EDUC 527 - The Citadel

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1









The Citadel











School of Education












EDUC 527: Finance and Business Management

Fall

2012

Instructor
: Richard K. Murray, Ed.D.

Class
Meetings:
Thursday

Office
: Capers 325
-
C

Class Hours
:

5:30
-
8:0
0

Telephone
: 843
-
953
-
7824

Meeting Room
: Capers Hall 3
05

Em
ail
:
kent.murray@citadel.edu

Office Hours
:

Wednesday

2:00
-
5
:00

Thurs
day


2:00
-
5
:00

Other hours by appointment.

Credit Hours:

3


PR
EREQUISITES:

None.


REQUIRED TEXTBOOK:


Ruby Payne’s
,
Framework for Understanding

Poverty

(
ISBN 1
-
929229
-
14
-
3
)

(Available at Barnes &
Noble, Books
-
a
-
Million, and at Amazon.com)


SUGGESTED TEXTBOOK:


Owings, William & Kaplan, Leslie (2006).
American Public

School Finance
. Belmont, CA:
Thomson Wadsworth. (Available in The Citadel bookstore)

*
In addition to the text, the instructor will provide students with supplementary materials and
articles
.


STUDENT INFORMATION

This course is
required as
part of the
Mas
ter of Education in Educational Leadership

program and is intended for

the
preparation of school leaders
.


COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course is designed to provide the student with procedures and problems relating to financing public education,
theory of tax
ation, types of taxes, practices of education finance, federal, state, and local support of education,
budget procedures, financial accounting, purchasing, insurance, inventories, and school maintenance. This course
includes significant attention to schoo
l level finance and South Carolina laws and regulations regarding public
school finance.


CONCEPTUAL BASE:
Developing Principled Educational Leaders for P
-
12 Schools


The Citadel’s Professional Education Unit prepares
principled educational leaders

to be

knowledgeable,
reflective,
and
ethical

professionals. Candidates completing our programs are committed to ensuring that
all

students succeed in a learner
-
centered environment.




The Citadel’s Professional Education Unit is committed to the simultaneous
transformation of the preparation of
educational leaders and of the places where they work. Specifically, The Citadel’s Professional Education Unit
seeks to develop
principled educational leaders

who:



have mastered their subject matter and are skilled in
using it to foster student learning;



know the self who educates (Parker J. Palmer) and integrate this self knowledge with content knowledge,
knowledge of students, and in the context of becoming professional change agents committed to using this
knowledg
e and skill to ensure that
all

students succeed in a learner
-
centered environment; and





2




exemplify the highest ethical standards by modeling respect for all human beings and valuing diversity as
an essential component of an effective learner
-
centered enviro
nment.

The Citadel’s Professional Educational Unit is on the march, transforming itself into a Center of Excellence for the
preparation of
principled educational leaders
. Through our initial programs for teacher candidates for P
-
12
schools and our advance
d programs for professional educators in P
-
12 schools, The Citadel’s Professional Education
Unit transforms cadets and graduate students into
principled educational leaders

capable of and committed to
transforming our schools into learning communities wher
e
all

children and youth succeed.




The Citadel’s Professional Education Unit has identified 17 performance indicators for candidates to demonstrate
that they are
principled educational leaders

who are
knowledgeable, reflective,
and
ethical

professional
s:


Knowledgeable
Principled Educational Leaders



1. know in
-
depth subject matter of their field of professional study and practice;


2. demonstrate and apply an understanding of developmental and learning theories;


3. model instructional and/or le
adership theories of best practice;


4. utilize the knowledge gained from professional study to develop and implement


an educational program that is varied, creative, and nurturing;


5. integrate the use of technology;


6. demonstrate a commit
ment to lifelong learning.


