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Jan 31, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

2


The database approach to data management provides
significant advantages over the traditional file
-
based
approach






Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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A well
-
designed and well
-
managed database is an
extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making





Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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The number and types of database applications will
continue to evolve and yield real business benefits






Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Introduction


Database management system (DBMS):

group of
programs that manipulate database and provide interface
between database and users


Database administrator (DBA):

a skilled information
systems professional who directs all activities related to
organization’s database

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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The Traditional Approach Versus the
Database Approach


Traditional approach
: separate data files are created and
stored for each application program


Results in data redundancy: duplication of data in separate
files


Data redundancy conflicts with data integrity (the degree to
which the data in any one file is accurate)


Database approach:

approach whereby a pool of related
data is shared by multiple application programs; offers
significant advantages over traditional file
-
based approach

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Table 5.1: Advantages of the

Database Approach

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Table 5.1: Advantages of the Database
Approach (continued)

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Table 5.2: Disadvantages of the
Database Approach

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Popular Database Management
Systems


Popular DBMSs for end users include Microsoft’s Access
and Corel’s Paradox


The complete database management software market
includes databases by IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft


Examples of open
-
source database systems: PostgreSQL
and MySQL


Many traditional database programs are now available on
open
-
source operating systems

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Applications: Linking the
Company Database to the Internet


Corporate databases can be accessed by customers,
suppliers, and company employees through:


The Internet


Intranets


Extranets

Data Resource Management

Chapter 3


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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What about this concerning DRM?


“I have traveled the length & breadth of this country and
talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data
processing is a fad that won’t last out the year”.


The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall
(1957)


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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What about this concerning DRM?


“It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has
data”.


Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1892)


Sherlock Holmes


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Functions


2. Transform data into information


3. Provide security


Who has access. Part of
Sarbox.


4. Allow multi
-
user access


5. Allow programming & Query Lang. ability

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Resource Management


Data is a resource


Data must be organized (table)


Data must be managed


(backup & retrieval


Add records


Delete records


Business survival depends on information regarding
internal & external environ.

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Data Resource Management


What is the external environment?


Government: Fed., state, city, county

New laws, changes in laws, mandates,
compliance


World Economics


Politics


Competitors


Demographics


Suppliers


Technology (hardware, software, etc.


Customers

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Resource Management


A managerial activity


Applies IS technology to managing data resources to


meet needs of business stakeholders.


IS technology (from above)


DBMS


Data warehousing


Data mining


Center for Data Integrity (CDI)


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Foundation Data Concepts (continued)


Database


Integrated collection of logically related data elements


Consolidates records into a common pool of data
elements


Data is independent of the application program using
them and type of storage device

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Foundation Data Concepts (continued)

Files (table)


A group of related records



Records


Related fields of data


Collection of attributes that describe an entity













Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Foundation

Data Concepts


Levels of data


Field


Groupings of characters


Represents an attribute of some entity

Entity

»
Person

»
Place

»
Object

»
event


Character


Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Logical Data Elements


What are
they?

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Logical Data Elements


Compare the previous figure with the data that was
organized before computers.


Is that older system still used?


Since data entry bookkeeping?


Can you have more than one database in your
organization? If so, why would you want this?


One database

1 or more tables


Separate databases


1 or more tables

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Logical Data Elements


Who will organize the data (database, tables,
records, fields, entities) in your organization.


3
rd

generation language


Very procedural


4
th

generation language


managers can use it.


Who will use the data in your organization?


Who will maintain the data in your org.’s database?


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Types of Databases


Operational


Supports business processes and operations


Also called subject
-
area databases, transaction
databases, and production databases


Examples


HR database


Inventory database


Customer database


E
-
commerce databases

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Types of Databases (continued)


External


Available for a fee from commercial sources or with
or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web
or your supplier DB’s.


Sources are almost endless


External can be download into DBMS Remember that
DBMS is a decision support tool.
Example?


Infor. From the DBMS can be downloaded in to a
variety of applications for
analysis
.

Excel. Also a decision support tool.
Example?


Database inform. can be accessed by Excel. Excel
information can be accessed by DB.


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Warehouses and Data
Mining


Data warehouse


Stores data extracted from operational, external, or
other databases of an organization


Central source of “structured” data


May be subdivided into data marts


Subsets of data that focus on specific aspects of the co.,
e.g., by department or process.


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data warehouse


Data acquisition


This process includes activities


Consolidating data from several sources


Filtering out unwanted data


Correcting incorrect data


Converting data to new data types


The data is then stored so that it can be moved into
the enterprise warehouse


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Warehouse


Enterprise warehouse


Can then be moved into data marts or


To analytical data stores


Holds data in a more useful form for certain types of
data so that it can be used by OLAP applications.


Link to OLAP

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Warehouses and Data Mining
(continued)


Data mining


A major use of data warehouse databases


Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations,
patterns, and trends


In vast amounts of data

Usually several terabytes of data.

»
4, 000,000,000,000 bytes

»
Its above gigabytes


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Mining (continued)

Data mining software uses:


Advanced pattern recognition algorithms


Variety of math & statistical techniques


To filter through data to extract previously unknown
strategic business information.


Examples:

New or change products

New or change services

Marketing activities

Organizational change/process change


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Management Approach)


DBMS serves as an interface between the users and
databases.


Controls how databases and objects are


Created


Interrogated


Maintained


So users can easily access the data in the database


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Management Approach
(continued)


Database Interrogation


3
rd

Generation. Programming languages


4
th

Generation. SQL and then QBE


Query


Supports ad hoc requests


Can save queries


Tells the software how you want to organize the data
and what data that you want?


QBE has a graphical user interface (GUI)


Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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SQL & Natural Languages

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Database Management Approach
(continued)


Report Generator


Turns results of a table or query into a useable report


Can specify a report format.


Examples of report formatting ???


Can these report formats be saved ???


Reports are linked to a table


Can a report also be linked to a query ??? If so, why
would you want to do this ???




Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Maintenance


Database Maintenance


What is this? 3 simple things that are imp.


Add records


Delete records


Change the nature of records


Why must this occur?


Who does it, usually?

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Section II




The remaining slides are from
information from your text for
Chapter 5

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Data Structures


The relationships among the many individual data
elements stored in databases are based on one of
several logical data structures or models


DBMS packages are designed to use a specific data
structure to provide end users with quck & easy
acces to information stored in a DB.


5 database structures

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Structures


Hierarchical


Early mainframe DBMS packages used this


Treelike or hierarchical


All of the relationships are one
-
to
-
many


Used for structured, routine types of transaction
processing


Not very flexible. One
-
to
-
many relationships only.

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Structures (continued)


Network structure


More complex


Relationships must be specified in advance


More flexible


Many
-
to
-
many relationship


More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests
well

Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition

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Database Structures (continued)


Relational structure


Data elements stored in simple tables


Relationships do not have to be specified when the
database is created.


Can link data elements from various tables


Can create new tables of data relationships using parts
of data from several tables.


Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at
processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or
network models


Easier to maintain