial context
root.


11) Installation wa
s successful and when I am trying to start server it is giving
“Invocation Target Exception” why you will get this issue and how you are trouble
shooting this issue.

May be the problem with hostnames, hostnames are mismatched. Add the
host name in etc/host
s file which you had given at the time of installation.


12) What are different profile templates in WAS 6.0?

Dmgr, default and managed


13) Write the complete command to create an App.Serv profile through command
line.

C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer
\
bin>
waspr
ofile.bat
-
create
-
profileName

AppSrv04
-
profilePath

"C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer
\
profiles
\
AppSrv04"
-
template Path

"C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer
\
profileTemplates
\
default"
-
nodeName
app_node04
-
cellName

cell04
-
hostName

krishamurthy


14) Write a complete comm
and to delete a profile.

C:
\
IBM
\
WebSphere
\
AppServer
\
profiles
\
AppSrv01
\
bin>wasprofile.bat
-
delete
-
profileName AppSrv01


15) If you get a problem before creating a log’s directory at the time of installation,
at that time where you can check the status of i
nstallation




tmp/log.txt


16) What is the difference between managed node and unmanaged node

Manged Node contains node agent, we can administer federated profiles
servers and applications from dmgr admin console. For unmanaged the will
be no nodeagent
.


17) What is the impact for the federated profile servers, if DMGR is down.

No impact on servers and applications


18) In which xml file, we can change the port numbers.

Serverindex.xml


19) What is a server.

Server provides a runtime environment for your
web app’s Or Enterprise
applications.

Server receives user request, process that request and execute that request
and response will be generated to the end users.


20) If we stop the nodeagent, what will be the impact for end users.

There is no impact for

end users


21) How to take backup with out stopping servers.

./backupConfig.sh

nostop


22) What are the different user registries under global security in 6.0 and 6.1.

Local OS, Custom, LDAP. Federated repository was added in 6.1


23) What is the necessi
ty of global security?

T
o provide security for the admin console.


24) What is the port number for LDAP server with SSL and without SSL?

389 and 636


25) How to disable Global Security

./wsadmin.sh
-
conntype NONE

Securityoff

exit


26) How to know how ma
ny profiles are available.

/AppServer/bin>./wasprofile.sh

listProfiles


27)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Local OS,Custom and LDAP user
registries?

Global Security: In 6.0 we have 3 ways to provide security for admin
console.


1) Local os u
ser registry.


2) Custom user registry.


3) LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) user registry.

a) Custom user registry: Here we have to create two files named:


Users. Registry


Groups. Registry

We can create this file any where but we have to co
nfigure this absolute path to the
application servers.

b) LDAP: It is a mechanism & not a server. Here we are integrating seperate
directory servers.


if SSL is enabled the port number is 636, if it is not enabled 389.


-
> In local os user registry we have

to create user accounts and that user
accounts have to configure to websphere application servers.


where as in the custom user registry specifying user names and passwords in
a normal file and we are specifying the absolute path of that file into the web
sphere
application server. whenever we are going for LDAP user registry we have to specify
user id & password & type of directory server, port number (default is 389), if SSL is
enabled we have to specify port number as 636 and we have to specify Base
dist
inguished name which indicates authentication for users and we have to specify
Bind distinguished name and Bind password which specify authorization for user and
we have to select "Advanced Light Weight Directory Access Protocol user registry
settings" the
re we have to specify user filter classes and group filter classes
(automatically it will be there) and finally we have to restart the server.


28)
What is the full form of JDBC.

JDBC (java Database Connectivity) is an API (Applicationprogram Interfaces), t
hat is
useful to write a java program to connect any database, and retrieve the data form
the database and utilize the data in the java program.

Making a connection to a database

Creating SQL or MySQL statements

Executing that SQL or MySQL queries in the d
atabase

Viewing & Modifying the resulting records

We have 2 types of JDBC drivers in was. Those are Type2(Thick) and
Type4(Thin/Native Protocol) jdbc drivers.Type2 JDBC drivers require the database
client software on the client node to connect to the d
atabase server.Type4 JDBC
drivers connect directly to the database server.


29
)
What is the full form of JAR and what a jar file contains?

An EJB module which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB
deployment descriptors are packed as JAR files

with .jar extension.


30
)Write the name of the jar file necessary to configure Oracle 9i & Oracle 10g
Database.

