Session C6 Paper #2308

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Session C6











Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

1

February 10, 2012

ENGINE EFFICIENCY: THE ECOMOTORS SOLUTION


Joey Daubert
(jsd31@pitt.edu
)
,

Andy
Lawniczak

(
ajl73@pitt.edu
)


A
b
s
t
r
a
c
t

As
the world’s demand for
energy continues to
increase, pe
ople look to new technologies to make energy
consumption
efficient
and environmentally friendly. The
inefficient use of fossil fuels, particularly by four stroke
internal combustion engines used in today’s automobiles,
has taken precedence in the discussio
n of energy efficiency.
A suitable solution to this issue is a new engine design that
maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes harmful
emissions. The progressive engine company EcoMotors has
accomplished this with the design of their two
-
stroke
opposed
-
pi
ston opposed
-
cylinder (OPOC) engine.

This
paper will explain and critique how the cutting
-
edge OPOC
engine meets the energy efficiency criteria in a compact,
reliable package. It will also clarify any ethical concerns
associated with the OPOC engine and ho
w it will avoid
these
concerns with its innovative design. The technicalities
of

each separate part of the OPOC engine will be discussed
at length, and they will be compared to the parts of
conventional internal combustion engines to show why the
OPOC engi
ne displays significant improvement in energy
efficiency and emissions.


The OPOC engine is the proper solution to today’s
automobile energy needs due to its direct gas exchange
operation. This type of gas exchange provides the OPOC
with emissions bene
fits comparable to that of the four
stroke engine. Additionally, the compact design allows for
two pistons per combustion chamber, thereby doubling the
energy output of the engine [Technology]. With its
emissions benefits and high energy efficiency, the OP
OC
will epitomize power density in internal combustion
engines.


K
ey

W
o
r
d
s

direct gas exchange,

Ecomotors,

four stroke
,
OPOC engine, power

density, two stroke
.

T
ODAY

S
E
NERGY

C
RISIS

As the world’s very limited supply of fossil fuels continues
to be depleted by society, the demand for energy efficient
and environmentally friendly technologies grows ever more
apparent. With no definitive replacement for fossil fuels in
the immediate fut
ure, the most plausible course of action is
to improve upon the current technologies that are the
primary consumers of these fuel sources. One of the leading
culprits of fuel consumption is the automobile industry. In
2011 in the United States, automobile
fuel use alone
accounted for 8.75 million barrels of fuel consumption.
When combined with the inefficiency of the conventional
internal combustion engine, these substantial amounts of
fuel consumption amount to a considerable waste of energy.
The primary c
oncerns with automobiles involve efficiency


particularly engine efficiency


and
harmful
gas emissions.
In the typical automobile, only about 14%
-
26% of the
energy from the fuel put in the tank gets used to move the
car down the road. The majority of the

remaining energy is
lost through the engine: 60% is lost as heat exhaust and a
combined 10% is lost through combustion, pumping, and
friction. With more cars appearing on the road every day, the
consumption of fuel will continue to increase at an
alarming

rate unless a solution to fuel efficiency is discovered

[5]
.


FIGURE 1

U.S.
FUEL CONSUMPTION


The conventional internal combustion engines are no
longer able to meet the requirements that allow them to keep
pace with the rapidly changing efficiency and emission
standards. The optimal solution to this issue is to develop a
new engine design that max
imizes energy efficiency and
minimizes harmful emissions.
However, today’s most
common internal combustion engine, the four stroke engine,
provides little room in its design for adjustments.
Previous
attempts to redesig
n the four stroke engine

have fallen
short
because they were unable to meet the strict criteria
demanded by automobiles today.

Current four stroke engines are limited to certain
amount
of
efficiency with little variation. When it comes to this type
of engine, the consumer must choose between

having high
engine power or clean fuel emissions. Today’s consumer
demands an engine powerful enough to drive around a full
cab of people and hit top speeds of around 80 miles an hour
or more. In order to achieve this, the engine must have a
substantial s
ize to it. However, this requires higher amounts
of inefficient fuel consumption and ultimately leads to more
harmful emissions.

