KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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J.B. Speed School of Engineering
University of Louisville

KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit

Step 2: Assess Performance & Opportunities

Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems

Kentucky Energy Efficiency

Program for Schools

KEEPS Energy

Management Toolkit

Step 2

Assess Performance &
Opportunities


Toolkit 2
E

Evaluating School HVAC
Systems


KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit

Toolkit 2E: Evaluating School HVAC Systems

KEEPS

Energy

Management

Toolkit

Toolkit 2
E

Evaluating School HVAC
Systems

2

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

7
-
Step Energy Management Process

1.
Make the Commitment

2.
Assess Performance and
Opportunities

3.
Set Performance Goals

4.
Create an Action Plan

5.
Implement the Action Plan

6.
Evaluate Progress

7.
Recognize Achievements

3

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

4

Evaluating School HVAC Systems
Overview

Importance


KEEPS Five
-
step HVAC Evaluation Process


KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment Forms


KEEPS Energy Assessment Tools


KEEPS Assessment Report

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Why evaluate a school’s HVAC
system?


Gain knowledge and understanding of
HVAC systems and how they impact energy
use and performance



Identify future upgrades or replacement for
poor
-
performing equipment



Make recommendations and present
Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs)
to district stakeholders

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

6

A typical K
-
12 school HVAC system
consumes 58% of its energy usage

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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KEEPS HVAC Evaluation Process

Step 1:

Identify and Document Equipment and
Controls

Step 2:

Conduct a Visual Inspection of all
Systems

Step 3:

Review Operations and Maintenance
Programs

Step 4:

Evaluate HVAC Controls

Step 5:

Identify Energy Management
Opportunities (EMOs)

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

8

Recommended Tools


Assortment of Screwdrivers


Flat
-
head (slotted) and crossed (Phillips)


Various sizes


Flashlight


Digital Camera


Helpful and highly recommended

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Step 1: Identify and Document
Equipment and Controls


Review all HVAC
equipment


Gather information on
equipment including
identification, ratings,
fuel type and age


Sources include:


Facility staff and school
personnel


Rating plates


Building drawings and
specifications

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

10

KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment
Form for HVAC Systems
-

Equipment

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
1


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12

HVAC Systems Assessment Form
2


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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
3

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
4


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Step 2: Conduct a Visual Inspection
of All Systems


See first
-
hand the condition of the HVAC
Equipment


Get a general observation and feel for
the condition of the HVAC Systems.


Perform the Step 2 visual inspection during the
Step 1 identification process.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Observe the Overall Appearance of
the Equipment


Motors and Belts (Noisy, Squeal)


Dampers (Linkage Connected, Lubricated)


Filters and Fans (Dirty)


Bearings (Noisy)


Duct Connections (Air Leakage)


Condenser and Evaporator Coils (Dirty)


Burners (Dirty)


Insulation (Missing or Damaged)


Piping and Valves (Leaking)

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
5

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
6

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Systems Assessment Form
7

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Step 3: Review Operations and
Maintenance (O&M) Programs


Verify if maintenance and repairs are
performed on a regular basis


Confirm what type of record
-
keeping is
maintained


Verify if any labeling is performed to
facilitate O&M


Verify if personnel are properly trained

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

21

Review Current O&M Programs


Does a preventative maintenance
program exist?


Are any predictive maintenance activities
performed?


Are any informal records available
pertaining to repairs and maintenance?

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

22

Are HVAC Systems and Components
Labeled?

23

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

O&M Training


Are training needs being addressed?


Is there any specialized equipment that
requires staff training?


Have other personnel received training
(i.e. teachers trained on programming
thermostats)?