Reflective
Principled Educational Leaders



7. develop and describe their philosophy of education and reflect upon its impact in


the teaching and learning environment;

8. develop and manage meaningful educational exper
iences that address the needs


of all learners with respect for their individual and cultural characteristics;


9. construct, foster, and maintain a learner
-
centered environment in which all


learners contribute and are actively engaged;

10.

apply

their understanding of both context and research to plan, structure,


facilitate, and monitor effective teaching and learning in the context of continual


assessment;

11. research their practice by reflectively and critically asking questions

and seeking


answers.


Ethical

Principled Educational Leaders


12. apply reflective practices;

13. demonstrate commitment to a safe, supportive learning environment;

14. demonstrate high values and a caring, fair, honest, responsible, and respec
tful


attitude;

15. establish rapport with students, families, colleagues, and community;

16. value diversity and exhibit sensitivity to and respect for cultures;

17. exhibit prompt regular attendance, wear professional attire, and communicate in


standard English.


Relationship of this course to the conceptual base
:

ELCC
--
Educational Leadership Constituent Council Indicators



3.1b
-
c Manage the
Organization

CF3, D
5



3.3b Manage Resources

CF3, D
5



4.3c Mobilize Community Resources

CF3, D
5



5.3a

Acts Ethically

CF3, D
5




6.1c Understand the Larger Context

CF3, D
5




3


Learner

Centered Performance Assessment Codes:

P
Participation
F

Professional Portfolio

G
Group Discussion


I
Interview


O
Observation
E
Exam
S
Si
mulation
T
Thesis/Paper

WV
Website Review


V
Volunteer
RD

Reading
SP
Presentation
PR
Project
SH
Shadowing
CS
Case Study
DA
Data Analysis
SA
Se
lf Assessment



WR

Written Reflection


Dimension Level Codes
:

1. Awareness
2
. Understanding
3
. Capability

3.1b
CF3, D
5
Manage the Organization. Candidates develop plans of action for focusing on effective organization and management of
fiscal,

human, and material resources, giving priority to student learning, safety, curriculum, and instruction.

Performance Activities





Assessments

-
As part of the budget portfolio requirement, candidates
interview and review all budgetary documents with
thei
r Principal, Bookkeeper, and Attendance Clerk.
Compile portfolio of experiences including interview,
question/answer narrative, and self
-
reflection.
WR2,
I2

-
Candidates complete and submit Budget Simulation
Project.
F2, WR2


3.1c
CF3, D
5

Manage the Org
anization. Candidates demonstrate an ability to manage time effectively and deploy financial and
human resources in ways that promote student achievement.

-
Candidates interview and review all budgetary
documents with Principal, Bookkeeper, and Attendance
Clerk. Compile portfolio of experiences including
interview, question/answer narrative, and self
-
reflection. Analyze and discuss instructional initiatives
financed through special revenue funds such as Title I
and Act 135.
WR2, I2

-
Candidates attend Tit
le I Funding Workshop presented
by BCSD Director of Title I Finance.
G1, P1

-
Candidates complete and submit Budget Simulation
Project.
F2, WR2






-
Candidates take final examination that assesses
application of Title I information. Candidates attend
wo
rkshop.
E2, P1


3.3b

CF3, D
5

Manage Resources. Candidates creatively seek new resources to facilitate learning.

-
Candidates attend Title I funding presentation by local
Director of Title I funding and Grants/Federal
Programs presentation by local schoo
l principal.
P1,
G1

-
Candidates complete final examination and further
review special revenue resources and grant funding in
Finance Budget Simulation project.
E2, PR2


4.3c

CF3, D
5

Mobilize Community Resources. Candidates demonstrate an understanding

of ways to use public resources and funds
appropriately and effectively to encourage communities to provide new resources to address emerging student problems.

-

Candidates interview and review all budgetary
documents with Principal, Bookkeeper, and Atten
dance
Clerk. Compile portfolio of experiences including
interview, question/answer narrative, and self
-
reflection. Analyze and discuss instructional initiatives
financed through special revenue funds such as Title I
and Act 135.
WR2, I2

-

Candidates att
end Title I Funding Workshop
presented by BCSD Director of Title I Finance.
G1,
P1

-
Candidates complete and submit Budget Simulation
Project.
F2, WR2






-
Candidates take final examination which assesses
understanding of Title I funding information. Ca
ndidates
attend workshop.
E2, P1


5.3a

CF3, D
5

Acts Ethically. Candidates make and explain decisions based upon ethical and legal principles.