The emission standards
of the four stroke engine
are met
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Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

2

February 10, 2012

in two ways. The first way is to limit the amount of fuel that
gets i
njected into the cylinder for combustion. Less
combusted fuel means less harmful gases leave the car as
exhaust. However, this also means the engine will have less
power and won’t be able to hit the high speeds that the
consumer demands. The other way auto
mobile
manufacturers reduce emissions is by recycling non
-
combusted gasoline in the exhaust tank back into the
cylind
er and burning it again. Regardless
, with the four
stroke engine, limited efficiency means there will always be
a trade
-
off between engine
power and clean exhaust
emissions.

C
ONVENTIONAL
M
ODELS OF THE
I
NTERNAL
C
OMBUSTION
E
NGINE

Internal combustion engines power many
different types of
machines used today.
The two most commonly used types of
internal

combustion engines used are four stroke and two

stroke engines.
Although these
two types of engines work
through

similar thermodynamic processes, th
ey have a few
differences that allow them to have different applications
.
They both work by combusting fuel
, which causes gases to
expand in the cylinder of the engine. This in turn
creates
enough pressure to push

down a piston which is connected
to a camshaft. T
his causes the camshaft to turn, which
creates a

rotational energy
that is then converted into

usab
le

kinetic energy that can be harnessed and transformed into

motion by the mac
hine. Each of these engines has

different

strengths and downfalls wh
ich make them useful for specific
applications
.




FIGURE 2

S
IMPLE DESIGN OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


The

four stroke
internal combustion engine is the larger
of the two types of engines
.

Four stroke engines have a pair
of valves for ea
ch cylinder. One valve controls
intake, and
the other controls exhaust. The first part of the power
producing cycle for an
y

i
nternal combustion is intake.

A
four stroke engine uses a carefully calibrated timing belt to
open the intake valve while keeping the exhaust valve
closed. This allows an air/fuel mixture to be drawn in as the
piston slides down the cylinder, thus completi
ng

the first
stroke. The cams on the camshaft provide a counter weight
that pushes the piston back up after it takes in fuel. As th
e
piston moves

up
,

it
compresses

the
cold fuel gas and
increases pressure. Near the top of this second stroke, a

spark plug ignites the air/fuel

mixture and causes it to
expand. The gases expand for two reasons
: o
ne reason is the
he
at produced by combustion causes

the gases to expand.

This
expansion process
is pro
ven by the Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT

(
where P=pressure
,

V
=volume of gas
,

n=number
of moles of gas
, R is a constant equal to
0.08205 liter atm /
mol*
kelvin
, and

T=temperature
)
. If this equation is
rearranged to
in terms of the volume (V=
nR
T
/P
)
, it
can be
shown that
as T increases
,

so does volume. The other reason

for the expansion of gas is that

burning gasoline prod
uces
more gas molecules. This

can be
shown by

the basic
balanced chemical equati
on for combustion of gasoline

C
8
H
18

+ 12.5
O
2



9
H
2
O + 8
CO
2
.

Again, this is the basic
formula and does not take into acc
ount other fuel additives
or additional carbon dioxide

caused by

a

lack of
a
sufficient

amount of

O
2

during the combustion process.

Prior to
combustion, t
he air/fuel

mixture

contains

13.5 mole
s

of gas
,
and after combustion there are 17 moles of g
as
. The
Ideal
Gas Law (V=nRT
/P) can again be used to show

that as the
number of moles

(n) increases, so does the volume of the gas

[8]
.

These expanding gases push the piston back down,
which turns the camshaft
, resulting in the third stroke
. This

st
roke is called
the power stroke

because it is what allows
the machine to do work. Finally, during the fourth stroke of
the
engine, the cams rotate and force

the piston back up. As
the piston goes up, the timing belt opens the exhaus
t valve
and allows the

hot
, combusted

g
as to leave the cylinder.
Then the process repeats

[10]
.