In oracle 10g & 9i We have only one jar file i.e OJDBC14.JAR (for log) & Class12.jar
(for 9i) and In DB2 we have 3 or more jar files. i.e
DB2JC
C.JAR,DB2JCC_LICENSE_C4.JAR, DB2JCC_LICENCE_CIS42.JAR.

-
> The .jar file is nothing but a collection of .class files. It is necessary to
communicate with the database. So we should configure this jar files with database.


31
) What is a connection pool?

Conn
ection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and are used by
the different programmers with out creating connections to the database(it means
there is a ready made connection available for the programmers where he can use).
After using the

connection he can send back that connection to the connection pool.
Number of connections in connection pool may vary.

32) What is meant by Federation

33) What are the different types of console roles available and explain about each
role?


34) what is y
our goal and role in was?

Goal
-


a. Goal is to provide infrastructure for the demands

b. goal is to provide stable environment

c. goal is to provide high availability

d. goal is to provide scalability

e. goal is to provide 0 downtime

Role
-

a. involve in i
nfrastructure architecting a.k.a design

b. involve in implementing architectures

c. involve in solving infrastructure issues

d. involve in solving application environment issues

e. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in providing high availabili
ty

f. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in scaling


35) what is incident management?

Incident = Issue. Hurdle. Risk. Downtime. Security Breach.

Incident Management = Risk Plan. Potential incidents management.


36) Do you know how to configur
e ticketing tool with WAS?

This is a meaningless question. You need more information to address this question.

Ticketing System
-

is it part of IBM? Does it fall in Web Sphere Umbrella? Is it an
application running on WAS? Is it a Web based app? or Java Cl
ient?

Unless you know these, it’s a blind question.


37) when you configure LDAP with application server, if the users are unable to
connect to WAS. How do you trouble shoot this scenario?

You don’t trouble shoot, you *troubleshoot*

The issue is
-

U have
LDAP, running on Server x. Server y, WAS bind to server x.

if a problem occurs, u need to dig like this
-

A) Ldap up or not

B) If yes, can server y reach server x [simple ping or telnet on ldap port]

C) If yes
-

Ur infrastructure is clear

D) Any firewall b
etween server y and server x. talk to firewall team, ask them to
enable trace between server y and x. any droppage of packets?

E. if everything is clean, talk to ldap admin, enable trace on that specific group who
are getting auth errors.

F) Look into sys
temout.log, find out what exactly the error message you get.

G) U have to login to admin console and verify the authentication. u can *test* ldap
auth from console. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju


38) What is the difference between Signed Certificate and Self
-
s
igned certificate?
Which one you prefer?

http://webdesign.about.com/od/ssl/a/signed_v_selfsi.htm


39) In Windows 2003 box, an application server process is not responding. How do
you
trouble shoot this issue. Even when you are unable to kill the process.

*trouble shoot*
-

On any server, app server freeze
-

may because of resource
crunch, or process failing to release a resource, jvm could not complete a specific
thread, blablabla.

a. d
o u have enuf rights to kill the process?

b. check the processor utilization thru task manager

c. kill
-
3, if not responding, try again, again and again

d. verfiy the disk space.

e. verify error log and out log.

B
labla


40) how many types of scripting you

have done or you know?

such questions cannot be asked in a forum, or its difficult to answer. if i were you, i
wud say, perl scripting, php, python, jython, tcl, jacl, ant, shell, blabla. Feb 7 (2
days ago)



41) when you are on call support when you got

a severity 1 ticket, how do you take
action. Explain in detail.

Open the ticket, read the message what the problem is about.

login to targeted server(s), check logs, depending on error, propagate first hand info
to stakeholders.

sit on the issue, fix it,
close it.


42) What is a fix pack, refresh pack and when you will go for fix pack installation and
when you will go for refresh pack installation?

fix pack fixes certain issues.

refresh pack is a mile stone for a release.

a refresh pack takes you to a rele
ase, say

6.0.0.1 is a release. if you apply rp2, it becomes a release 6.0.2. if you apply fp35, it
becomes 6.0.2.35, which is not a release. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju


43) when you find in a particular server 'cpu starvation' error message what you will
d
o?

whenever there is not enough physical memory available to allow the high
availability manager threads to have consistent runtimes. When the CPU is spending
the majority of its time trying to load swapped
-
out processes while processing
incoming work, thr
ead starvation might occur.

Goto InfoCenter, search for starvation.