-
Candidates review and discuss Association of School
Business Officials (ASBO) Code of Ethics and the South
Ca
rolina Department of Education Code of Ethics.
G1

-
Candidates review ethics for school level purchasing.
-
Complete Title I Ethics Case Study and discuss ethical
implications of groups’ final decision.
CS2, SA1




4


G1


6.1c
CF3, D
5

Understand the Larger Con
text. Candidates demonstrate the ability to analyze the complex causes of poverty and other
disadvantages and their effects on families, communities, children, and learning.

-
Candidates read Jonathon Kozol’s
卡vag攠fn敱u慬a瑩敳
慮d 慮慬y穥 瑨攠eff散琠tf p
overty on 瑨攠敤u捡瑩tn of
楮n敲 捩cy youthK 䙯捵s on 瑨e 敦f散ts of schoo氠linan捥
慮d how 瑨es攠楳sues 慦f散琠tur impov敲楳h敤 s瑵den瑳K
RD1, WR2

-
Candidates submit book review for Kozol’s
卡v慧攠
fn敱u慬楴楥s
K

T1


In addition, s
tudents will be expect
ed to
:


1.

Become familiar with the literature encompassing issues and concepts of educational finance and
business management.


2.

Develop an understanding of various school support programs and how they might affect
school districts
with differing demographic characteristics.


3.

Critically examine sources of public revenue and their appropriateness in financing
education.


4.

Develop a clear understanding of legal issues in finance.


5.

Become famili
ar with the school level, school district level, and state level public school
finance programs in South Carolina.


6.

Review recent research in school finance.


7.

Gain an awareness of the politics of school finance reform.


8.

S
how reasonable skill in applying various tools available to the school business manager.


9.

Identify and analyze general functions of educational business management.

10.

Complete a budget portfolio activity utilizing school finance principles and co
ncepts.


COURSE REQUIREMENTS/ASSIGNMENTS

1.

Ethnographic Field Study/Budget Portfolio

2.

Ruby Payne’s
Framework for Understanding Poverty

Staff Development Presentation.

3.

Final Examination.

4.

Participation


REQUIRED PROJECTS

1.

Participation
--
Read textbook an
d outside reading assignments and participate in class


discussions. Students will be expected to incorporate individual readings with classroom


discussions and keep abreast of current developments in
educational finance and business


management.


2.
Ethnographic Field Study/Budget Portfolio

This requirement serves as a major component


of the practical portion of this course. Each student is required to conduct an interview of

a


local public school principal, bookkeeper, and attendance clerk to discuss school level budget


principles and concepts. The interview should include the review of monthly budget reports,


budget/purchasing procedur
es, school district policies on ethics, and other pertinent topics


concerning the budgeting process at the school level. A paper should be written to include a


summary of the interview and may be written in a question/resp
onse format. It is imperative


for the student to spend a significant amount of time with school level personnel to ensure


complete review of the school level practices, policies, and procedures. Each student




5




must complete the attached budget interview form complete with signatures from those


individuals being interviewed The Ethnographic Field Study will represent the main body of


the portfolio and should be 8 to 10 typewrit
ten pages in length

(Font Size 12)
.


The budget portfolio requires the student to collect materials from the interview and include


as part of the final project. Budget reports, samples of forms, and
any

pertinent
information


from the intervi
ews should be included in
Appendix A

of the portfolio. Students are required


to review school district policy and include copies of all policy concerning the financial


governance of the school in
Appendix B
. Students are strongly encouraged to
contact their


district office director of finance to secure pertinent documents. Many districts have


developed pamphlets/booklets/handouts to assist first year principals in learning the financial


practices of the district. All district of
fice documents should also be included in
Appendix B
.