23

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment
Form for HVAC Systems


O&M

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Form Section 1:

Preventative Maintenance

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O&M Form Section 2:

Predictive Maintenance


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O&M Form Sections 3 through 6:

Record Keeping, Labeling, Training,
Reactive vs. Proactive

28

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

Step 4: Evaluate HVAC Controls


Understand what degree of Building
Automation System (BAS) controls are in
place to reduce energy consumption


Review current HVAC temperature
adjustment settings and policies


Review other HVAC controls that may be
used to control energy consumption


Determine commissioning needs

28

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment
Form for HVAC Systems
-

Controls

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Controls Form Section 1:

Building Automation System

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Controls Form Section 2:

Temperature Adjustments

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Controls Form Sections 3 and 4:

Miscellaneous Controls Items and
Commissioning

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Step 5: Identify Energy Management
Opportunities (EMOs)


Use information gathered from steps 1
through 4 to determine potential Energy
Management Opportunities for HVAC
systems and controls

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

34

HVAC Systems EMOs

EMO 1:

HVAC replacement, upgrade,
modifications and/or additions

EMO 2:

O&M program enhancements

EMO 3:

HVAC controls installation and
implementation

EMO 4:

Commissioning, retro
-
commissioning, re
-
commissioning

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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EMO 1: HVAC Considerations



Replacement of the HVAC systems



Upgrade or refurbishment of the
systems

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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EMO 1: HVAC Replacement
Considerations


Age of Equipment.
Is it more than 15
years old or greater than the median age
on the ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table?


Condition of Equipment.
How good or
bad did it look during the visual inspection?


Efficiency Recommendations.
Does the
equipment meet ASHRAE Recommended
Efficiency ratings?

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table

Source:
Limited Condition
Survey and
Usability/Reuse Study
,
page 34. University of
Connecticut Greater
Hartford Campus.
September 10, 2003.

37

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

ASHRAE HVAC

Minimum Efficiency
Ratings

Review equipment
efficiency with
ASHRAE HVAC
Minimum Efficiency
Ratings for Zone 4
K
-
12 Schools


Source:
ASHRAE 30%
Advance Energy Design Guide
for K
-
12 School Buildings
,
page 938. American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air
-
Conditioning Engineers .
September 2010.

38

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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ASHRAE Ratings: Water
-
s
ource Heat Pump

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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EMO 1: HVAC Upgrade/Refurbishment
Considerations


Age of Equipment.
Is it more than 8 years
old, but less than 15?


Condition of Equipment.
How good or
bad did it look during the visual inspection?


Efficiency Recommendations.
If there are
no existing economizers, and heat recovery
and installation looks physically possible,
consider upgrading with economizers.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability


Locate “HVAC & Controls” in
the KEEPS Assessment
Report and describe the
school’s existing HVAC
system.



List HVAC energy
management opportunities
and recommendations.

KEEPS Report Input

41

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

42

EMO 2: O&M Program Enhancements


Review the information recorded on the
KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment Form for
HVAC Systems
-

O&M.


Use observations made during the visual
inspection to assist in evaluating the
effectiveness of current O&M programs.


Provide recommendations based on the extent
and effectiveness of O&M activities observed.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities:

Preventative Maintenance


Recommend a preventative maintenance
program if none exists.



If not practical, then at a minimum,
establish a system for tracking
maintenance and repairs.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities:

Predictive Maintenance


Evaluate benefits of a predictive
maintenance program.


Infrared analysis


Oil analysis


Ultrasonic analysis


Vibration analysis

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities: Record Keeping

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities: Labeling


Recommend the labeling of equipment,
services, piping, valves and other
equipment.



Labeling is an inexpensive and effective
method for helping personnel properly
operate and maintain equipment.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities: Training


Operation and maintenance of existing
equipment


Specialized equipment


Energy reduction policies and
procedures (teachers and staff)


Use of programmable thermostats
(teachers and staff)

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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O&M Opportunities:

Reactive vs. Proactive

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Operations & Maintenance Benefits


Energy savings


Extension of equipment life


Enhanced internal air quality


Elimination of contaminant sources


Increased occupant comfort


Improved reliability


Avoidance of classroom disruptions


Maintenance staff empowerment

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability


Locate “Operations and
Maintenance (O&M) Program”
in the KEEPS Assessment
Report and modify respective
figures and other necessary
words/sentences for your
specific school.