To achieve good performance and avoid receiving these error messages, it is
recommended that you allocate at least 512 MB of RAM for each Java process
running on a single machine.


High C
PU usage in a large cell configuration when security is enabled

With certain configurations and states, the amount of time spent in discovery
becomes substantial.

If a large the number of processes are defined within a core group, a proportionally
large nu
mber of connections must be established to support these processes.

If a large number of inactive processes are defined within a core group, a
proportionally large number of connections are attempted during each discovery
interval.

If global security is en
abled, the DCS connections are secured, and the impact of
opening a connection greatly increases .

To decrease the CPU time spent in discovery:

In the administrative console, click Servers > Core groups > Core groups settings ,
and then select the
-
> Defau
ltCoreGroup.

Under Additional Properties, click Custom properties > New.

Enter IBM_CS_UNICAST_DISCOVERY_INTERVAL_SECS in the Name field and 120 in
the Value field.

Click OK.

Then click New again and enter IBM_CS_SS_SECURE_TOKEN in the Name field
andfalse i
n the Value field.

Click OK and then Save to apply these changes to the master configuration.

Restart the server for these changes to take effect.

Transient high availability heartbeat failures und

11.If we said to analyze thread dumps can you do?

Ya!! W
hy not


44) How comfortable with scripting?

100% pakka comfortable


45) Did you worked with JACL or Jython scripts?

I prefer one scripting style. Why wud I use two scripting styles? At a given point of
time, scripting interface accepts only one language.


46) When you found hung thread error messages what you will do? Will you kill the
process. If yes, in which case you have to kill the process?

Lucky you and lucky me, we have IBM's InfoCenter. Is it not easy to perform a
simple search on InfoCenter like
this *hung thread*?

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v6r0/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.we
bsphere.nd.multiplatform.doc/info/ae/ae/ttrb_confighangdet.html

Configuring the hang detection policy

The hang detection option for WebSphere Application S
erver is turned on by default.
You can configure a hang detection policy to accommodate your applications and
environment so that potential hangs can be reported, providing earlier detection of
failing servers. When a hung thread is detected, WebSphere App
lication Server
notifies you so that you can troubleshoot the problem.

Add the following properties:

Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.interval

Value: The frequency (in seconds)

Default: 180 seconds (three minutes).

Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmoni
tor.threshold

Value: The length of time (in seconds).

Default: The default value is 600 seconds (ten minutes).

Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.false.alarm.threshold

Value: The number of times (T) that false alarms can occur before automatically
incre
asing the threshold. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju


47) Explain about your enivronment, servers, webservers, etc.,

Think about ur company and thier business. Cook a story. Serve it on the table with
some masala, salt and pepper.


48) What is a document server

and what is the use of it.

this is the funniest question one can ask.

what is a document server? in general a document server is a repository of
documents in an enterprise.

what is the use of it? its the central repository and depending access polices age
ncy
wide authorized and authenticated *users* can access documents.

ex.,

u have prepared a document on ur environment. u need a place to put that
document so that ur team can access it, ur manager can access it. above that,
another team who wants to read t
hat document can access that, above that, some
infrastructure team can access it, above that datacom people can access it and so
on.

what is the best place to put it?

on ur desk top? or attach to mail? or dump it in a shared location.

if its a shared locat
ion, what that could be? will you dump it in a zunkyard shared
location or in a proper shared location? first | < previous | next > | last


report spam reply


49) TYPES OF SEVERIATIES?

Severities will be of different types like Severity 1, 2, 3, 4,

5.


Depending upon the type of issue it will be classified.


50) WHAT TYPE OF ISSUE'S CONTAIN SEVERIATY1 TICKET'S?

Severity 1 tickets are the most rare tickets which will get and


which we have to get in our administration.

If our process is not runnin
g smooth, that means your application not responding,


application server is not responding or entire environment falls then we will get


severity 1 ticket.


51
.WHAT IS THE DIFF B/W COREDUMP & THREAD DUMP?

there is not much difference between these two.


I
n thread dump we can find, what are the active threads that are there at that

particular time. Where as core dump contains information about dead locks,


hang threads also


52
.WHEN THE SERVER HUNG HOW WILL IDENTIFY IN SYSOUT.LOG?

Its very simple in system
out.log we will find a particular thread is hung from this

many milli seconds will be found. The thread name will be WSVR****


53
. HOW TO TAKE BACKUP THE APPLICATION?

Taking backup of the application can be done by using export option

in the admin consol
e or directly from the directory location.