Appendix C
will include all electronic documents such as the South Carolina Funding


Manual, Act 135, EIA, etc. (See handout for all required electronic documents).

The budget


simulati
on is worth 40 points or 40% of the final course grade. Due to the importance and


rigor of the assignment, class time will be provided for the necessary interviews.



3.
Staff Development Presentation

Individual students are required to read
Ruby

Payne’s
,



Framework for Understanding Poverty

(
ISBN 1
-
929229
-
14
-
3
). Each
Staff Development Presentation


should be presented using Microsoft Powerpoint and should be designed for delivery to a school


faculty for a 1 hour presentation.
I
n addition, an essay question

related to the book will be included on


the final exam.
The staff development presentation is worth 10 points or 10%


of the final course grade.


4.
Final Examination
--
A final exam will be given to assess retention

of school finance concepts


and principles. The final exam will require a calculator.

The final exam is worth 50 percent


of the final course grade.



ASSESSMENT PROCESS
:

Grades for EDUC
527

are based on a variety of assignments. The r
elative weights used for calculating the course
grade are as follows:


Assignment





Possible Point Value


% of Final Grade

1. Budget Simulation





40




40%

2. Staff Development Presentation



10




10%

3. Final Exam






50




50%






Total 100




100%






Final Course Grade






A = 90 or more points






B+ = 87 to 89 points







B = 80 to 86 points






C + = 77 to 79 points






C = 70 to 79 points







F = 69 or below






6


INSTRUCTION
AL UNITS AND ASSESSMENTS


Date

Topic

8/23
/12

Overview of Syllabus/Economics of Education/Electronic Finance Resources

8/30
/12

Budgeting for School Level Finance

9
/
06
/
12

Property Taxes/Sources of Local and State Revenue/

School Finance
Concepts/Theories of Taxation

9
/
1
3/12

South Carolina Funding Manual



9
/
2
0/12

Field Experience (Bookkeeper Interview/Field Assignment)

9
/
27
/12

Patterns for Developing School Finance/Taxat
ion/Sources of Revenue

10
/
04
/12

Field Experience

(Principal/Attendance Clerk)

10
/
11
/12

Financing Education Adequately and Equitably


10
/
18
/12

Purchasing/SC Procurement Code/Insurance/ Auditing
/
-
Property, Risk
Management and Insurance

10
/2
5
/12

Financial A
ccounting/GAAP/Administering the School Budget/
Ruby Payne
Staff Development Presentation Due

11
/
01
/12

Principal Presentation on School Level Finance (TBA)

11
/
08
/12

Financing School Facilities/Bond Referendum

11
/
15
/12

Human Resources and School Finance/Fed
eral Interest in Education/Federal
Funding

11
/
22
/12

Thanksgiving Holiday

11
/
29
/12

The Courts and School Finance/ASBO Code of Ethics/Final Exam Review

12
/
06
/12

Final Exam
/Budget Portfolios Due





CLASS EXPECTATIONS

Class Attendance

One of the most importan
t aspects of the education profession is that of professionalism. Punctual attendance in
class is expected. The college policy will be followed. Attendance will be taken and reported daily via The
Citadel’s Class Absence System.



Disability Disclosur
e

If you need accommodations because of a disability, please inform me immediately. Please see me privately, either
after class or in my office. To initiate accommodation, students must register with the Office of Access Services,
Instruction and Support

(OASIS) located in room 105 Thompson Hall or call 953
-
1820 to set up an appointment.
This office is responsible for reviewing documentation provided by students requesting academic accommodation
and for accommodation in cooperation with students and inst
ructors as needed and consistent with course
requirements.


Honor Statement

As a professional educator, integrity is an expectation. Students of The School of Education at The Citadel
are expected to meet the standards set forth in the Citadel Code.
Available at:
http://citadel.edu/r3/honor/manual.shtml

Cheating and plagiarism violations will be reported and a failing grade will be assigned for the work in
question.