FIGURE 3

FOUR STROKE ENGINE DESIGN

Session C6











Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

3

February 10, 2012



FIGURE 4



TYPICAL TIMING BELT IN A FOUR STROKE


Two stroke internal combustion engines use the
same
thermodynamic principles as four strokes to pu
sh the piston
and produce power. H
owever
,

they are designed to do this in
only two strokes of the piston
, as the name implies

(
a

compression stroke and combustion stroke). During the
compression stroke,
the counter weighted cams on the
camshaft push the pis
ton up, compressing the air/fuel

mixture. Then the spark plug ignites the mixture
and the

combustion

pressure

p
ushes the piston back down,
producing

power. During this power stroke,

the engine

will

simu
ltaneously
intake

and
exhaust

gas. It does this by using
open ports on the side of the cylinder wall. The crankcase
that contains th
e camshaft pressurizes the
air
/fuel

mi
xture as
the camshaft rotates. Initially, a
s the piston goes down, gas is
exh
austed th
rough the exhaust port. T
hen
,

as it goes down
fu
rther, the intake port is open
ed

to the combustion chamber
,
allowing the pressurized
air
/fuel

mixture to enter. As the
cams drive the pis
ton back up, the ports are closed

and

more
air
/fuel

mixture

is accepted

into the crankcase
. Then

the
process is repeated
.



FIGURE 5

TWO STROKE ENGINE DESIGN


Four stroke internal combustion engines are the standard

engine for automobiles, mostly due to their ability to
carefully control

the intake and exhaust of fuel
. This

allows
t
hem to meet government emission

standar
ds relatively
easily. Also, the precise

timing

ability of the four stroke
engine makes it

reliable.

Two strokes
,

on the other hand
,

have a
difficult time meeting emission

standards. The type
of

fuel and

air mixture
that is compatible with two strokes
also needs lubricants to be mixed with them so the crankcase
can be lubricated

enough

to ensure that the engine functions
properly. These extra chemicals, as well as
a
sloppy control
of intake and exhaust ga
ses
, generally cause two strokes to

be dirty engines that aren’t meant to be run for a long
amount of time. This is why they are usually used in
smaller
applications such as
weed whackers, lawnmowers, and dirt
bikes. However,
if two strokes were redesigned

to perform
in a cleaner manner, they

would be preferred
over four
strokes due to their compact size. As two strokes
lack
the
extra bulk
of
the
timing belts and

the

valves
, the overall
weight of the engine is significantly less than the four stroke

and

th
u
s contributes to
a
reduction in energy lost to

friction.
Since they produce power every other stroke instead of
every four stroke
s, the two stroke engine is more efficient
(in terms of power)

compared to
the

four stroke engine

[3]
.

T
HE
E
CO
M
OTORS
S
OLUTION

The
four stroke engine

and the two stroke engine each
contain multiple strengths in their designs.
Naturally
, the
ideal

engine would combine the best fe
atures of both of
these engines: the clean emissions and reliability of the four
stroke, with the compac
t size and efficiency of the two
stroke.

However, this feat is not easily accomplished

and
many
previous attempts have not produced a design
sufficient enough to survive in today’s strict

consumer
market. However, a
fter years of research and design, Prof.
Peter Hofbauer
(F
ounder, Chairm
an
,

and Chief Technical
Officer of EcoMotors International
) seems to have found the
optimal

solution to automobile power.
The
solution, called
the

OPOC
engine
,

uses
an
ingenious

engine

design to
combine the efficiency of a

two stroke engine with the clean

emissions of a four stroke.


The OPOC

(opposed
-
piston opposed
-
cylinder)

is
considered a two stroke

engine

because
it produces power
every

other

stroke.

It uses advanced exhaust gas recycling
metho
ds to minimize gas

emissions

with the efficiency of
a
four stroke.

It works by having two horizontally positioned
pistons face each other on each side of the camshaft.
When
one side is ignited and begins expanding, the other side is
exhausting gas and taking in new fuel. A
n
electron
ic turbo

(a
turbo is a compressor driven by the engine’s exhaust)

allows
the car’s
internal
computer

to control proper compression
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Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

4

February 10, 2012

and exhaust depending on engine rotations per minute

(rpms). This turbo also

controls

the flow of exhaust gas
.
Unli
ke standard two strokes, the OPOC does not need oil

or
other chemical additives

to be mixed with its fuel because
the crankcase and outer piston housing have ports for engine
oil.

This eliminates the dirty environment of the typical two
stroke engine and therefore extends its lifespan and broadens
its range of application.

The OPOC also has an
electronically controlled clutch that allows multiple engines
to be connected or disengag
ed to reduce fuel consumption.

The
se parts of the OPOC
engine
are essential

to its design

and they contribute substantially to its overall efficiency

[9]
.