Describe O&M energy
management opportunities
and recommendations.

KEEPS Report Input

50

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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EMO 3: HVAC Controls Installation
and Implementation


Review the information captured on
KEEPS On
-
site Energy Assessment
Form for HVAC Systems
-

Controls



Provide recommendations based on the
extent and effectiveness of HVAC
controls activities observed

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Controls: Energy Management
System (EMS) Opportunities


If a Energy Management System (EMS) exists, then
maintain the system and verify that programming is
updated.


If using programmable thermostats, then upgrade to
an EMS and verify proper thermostat programming.


If timers are used, then upgrade to an EMS and
verify that timers are set correctly.


If using manual thermostats, then upgrade to
programmable thermostats at a minimum.


Consider potential for active outside air controls.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Controls: Temperature
Adjustment Opportunities


If heating and cooling is not adjusted
automatically, then recommend a
program for adjusting be put in place


See KEEPS Energy Management Toolkit
E1: Thermostat Setback Opportunities)



Train personnel that control setbacks

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

54

HVAC Controls: Temperature
Adjustment Opportunities (cont.)


If complaints about the building’s comfort
are non
-
existent or minimal, consider
further modifications to temperature
setbacks.


Review the override capabilities for
temperature adjustment and verify that if
overrides exist, they are properly
controlled.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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HVAC Controls: Miscellaneous

Opportunities


Consider separate controls for zones.



Recommend ventilation fans be shut
down when not required.



Adjust housekeeping schedule to
minimize HVAC impact.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability


Locate “HVAC & Controls” in
the KEEPS Assessment
Report, then modify and add
respective figures and other
necessary words/sentences
for your specific school.



Describe HVAC controls
energy management
opportunities and
recommendations.

KEEPS Report Input

56

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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EMO 4: Commissioning, Retro
-
commissioning and Re
-
commissioning


If the school has never been commissioned,
recommend retro
-
commissioning. If the school has not
been commissioned in 2 to 3 years, recommend re
-
commissioning.


If the school has undergone major building
renovations or expansion or it is planned in the future,
commissioning should be recommended.


If ENERGY STAR
®

Target Finder benchmarked the
school higher than the average CBECS K
-
12 school,
consider commissioning.



If school is due for HVAC replacement, defer
commissioning until equipment is replaced.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Commissioning Benefits


Schools have an average 3.3
-
year
simple payback, or $0.09/ft².


Retro
-
commissioning typically translates
into energy savings of 5 to 15%.


As a result of the process, staff will
understand the building and how to keep
it in optimal condition.

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability


Locate “Retro
-
Commissioning” in the
KEEPS Assessment Report and
modify respective figures and other
necessary words/sentences for your
specific school.



Modify the inset box by multiplying the
building square footage by $.30/sq ft
to obtain cost, and by $.09/sq ft to
obtain estimated annual savings.
Simple payback would be 3.3 years.

KEEPS Report Input

59

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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References

O&M Best Practices

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf


Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems

Http://www.p2pays.org/ref/26/25985.pdf


Recommended Actions Checklist
-

CO


卥S獯牳

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/recommended_actions_checklist


EnergySmart Schools U.S. DOE

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energysmartschools/o
-
and
-
m_guide.html


ASHRAE Energy Design Guides website

http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/938


ASHRAE Life Expectancy Table

http://www.masterplan.uconn.edu/images/0323%20West%20Hartford%20Study.pdf


Collaboration for High Performance Schools

http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/40

KPPC Kentucky’s Resource Center for Environmental Sustainability

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Resources

Available for download from the KEEPS
Toolkit Library


http://www.kppc.org/KEEPS

J.B. Speed School of Engineering
University of Louisville

End of
Presen
tation

(502) 852
-
0965

www.kppc.org/KEEPS


Kentucky Energy Efficiency

Program for Schools

KEEPS is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act through
the combined efforts of the Kentucky Department for Energy Development
and Independence, the U.S. Department of Energy and KPPC.