This class will follow The Citadel Honor Manual regarding plagiarism: "Plagiarism i
s the act of using
someone else's words or ideas as your own without giving proper credit to the sources:



When you quote another's words exactly you
must
use quotation marks and a footnote (or an indication in
your paragraph) to tell exactly where the wor
ds came from, down to the page number(s). When you mix
another's words and ideas with your own in one or more sentences, partially quoting the source exactly and



7


partially substituting your own words, you must put quotation marks around the words you quot
e and not
around your own. Then you cite the source, down to the page number(s).



When you paraphrase another's words or ideas, that is, when you substitute your words for another's words,
but keep their idea(s), you do not use quotation marks, but you mus
t cite the source, down to the page
number(s).



When you use only another's idea(s), knowing that they are the other's ideas, you must cite the source of
that idea or those ideas, down to the page number(s).



Citing the source means giving, as a minimum, th
e author, the title of the book, and the page number. (The
Citadel Honor Manual)


Field Experience

15 hours of field experience are a part of this course. These experiences will be in local public schools that
represent the diversity of the general popula
tion of the school district. More details of this experience will be
presented in class. Reflective assignments will be completed about each of the observation experiences.



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELD STUDY/BUDGET PORTFOLIO

Construct an e
thnographic account of administration/leadership. Use three to four informants.
Set up an interview with a school administrator (principal, superintendent, area superintendent,
director of finance, or school business manager), bookkeeper (accountant or c
lerical staff
assigned the responsibility of the accounting portion of school level finance), and attendance
clerk professionally involved with elementary or secondary school education. Discuss school
finance with your informants. (You may not interview
a relative or professor.) You must
construct questions concerning school finance which are related to the level of the informant (i.e.
principals should be asked school level budget questions while superintendents should be asked
district level budget que
stions). Questions should concern policy implications for finance,
regulations for purchasing, review of the monthly budget reporting system, school district codes
of ethics, sources of revenue, accounting procedures, and other pertinent areas of finance a
t the
school level. Scheduling of the interview is the student’s responsibility.


General Method

1. Schedule an appointment with a school administrator, bookkeeper, and attendance clerk.

2. Construct a list of pertinent questions to help the informants
get started. At some point in the


interviews, always ask the question, “What do you feel is important for me to know about


school finance?” Tell the informants that you would like to talk about their own experiences


with school finance based upon their positions as administrator and bookkeeper.

3. You may use a tape recorder (if allowed) or script the conversation. It is imperative that you


record answers completely, so that you will have the abil
ity to present interview material and


your reaction to the interview.

4. The interview should last between 30 minutes and an hour in length. Encourage the


informants to review their budgets with you, so that you w
ill see school finance in action.

5. Secure as much written information as possible (i.e. forms, policies, regulations, sample


budget reports, etc.).

6. Present your information in a paper following the format listed below:


Once you have comple
ted the interview you will write
-
up the data that you have acquired. A


write
-
up is not a transcript of the tape, but rather an interpretive record. Treat the informants’


comments as if they were data from a text or film. Your task
as an ethnographer is to


integrate this material with your educational research and what you know about school




8



administration and finance.


Present your material in a standard economic format. Papers mus
t be typed following the


APA style format (4
th

edition). Papers should be typewritten and 6 to 8 pages in length. It is


expected of the student to collect associated information to develop an appendix for the paper.


Samp
le Questions:
(
This is NOT a comprehensive list of questions. This list is only intended
to serve as examples of topics to be covered.)

1. What are the student allotments for instructional supplies, library materials, etc.?

2. What is your signing autho
rity? Requirements for the bid process?

3. What format do you require of your teachers to complete purchase orders?

4. What process do you utilize to assist you in determining how to spend your allotted funds (i.e.


teacher input, school gov
ernance council input, etc.)?

5. What financial advice would you provide for a student preparing for school administration?

6. What are the sources of revenue represented in the school level budget reports (i.e. Act 135,


Title I, etc.)?

For what purposes must each source of revenue be used?

