Biological Chemistry and Microbiology

arkansasmoldwarpBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

224 views

1


VSUPGCET
-
2013 : SYLLABUS

02
-
BIO
TECHNOLOGY


SECTION
-
A

Cell Biology and Genetics

Cell Structure, Function and Cell Division

1.1


Cells as basic units of living organisms; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells



1.2


Ultra structure of prokaryotic cell (Cell membrane)

1.3


Ultra structure of eukaryotic cell (Cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, chloroplast,

endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles).

1.4


Chromosome organization and structure of specialized chromosomes (Polytene and Lamp
Brush)

1.5


Cell Division ; signif
icance of mitosis and meiosis

Mendel’s Laws and Mechanism of Inheritance


2.1

Mendel’s experiments


Factors contributing to success of Mendel’s experiments

2.2

Law of segregation


Monohybrid ratio

2.3

Law of Independent assortment


Dihybrids,

2.4

Deviation from Mende
l’s Laws
-

partial or incomplete dominance, co
-
dominance

2.5

Epistatic gene interaction

complementary, inhibitory and supplementary interaction

2.6

Linkage and recombination


Discovery of linkage, cytological proof of crossing

over

Recombination frequency and
map distance

2.9

Mechanism of sex determination


Homogametic and Heterogametic theory (Human, Birds)

2.10


X


linked inheritance (eg. Haemophilia)

S
tructure and Function of Nucleic Acids


3.1

DNA as the genetic material


Griffiths experiments on transformation in

Streptococcus
pneumoniae
. Avery, McEleod and Mc Carty’s experiments. Hershey


Chase experiments
with radio
-
labelled T
2

bacteriophage

3.2

RNA as genetic material


Tobacco Mosaic Virus

3.3

Structure of DNA


Watson and Crick Model

3.4

DNA Replication
-
Mechanisms of
DNA replication


Linear and circular


Rolling circle and
theta mechanism of replication

3.6.

DNA damage and Repair


Concepts of Biostatistics and Bioinnformatics

4.1

Concept of probability, basic laws and its application to Mendelian segregation.

4.2

Concep
t of probability distribution. Binomial and Poisson distributions, Normal
distribution and their application to biology

4.3

Concept of sampling and sampling distribution. Concept of test of hypothesis.
Applications of t
-
test statistics to biological problem
s/data:

4.4

Simple Regression and Correlation.

4.5

Introduction to Bioinformatics

Biological Databases


Nucleotide sequence and Protein databases, their utilization in
Biotechnology,


SECTION
-
B

Biological Chemistry and Microbiology


Biomolecules






1.1

Carbohyd
rates : Importance, classification and properties

2


1.2

Structure, configuration and biochemical importance of glucose, sucrose, cellolose and
hyaluronic acid


1.3 Proteins : Classification, structure and properties amino acids

1.4

Primary, secondary, t
ertiary and quaternary structures of proteins

1.5

Lipids : Fatty acids : (Saturated and unsaturated) Phospholipids (phosphatidic acid,


phosphatidylcholine)

1.6

Enzymes : Classification and nomenclature of enzymes

1.7

Factors influe
ncing enzymatic reactions

(a)

pH (b) Temperature (c) Substrate concentration (d) Enzyme concentration

1.8

Enzyme Inhibition


Competitive and non
-
competitive


Intermediary Metabolism


2.1



Glycolysis

2.2



Citric acid cycle

2.3



Gluconeogenesis and its si
gnificance

2.4



Mitochondrial electron transport



Chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis



2.5


-
Oxidation of fatty acid


2.6

Deamination, decarboxylation and transamination reactions of amino acids

Fundamentals of Microbiology



3.1

Outlines of
classification of microorganisms

3.2

Structure and general characters of Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi and Micro Algae


(one example from each group)

3.3 Disease causing pathogens and their symptoms (examples; Typhoid, HIV only)

3.4

Isolation, identification

and preservation of microorganisms (Bacteria)

3.5


Methods of sterilization

3.6 Bacterial reproduction and growth kinetics (Batch and continuous cultures)

Principles and Applications of Biophysical Techniques


4.1


Microscopy


Light, Inverted, Fluoresc
ent and Electron microscopy

4.2


Colorimetry


Beer


Lambert’s Law

4.3


Chromatography

(a) Paper (b) Thin Layer (c) Ion
-
exchange (d) Gel
-
filtration

4.4


Electrophoresis


Native gels and SDS
-
PAGE, Agarose

4.5


Basic Principles of centrifugation

4.6




SECTION
-
C


Applicati
ons of Biotechnology


Cell and tissue culture technology

1.1

Principles of animal cell culture
-

culture media, importance of serum
-

cell lines
propogation and maintenance.

1.2

Stem cell
-

types, isolation and identification techiniques and applications of stem c
ell
technology

1.3

Principles of plant cell and tissue culture
-

composition of MS medium
-

its significance
-

role of plant growth regulators in differentiation
-

Meristem culture, clonal propogation of
plants
-

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis.

1.4

Clonal

propogation of economically importance plants (Banana)

1.5

Production of secondary metabolities through plant tissue culture.

3


Production and processing of rDNA products and therapeutics

2.1

Microbial production of rDNA proteins
-

Insulin
-

EGF, Sterptokinase

2.2

Larg
e scale production
-
structure of typical bioreactors
-

fermentation process
-

Optimization of production of rDNA proteins
-

Control of foam and pH

2.3

Downstream processing
-

continuous centrifugation techiniques, cell distruption,
purification of rDNA protein
s using affinity tags

2.4

Molecular farming
-

Production of therapeutics in milk
-

Production of edible vaccines
-

Production of Human Growth hormone.

Environmental Biotechnology

3.1

Introduction to environmental biotechnology; Energy
-

non
-
renewable energy r
esources
-

pollution, depletion.

3.2

Non conventional energy sources: Biofuels
-

Biobutanol, Bioethanol
-

cellulolytic production
of ethanol
-

production and significance
-

Biological hydrogen production
-

rodobacter
capsulaters and its significance,

3.3

Fermentati
ve production of beverages and organic acids (citric acid)

3.4

Biological nitrogen fixation
-

mechanism and significance, Biofertilizers and biopesticides

3.5

Microbial mineralization of xenobiotcs and environmental pollutants
-

Biodegradation of
petroleum hydroca
rbons
-

application of transgenic microbes
-

Super Bug in environmental
clean up

Embryo Transfer and Transgenic Technology

4.1

Isolation and preservation of gametes/ embryos
-

Artificial insemination,

in vitro
fertilization,
super ovulation
-

Synchronization o
f estrus cycle

4.2

Transgenic animal
-

Production fast growing fish, disease resistant cow, Harward mouse

4.3

Transgenic plants
-

Bt cotton, Golden rice

4.4

Gene therapy
-

principles and applications

4.5

Bio
-
thics
-

intellectual property rights
-

patency

-
oOo
-