Temperature Monitor and

argumentwildlifeUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

90 views

Temperature Monitor and
Control for Infant Incubators

Team Members: Kristin Donato and
Qingwen

Kawaji

Who Needs Incubators?


Temperature regulation is one of the
most important factors affecting
survival

in
newborn infants
.



Premature infants
are at an even greater disadvantage because of the
larger skin surface area to body mass ratio, decreased subcutaneous fat, and
low supplies of brown fat
. Also, the normal surge in metabolic rate that
occurs after birth is reduced in preterm infants, resulting in
limited heat
production
.


[
Antonucci
, R., et al.
The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments
.
Journal of
Perinatal

Medicine
. 37(6): 587
-
98.]



In
developing countries
, neonatal complications including
prematurity
and

low
-
birth weight
are common, and thus the use of
infant incubators may considerably contribute to reducing infant morbidity
and mortality. Unfortunately, the
limited access to modern, high
-
tech
incubators
along with the
lack of infrastructure and replacement parts
render such devices worthless in these regions.


[
Antonucci
, R., et al.
The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments
.
Journal of
Perinatal

Medicine
. 37(6): 587
-
98.]

Problem
Available Solutions Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Why Incubators?


Infants typically lose heat to their environment in four different
ways: through
conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation
.



Premature brain

cannot provide
adequate temperature regulation
.


[Dr. Van
Hemel
. HEBI
-
incubator.org]



Studies have shown that
creating an environment of ideal
temperature

for infants
increases the survival rate
.


[Day, Richard L., et al.
Body Temperature and Survival of Premature Infants.
Pediatrics

34.2 (1964): 171
-
81. ]



One of the very first incubators, invented by
Stéphane

Tarnier

in the
late 19
th

century, reportedly
reduced mortality among infants
with
birth weights between 1200 and 2000 g
from 66% to 38%
.


[
Auvard
, A.
De La
Couveuse

Pour
Enfants
.
Archives de
Tocologie

des Maladies des Femmes et des
Enfants

Nouveau
-
nés
.

10:577
-
609, October 1883.]


Problem
Available Solutions Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Giraffe Incubator


Most recent product of GE Health Care


Advantages:



Precise temperature control


Minimizes external stress such as light, sound
and touch.


Built in scale


X
-
ray can be taken from the canopy


Built in rotating mattress & for pressure point
release (Patented Baby Susan)


Humidifier tested to avoid the spread of
pseudomonas
aeruginosa
. (common pathogen
linked to use of ambient relative humidity)



Disadvantages:



Needs professional personnel: Need to take a
class provided by GE in order to be qualified to
use the incubator. (cost: $3185)


Very expensive: $30,000
-
40,000



Vendor’s Site:
https://www2.gehealthcare.com/portal/site/usen/menuitem.e8b305b80b84c1b4d6354a1074c84130/?vgnextoid=470117398714
0210VgnVCM10000024dd1403RCRD&productid=3701173987140210VgnVCM10000024dd1403


Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

“Car Part” Incubator


Advantages:



Made from readily available parts


Moderately cheap ($1,000)


Glass is more “baby safe”



Disadvantages



Difficult to assemble


New design with no study on
infection rates


No sleeves for contact with the
infant


No fine temperature control


Center for Integration of Medicine &
Innovative Technology (CIMIT)
Global Health Initiative and Design
that Matters project from 2008

Vendor’s Site: http://www.cimit.org/images/programs/GHI_Incubator_Handout.pdf

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

“Car Part” Incubator


Made from:



Exterior metal and windows


Heater and fan system


Battery


Lights and alarm system



How it works:



Automotive parts are capable of being repurposed to produce
heat, light, air convection, a power reservoir, as well as auditory
and visual alarms.



Vendor’s Site: http://www.cimit.org/images/programs/GHI_Incubator_Handout.pdf

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

HEBI (
Hemel

Baby Incubator)


Advantages:



Relatively Cheap (about $600 USD)


Reliable (oldest incubators are still operational
w/o any serious maintenance)


Includes hygrometer for humidity control


Excellent infection control


Sleeves for unlimited contact


Assembly takes only about an hour for an
untrained person



Disadvantages:



Does not have a motor


No fine temperature control


Consumes 150 Watt/hr


Must be shipped by plane from the Amsterdam
airport

First

built

in

Uganda

in

1968
.

About

25

new

incubators

are

supplied

each

year,

and

the

basic

model

comes

as

a

construction

kit
.

They

are

manufactured

with

aid

from

many

sponsors
.

Vendor’s Site: http://www.hebi
-
incubator.org/templates/heb/global/index.php?lngid=2&sqlmode=1&fid=395

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project




Made from:



Light bulbs


Container to hold water (for humidity)


Thermostat


Perspex and Wood



How it works:



Light bulbs heat air in the bottom part of the incubator. The air passes over a
container with evaporating water, so that its humidity increases. The warm, humid
air then flows upwards (chimney effect) into the baby compartment. A thermostat in
an exit hole compares the air temperature with the desired temperature. If it is too
high, the light bulbs will be switched off; if it is too low, the bulbs will be switched
on. The baby can be viewed through

Perspex and it can be handled via two armholes
with sleeves. The

Perspex front and top can be hinged back for full access.

HEBI (
Hemel

Baby Incubator)

Vendor’s Site: http://www.hebi
-
incubator.org/templates/heb/global/index.php?lngid=2&sqlmode=1&fid=395

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Kangaroo Mother Care


Started in Bogota, Columbia.


Advantages:



Allows interact with mother.


Allow early and exclusive breastfeeding


Psychological and mental support between
mother and baby.


Babies stabilize faster on skin to skin care


Easy to assemble


Free



Disadvantages:



Increase risk of infectious disease due to
mother infant contact.