7. Review the Staff Allocation report (FTE’s) and discuss personnel assignments.

8. Review and cite the purchase order process for your school. This process should be


discussed with the princi
pal and bookkeeper.

9. Review the 10, 45, 90, and 135 day reports with your attendance clerk and determine their


purpose.

10. Explain our school district’s requirements for procurement.

11.
What should every aspiring principal know about school le
vel finance?


The budget portfolio requires the student to collect materials from the interview and include

as part of the final project. The
interview

will complete the first section of the portfolio.
Appendix A

is the “Interview Appendix”. Budget repo
rts, samples of forms, and other pertinent
documents from the interviews should be included in
Appendix A

of the portfolio. Students are
required to review school district policy and include copies of all policy concerning the financial

governance of the
school in
Appendix B
. Therefore,
Appendix B

will include all district level
policy and information. Students are strongly encouraged to contact their district office director
of finance to secure pertinent documents. Many districts have developed pamphl
ets/
booklets/handouts to assist first year principals in learning the financial practices of the district.
All district office documents should also be included in
Appendix B
.
Appendix C
will include
all electronic documents such as the South Carolina F
unding Manual, Act 135, EIA, etc. (See
handout for all required electronic documents).


Sample Materials for Appendices

This is not a comprehensive list of required materials. The student should strive to secure as many appropriate
materials as available
.

School District Budget Calendar

Title I Funding Handbook

Title I Funding Plan

Act 135 Funding Plan

Monthly Budget Report

Classified/Certified Salary Index

Procurement Code




9


MAJOR REFERENCES


Wood, Craig R. (2010).
Principles of School Business Management
. Reston, Virginia:
ASBO International.
This text is designed to serve as a basic reference for practicing school
business administrators and as a guide for graduate classes in school business management.
Official reference guide of the Association of
School Business Officials International

(ASBO
International, 1760 Reston Avenue, Suite 411, Reston, VA 11090).



Webb, L.D., McCarthy, M.M., & Thomas, S.B. (2010).
Financing Elementary and
Secondary Education
. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.
T
his text is intended for
use in graduate courses in school finance. The authors have limited their coverage to primarily
those topics that are most closely associated with school finance theory and practice
.



Monk, David H. (2008).
Educational Finance:

An Economic Approach
. New York:
McGraw
-
Hill Publishing Company.
School finance studied within economic theory
.



Odden, A.R. & Picus, L.O. (2010).
School Finance: A Policy Perspective
. New York:
McGraw
-
Hill Publishing Company.



Burrup, P. E., Brimley
, V. & Garfield, R.R. (2010).
Financing Education in a Climate of
Change (Tenth Edition)
. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


R. Kent Murray, Ed.D.

EDUC 527

Fall

2012

Ethnographic Field Study/Budget Portfolio

Grade Summary Sheet

ELCC Indicator 3.1b, 3.1c, 3.3b, 4.
3c, 5.3a, 6.1c


I.

Finance Interviews

a. Principal






(10 points)

_____

b. Bookkeeper





(7 points)

_____

c. Attendance Clerk





(3 points)

_____

*Interview form submitted with signatures

(5 points)

_____







Section I Total

____

II.

Appendices

a. Ap
pendix A (5 points)






_____

b. Appendix B (5 points)






_____

c. Appendix C (5 points)






_____





Section II Total



_____





TOTAL SCORE



_____


Comments:








10


APPE
NDIX A

Leadership for Learner
-
Centered Education


http://www.citadel.edu/education/about_us/conceptual_framework.html


Standard 1:

The Knowledgeable Leader (CF 1) committed to Learner
-
Centered Education:



(PI 1) Knows in
-
depth the subject matter of h
is/her field of professional study and practice in
education (CF 1.1)



(PI 2) Demonstrates and applies an understanding of developmental and learning theories (CF
1.2)



(PI 3) Understands instructional and/or leadership theory and applies that knowledge to

best
educational practice (CF 1.3)



(PI 4) Uses the knowledge gained from professional study to develop and implement an
educational program that is varied, creative and nurturing (CF 1.4)