54
. WHAT'S THE RELATION B/W WIILY INTROSCOPE & WAS(LIKE
AGENT/AGENTLESS)?

Wily introscope is a third party tool which is used to monitor the server
environments,


not only WAS anything.


55
) Difference between Web
sphere 5.1, 6.1 and 7.0

Profiles

WebSphere 5.1:No Concepts of profile ,there are 4 types of Installation
-
Express,Base ,Network Deployment and Enterprise.

Websphere 6.1:Cell Profile,Deployment Manager profile,Application Server
profile,Custom Profile

W
ebsphere 7.0 Cell(DeploymentManager and managed
node),Management,Application Server,Custom profile,Secure Proxy.

Note:Under Management there are three types of profiles available :Administrative
agent


Deployment Manager


Job Manager


Note:The Main use

of Job Manager is to queue jobs to application server in a flexible
management environment


Managing Profiles

WebSphere 5.1 :Websphere multiple installation instance can be created using
wsinstance script


WebSphere 6.1:There are two ways of managing a

profile

1.Profile Management Tool(GUI)


2.Manage profiles(Command interface for managing profiles )

WebSphere 7.0: same as 6.1


Security Roles

WAS 5.1:Administrator,operator,configurator

WAS 6.1:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Sec
urity Manager,ISC
Admin

WAS 7.0:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Security Manager,ISC
Admin,Auditor


WebServers supported

WAS 5.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System Web
Server,HTTP Server for iseries

WAS

6.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System Web
Server

WAS 7.0:HTTPServer for Z/Os and all web servers supported in 6.1


User Registries/Repositries

WAS 5.1:Local Operating System,Standalone LDAP registry,Standalone Custom
regi
stry

WAS 6.1:Federated repositories,Local Operating System,Standalone LDAP
registry,Standalone Custom registry or file based registry

WAS 7.0:Same as 6.1


lOGGING AND TRACING

WAS 5.1Diagnostic trace

JVM logs

Process logs

IBM Service logs

WAS 6.1

Apart from

the logs available in 5.1 there is a Change log detail levels which will
enable the Message level and trace level of the JVM

WAS 7.0Same as V 6.1


Managing WebServers

WAS 5.1:Web Servers cannot be managed through Websphere Admin Console

WAS 6.1:WebServers

can be Administered using the Websphere Admin Console
(Stopping, Starting, Generation and propagation of Plug
-
in can be done). Web
Servers can be created in Managed node or in Unmanaged node

WAS 7.0 same AS V 6.1


JMS

WAS 5.1:JMS Fail Over Support and sca
lability is not available

WAS 6.1:JMS Fail over support and scalability is available.SIB(Service Integration
Bus Concept is being introduced)

WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1


Monitoring

WAS 5.1:N/A

WAS 6.1:TPF(Tivoli Performance Viewer) is embedded in the Websphere

Admin
Console for monitoring WebSphere Objects

WAS 7.0same as V 6.1


Intelligent Run Time provisioning

WAS 5.1N/A

WAS 6.1N/A

WAS 7.0Intelligent run time provisioning is a new concept introduced in V7.0 At run
time the server uses the activation plan to s
tart only those components that are
required inside the application server


Components like Web Container , EJB Container , Web Service and SIP Container are
dynamically activated


SIP and Portlet Container

WAS 5.1:N/A

WAS 6.1SIP(Session Initiation Protoco
l) extends the application server to allow to
run SIP applications written to JSR 116 Specification


The Portlet applications can deployed which is compliant with JSR 168


WAS 7.0same as V 6.1


wsadmin scripts

WAS 5.1:JACL is the scripting language which
is used

WAS 6.1:JACL will be deprecated from 6.1 and Jython scripting will be used.

WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1

Posted by TechnoTips at 4:18 AM 0 comments

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Thursday, September 25, 2008

create Heapdump using wsadmin

//Refrence of JVM

objectName
=AdminControl.queryNames('type=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,*')


wsadmin>print objectName

WebSphere:name=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,platform=dynamicproxy,node=a
hdp2csmwas78,j2eeType=JVM,J2EEServer=WebSphere_Portal,version=6.0.2.21,typ
e=JVM,mbeanIdentifie
r=JVM,cell=wpcell

//genrate heapdump

wsadmin>AdminControl.invoke(objectName, "generateHeapDump")

Posted by TechnoTips at 4:24 AM 0 comments

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1)What is 5 Tier Architecture?

in J2E we can write 5 tier archi like


1. Client Tier
-

Browse
r, Applet, Client Applications

2. Presentation Tier
-

Servlets, JSP

3. Business Tier
-

EJB or Some Business Objects

4. Integration Tier
-

JDBC

5. Backend Tier
-

Databases, JMS



2)we know that 3 tier have

1.UI(User interface) or (presentation) logic

2.BL (Bus
iness)

3.DL (Database)



2)Tell me about the Architecture of Web Application (how it will happen Workload
Management & clustring)

when ther request coming from the browser the webserver will handled that reuest ,
It will handled over to the plug
-
in, then
the plug
-
in will looks in to the plug
-
in cfg.xml
file for

the reuested url and It will redirect the request to the avaliability of the servers in
the cluster.

The plug
-
in mainly perform the work load management.If any server is processing
any request the
n the plug
-
in will route the request to the avaliability of the servers
based on their weight and based on the algorithams.


3)what are the main point while installing an IHS?

The main use of installing any external web server is to proces the dynamic cont
ent
request

4)what the file path of httpd.conf?

/opt/IBM HTTPSERVER/conf/httpd.conf

window

c:
\
programfiles
\
IBM HTTP SERVER
\
conf
\
httpd.conf


5)What are Java Programming languages?

Servlets,jsp,ENB,Struts,JSF,HIbernate


6)What is Object pool?

How to take bac
k up ? while taking back is it necessary to stop the server?

execute backupConfig.sh command to take the backup ,yes it is required to stop the
servers,

by default when you execute this command it will stop all the servers on the node so
yhe partially

syn
chronized information will not be saved .


what are the Deployment ways ? steps ?

1.Hot fix

2.wsadmin

3.AdminConsole

4.Using third party tolls like ,Teamsite ,Cruise Control, MKS etc.


1)what is thin driver and thick driver.why it is cal...

thick driver
-

type 1 and type 2 JDBC drivers are called thick drivers. The reason for
it is
-

it provides JDBC access via ODBC

drivers. ODBC binary code and in many cases database client code must be loaded
on each client machine that uses such a driver.

and as the pr
ogram is connected to database by an extra layer in the clint hence
thay are called thick drivers.

Thin drivers: This style of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used
directly by DBMSs allowing a direct call

from the client machine to th
e DBMS server and providing a practical solution for
intranet access. hence their conenction to DB

is more direct and without any intermediate stage making them thin drivers. type 4
driver.


Basic difference between thin and thick client


Oracle has a thi
n client driver which mean you can connect to a oracle database
without the Oracle client installed on your machine.


Thick client would need the Oracle Client database drivers etc.. Drivers include JDBC
-
ODBC bridge drivers JDBC drivers depending on tns re
solution.


Dominic


thin driver is 4 type driver in java which r provide the connectivity between
oracle and java.the main advantage is this driver is we connect the databse to java
without create DSN.and it provide the all the host computer connectivity i
n the
network.so its r most important driver which we use in the java.

2)What is Connection Pooling


Connection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and are
used by the different programers with out creating conncections to the database(i
t
means there is a ready made connection available for the programmers where he
can use). After using the connection he can send back that connection to the
connection pool. Number of connections in connection pool may vary.


1)How many JDBC drivers are th
ere ?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 3

D) 1

2)Which of the following is false for the Type 1 JDBC bridge driver?

A) A Type 1 driver is a JDBC
-
ODBC bridge driver

B) This type of driver enables a client to connect to an ODBC database via Java calls
and JDBC

C) Both the data
base and middle tier need to be Java compliant.

D) ODBC binary code must be installed on each client machine that uses this driver.

Explanation: Neither the database nor the middle tier needs to be java compliant.

3)Which of the following statement is true

for the Type 2 JDBC driver?

A) A Type 2 driver converts JDBC calls into calls for a specific database.

B) This driver is referred to as a "native
-
API, partly Java driver."

C) As with the Type 1 driver, some binary code may be required on the client
machi
ne, which means this type of driver is not suitable for downloading over a
network to a client.