Cumbersome for the mother


Cannot get a full naked view of the baby

Site: http://www.kangaroomothercare.com/index.htm

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Comparison of Incubators

Specifications

Giraffe

Car

Part
Incubator

HEBI

Kangaroo

Our
Project

Cheap

X













Preventing

i
nfections




X




X

TBD

Easy

to use

X

X










Infant visibility










X




Accuracy

of temperature
control




X

X







Low

maintenance

X













Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Incubator Basics


What does it do:



Keep an infant’s core temperature
stable at
37
˚C


Additional features:


Humidify


Increase
oxygen

supply


Provide a
sterile

environment



How does is work:



The
mattress

is usually enclosed by a
clear plastic canopy


Temperature in the incubator is increased by a
heater element below the mattress


Motor driven fan
draws in fresh air through a filter and blows it past the heater, warming the air.


Air is directed up
through slots in to the area above the mattress and
circulated around
.


Air temperature is monitored by
temperature sensor
and adjusted by controlling the current to
the heater.


Humidity

is increased by
water baths
(passive) or dripping water on a heated element (active).


The baby is cared for through special access doors called
arm ports
.

Flinders University School of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering. http://www.fbe.org.au/Clin/BasicEquipment/Infan
tIn
cubator.htm

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design
Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Design Specifications for Consideration


Low
-
cost


Low power consumption


Well
-
insulated


Sterile


Humid


Allows for infant visibility


Allows for infant accessibility


Easy monitoring and control of temperature


Easy to build and use


Accessibility of materials in third world countries

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design
Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Project Goal


Depending on
time, research
and modify this
to make it more
cost and energy
efficient.



If completed,
work to deploy
the incubator
to needed areas
for use.

24”

6


36”

24”

Main compartment for
infant with front and
top panels of sterile,
insulating film

Humidifying Compartment
with Circulator Fans



Design an incubator with the given specifications using previous case studies of
incubators, the EWH temperature control alarm legacy project, and current research as
examples.

Problem

Available Solutions
Project Design
Parts Needed Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Top that will open for
easy access

Problem

Available Solutions Project Design
Parts Needed
Project Results Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Material

Details

Unit Price

Plywood

(0.5“ or thicker)

1
-

36
”x
30


panel

(back)


2
-

30
”x
18


panels

(sides)


1
-

34
.
5
”x
18


panel

(main

comp
.

bottom)


1
-
36
”x
6


panel

(front

bottom)

1
-

36


x

18


panel

(humidity

comp
.

bottom)


FREE!

(<

$
30
)

Support Wood


(1.5” x 1.5” in width)

2
-
36


length

(front

and

back

top
-

for

access

frame)


4
-

15


length

(top

sides

for

access

frame

and

main

frame)


2
-
35


length

(front

and

back

top
-

for

main

frame)


1
-
31
.
5


length

(front

bottom
-

for

main

frame)


4
-
22
.
5


length

(up
-
and
-
down

corner

supports

for

main

frame)


2
-
5
.
5


length

(front

bottom

for

humidifying

compartment)


$
6
.
10

(Home

Depot)


Hinges (2 sets)

For

access

frame


$
5
.
96

(Home

Depot)


ULINE Polyethylene Window
Insulator


In

place

of

plexiglass
.

0
.
004


thickness,

clear

polysheeting
.

0
.
006


thickness

used

to

further

insulate

walls
.

FREE!

(<

$
10
)

Power Supply

12

V/

16
.
7

A


$
100


Heater

Car

Heater



12

V,

150

W

$
9


PC Fans (2)

12

V/

0
.
13
A


FREE!


Temperature Control System

MX
052

digital

temperature

controller


$
39
.
99

Water Pan to Maintain Humidity

Baking

pan

from

any

local

store


<

$
2

Electrical Supplies (wire, electrical tape, etc)

Available

in

Clark

223


<

$
5


Misc (screws, double
-
sided tape, etc)

Available

in

Clark

223

or

readily

available

from

personal

supply


<

$
5


Total


<

$
215

Results of the Project


An working infant incubator made of common or readily available
parts



Less than $215



Very easy to construct



Easy to use


Problem

Available Solutions Project Design Parts Needed
Project Results
Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

Future Improvements (for commercial incubators)

Factor

Unresolved Issues

Possible Solutions

Temperature control

Heat loss from the newborn



Eddies around the newborn

To develop advanced temperature control systems

To use double
-
walled incubators

Appropriate air temperature (22

26˚C) in the NICU

To develop advanced air circulation systems

Noise environment

High noise levels inside the incubator
(external and internal sources)

To attenuate environmental sound

(acoustical foam, sound absorbing panels)

To reduce the noise generated within the incubator
(motor)

To reduce human
-
related sources (NICU staff) of noise

Light environment

Continuous lighting

and bright light
(NICU environment)

To promote circadian lighting

To reduce the amount of light within the incubator
(covers)

Electromagnetic

Fields

Relevant EMF

levels within the
incubator

To redesign the position of various incubator components

To implement ferromagnetic panels

To increase the distance between incubator and
electronic equipment

Problem

Available Solutions Project Design Parts Needed Project Results
Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project

[
Antonucci
, R., et al.
The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments
.
Journal of
Perinatal

Medicine
. 37(6): 587
-
98.]

Future Improvements (for our incubator)


low internal noise level (below the 60
dBA

limit during normal
operation)



attenuation of environmental noise and noisy incubator
reverberating effects



low level of EMFs at extremely low frequencies within the incubator
baby compartment



oxygen connector which allows delivering supplemental oxygen to
the baby, if necessary


Problem

Available Solutions Project Design Parts Needed Project Results
Future Work

K. Donato
-

Infant Incubator Project