(PI 5) Understands the cultural characteristics and diversity of
learners in the context of their
individual differences (CF 1.5)

Standard 2:

The Effective and Reflective Instructional Leader (CF 2) committed to Learner
-
Centered Education:



(PI 6) Develops and describes his/her philosophy of education and reflects upon

its impact in the
teaching and learning environment (CF 2.1)



(PI 7) Develops and manages meaningful educational experiences that address the needs of all
learners with respect for their individual and cultural characteristics (CF 2.2)



(PI 8) Constructs,

fosters and maintains a learner
-
centered environment in which all learners
contribute and are actively engaged (CF 2.3)



(PI 9) Applies his/her understanding of both context and research to plan, structure, facilitate, and
monitor effective teaching and l
earning in the context of continual assessment (CF 2.4)



(PI 10) Researches his/her own practice by reflectively and critically asking questions and
seeking answers (CF 2.5)

Standard 3:

The Ethical and Professional Leader (CF 3) committed to Learner
-
Cente
red
Education:



(PI 11) Models responsible moral and ethical professional behavior (CF 3.1)



(PI 12) Demonstrates a belief that acceptance of the role of an educator means continual
participation and growth in and contribution to the profession (CF 3.2)



(
PI 13) Grounds him/herself in self
-
knowledge and self
-
acceptance that leads to the creation of
open, trusting, collaborative relationships and shared decision making (CF 3.3)



(PI 14) Supports the value of diversity within an inclusive school community

(CF

3.4)



(PI 15) Risks engagement in change processes to further the improvement of the profession (CF
3.5)





11

The Dispositions of Leadership for Learner
-
Centered Education (Appendix A continued)

Upon completion of a program, candidates are expected to demons
trate those values,
commitments, beliefs and attitudes intrinsic to:

Leadership
practices that aim to ensure that (D1) all students learn to their maximum potential

by:



D1.1 Accepting responsibility for assisting all students to succeed.



D1.2 Helping to
shape a positive sense of self value and determination for students.



D1.3 Modeling "best practice" with the use of effective and varied activities,

techniques, and strategies.



D1.4 Seeking to maximize learning for students with difficulties.

Leadership

practices that evidence (D2) high expectations for teaching and learning

by:



D2.1 Believing in and becoming an advocate for the educability of all.



D2.2 Fostering warmth, caring, and humor in actions and interactions.



D2.3 Encouraging the variety of way
s in which students can learn.



D2.4 Promoting continuous efforts toward improvement.



D2.5 Communicating a willingness to try new ideas.

Leadership
practices that reflect (D3) sensitivity to individual, community, and cultural
differences

by:



D3.1 Examin
ing the school environment for equity and respect for differences.



D3.2 Recognizing and valuing a variety of ideas, values, and cultures.



D3.3 Promoting the benefits that diversity brings to the school community.



D3.4 Using information about individual,

community, and cultural differences as a
foundation for providing meaningful experiences within the school environment.

Leadership
practices that provide for (D4) constructive and collaborative professional
interactions

by:



D4.1 Modeling openness, active

listening and reflection in professional conversations.



D4.2 Seeking the inclusion of all members of the school community.



D4.3 Valuing others opinions and judgments.



D4.4 Subordinating one's own interest to the good of the school community.

Leadershi
p
practices that exhibit (D5) responsible and ethical professionalism

by:



D5.1 Accepting responsibility, being reliable, and exhibiting professional demeanor.



D5.2 Using one's influence constructively and productively.



D5.3 Bringing ethical principles to

the decision
-
making process.



D5.4 Addressing situations with an inquiring, problem solving, and reflective orientation.






12

Leadership
practices with (D6) continuous examination of one's personal assumptions, beliefs,
and performance

by:



D6.1 Valuing lif
e long learning and professional development for self and other.



D6.2 Participating in professional activities beyond one's daily educational role.



D6.3 Reflecting on one's philosophical stance to refine and strengthen practice.