D) All of the above

4)What is the difference between EAR, JAR and WAR file


Answered by Jey on 2005
-
05
-
08 11:23:41: In J2EE application modules are
packaged a
s EAR, JAR and WAR based on their functionality

JAR:

EJB modules which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB deployment
descriptor are packed as JAR files with .jar extenstion

WAR

Web modules which contains Servlet class files,JSP FIles,s
upporting files, GIF and
HTML files are packaged as JAR file with .war( web achive) extension

EAR

All above files(.jar and .war) are packaged as JAR file with .ear ( enterprise archive)
extension and deployed into Application Server.



5)Full form of jav
a jar file?

In: JAVA Programming [Edit categories]

JAR = Java ARchive

6)Re: URL of Oracle thin driver.

Topic: JDBC

Luigi Viggiano PREMIUM, Jun 4, 2001 [replies:1]

briefly: jdbc:oracle:thin:@hostname:port:oracle
-
sid



1. in green the Oracle sub
-
protoco
l (can be oracle:oci7:@, oracle:oci8:@,
racle:thin:@, etc...) is related on the driver you are unsign and the protocol to
communicate with server.


2. in red the network machine name, or its ip address, to locate the server where
oracle is running.


3.

in blue the port (it is complementary to the address to select the specific oracle
service)


4. in magenta the sid, select on wich database you want to connect.



1) Find Java Archive files using an Eclipse plug
-
in


jmalasko writes "

Discover JAR Class

Finder, a plug
-
in utility with improved compatibility for Rational
Application Developer,

WebSphere Integration Developer, and Eclipse.


This plug
-
in finds JAR files containing a given class for the Java build path and helps
fix NoClassDefFound exception
s.

1) Explain about web sphere?

The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology products. Web
sphere is known for its turn key operation in e business applications. It has run time
components and tools which can help in creating applicati
ons which run on WAS.
WAS refers to web sphere application server.


2) Explain about web sphere commerce?

IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete ecommerce
solutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are planning t
o do business
with consumers, business and indirectly through channel partners. This can be used
to perform business with consumers, business and channel partners altogether.


3) Detail about the architecture of web sphere?

Web Sphere is built on three ma
in components they are

• Database

• J2EE application server

• A web server

The databases which it supports are

• DB2

• Oracle

• Cloudscape

Application server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are

• IBM server

• Microsoft IIS

• Sun web server


4) Stat
e some of the features present in web sphere?

Some of the features which are present in web sphere are:
-

• Order management

• Web sphere commerce accelerator

• Analytical and business intelligence

• Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc

• Web sphere comme
rce payments and customer care, etc


5) Explain about IBM Web Sphere edge server?

Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based systems.
It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four components are present in
the web sp
here they are Network dispatcher, Caching proxy, Content distribution and
application service at the edge.


6) Explain about extended deployment?

Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the functionality of
the server in two main areas
they are manageability and performance. Dynamic
virtualization between servers is possible with the help of XD. A stand alone
distributed cache was added to it under the performance header, it is known as
Object Grid.


7) Explain about the security feature
s present in WAS?

Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model. It also
depends upon the operating system. User authentication and authorization
mechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party authentication
mech
anism is the main security feature present in WAS.


8) Explain about asymmetric clustering?

Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading systems
employed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be declared during r
un
time and are usually run on a single cluster at a time. Work specific to a particular
can be routed to that cluster.


9) Explain the various Administrator benefits using Web sphere?

Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can ma
nage load
on servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him flexibility to divide the
load and applications among different server farms. He can also predict about the
incoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart options, memory leak detecti
on, etc.


10) Explain about caching proxy of IBM Web sphere Edge sphere?

A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Content
requested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the query.
Page fragments arising
from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and the caching
process is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications can be increased by
edge.


11) Explain about the network deployment feature present in WAS?

Managing singletons will be a thing of the

past and it also provides hot recovery of
singletons which makes you forget about your GC collected singletons. Transaction
logs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering run time operations
deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover

support and cell
configuration support is also present.


12) Explain about IBM web sphere integration developer?

Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based on
service oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and
web sphere ESB were
built with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.


13) Explain about compute Grid?

Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended deployment
offers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Gri
d. This forms an
additional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various features are
provided which help a developer to create, manage and execute batch jobs. Job
scheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming controller.


14) Explain about
web sphere MQ Real time transport?

This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients through
intranet and internet. This supports high volume and high performance across
different clients. It uses the concept of light weight transpo
rt which is again based on
IP rather than the queue process.


15) Explain about Web sphere MQ JMS Provider?

Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are very
useful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients (pub
lisher

subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for translating the API
calls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to have knowledge of Web
sphere MQ for proper configuration.