T
HE
B
ENEFITS OF A
D
UAL
P
ISTON
C
YLINDER

Although the OPOC works off of the same thermodynamic
princip
les as other internal combustion engines, its unique
architecture allows it to reduce

the amount of energy lost to

friction and achieve unprecedented levels of efficiency. The
OPOC reduces friction in two ways. The main wa
y is
through a process in which

the center pushrods are almost
always
forced
in
, causing them to experience

a force in the
form of compression, while the outside
pull rods

are always
experiencing tension. These opposing forces cancel out
leaving a resultant force of almost zero on the crankshaft.
Since there is little force on the crankshaft, there is little
friction opposing its rotating motion. The balance of the
OPOC can

be demonstrated by the equation
r
1
*m
1

= r
2
*m
2
,
where r
1
= 45 mm and

r
2
= 35 mm are the inner and outer
throws,

respectively, and m
1

and m
2

are the corresponding,
adjusted reci
procating masses that make both sides equal
to
each other.



FIGURE 6

MODEL OF
OPPOSING PISTONS




This process of rendering friction to be almost
nonexistent within the engine

exemplifies a key difference
between the OPOC and the

standard four stroke internal
c
ombustion engines. Lincoln Hill, public liaison of
EcoMotors I
nternational
, says

the problem with friction in
standard internal combustion engines is “
Primarily a result
of
the balanced crank shaft
. In a typical engine

config
uration
,

there is always something exer
ting pressure
on the crank in a
counterproductive dire
ction, something
the
engine block is designed to
contain


[9].

Since there is les
s
force on the OPOC crankshaft t
he engine block can be made
smaller and lighter,
providing

the OPOC
with greater

power
density. Unlike standard four stroke engines
,

which on
average produce about 1 horsepower for every

3 pounds of
engine weight, the

OPOC

engine

averages
an output of
about 1.1 horsepower per pound. T
he power density of the
OPOC engine is one of the most crucial keys to its success
and efficiency

[3]
.
However, there are more friction
problems EcoMotors had to overcome
. Specifically
,

rubbing
occurred

on the side of the outer pistons where they meet the
pull rods. Although there is a small amount of friction here,
it was important that EcoMotors addressed

this problem
because it could
have easily le
d to wear

and tear

issues after
a lot of usage.
This wear is at two locations:

the piston skirt
and the piston pin. The piston skirt is the bottom part of the
piston head that extends the lowest, opposite the co
mbustion
bowl. When the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke
, it
rocks some in the cylinder;

this rocking is what causes wear.
The OPOC uses cross head type linear bearings to
prevent

these side forces from acting on the piston skirt. Another
problem wi
th two stroke pistons is friction at the piston pin.
Because forces are always acting in the same direction on
the piston head, oil has a tough time getting between the
bearing surface and the pin. The linear bearings cause
a
significant deficiency of

rela
tive motion between the rocking
surfaces and therefore eliminate most friction in this area.
When designing this part of the engine, the
EcoMotor
s

engineers took particular care in making

sure the radi
us of
curvature at this point was

selected to ensure th
at p
ressure at
this contact point was

less t
han the Hertzian pressure.
Hertzian pressure is

the maximum pressure allowed between
two objects that are touching before they start to deform to
each other and wear

[10]
.
It is an important concept of
contact mechanics that the engineers must adhere to in order
to develop the optimal
engine
design. B
y keeping contact
pressure of these bearings below Hertzian pressure,
the
OPOC engine

prevents wear in the piston pin.

K
EY
F
EA
TURES OF THE
F
UEL
I
NTAKE
P
ROCESS

One

of the main features of the OPOC intake is the direct
gas exchange operation. This means that the OPOC has fuel
injectors that spray the proper amount of fuel directly into
the combustion cylinder for optimum operation.

This

is
common in today
'
s four stroke engines and helps them
achi
e
ve low fuel emissions. However, this is an advanced
feature for two stroke engi
nes, because two strokes must
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Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

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February 10, 2012

typically

rely on an
air/fuel

mixture coming up from the
crankcase, which is a s
loppier and less fuel efficient way to
run an engine. This direct fuel injection is also why the
OPOC can run on virtually any liquid fuel a
nd does not
require a fuel/oil mix like standard

two strokes.

Another

key feature of the

OPOC
’s

intake and exhaust
system is its electronically controlled turbo.
The t
urbos for
regular four stroke engines work by using the pressure from
exhaust gas to
turn a turbine that forces

more air into the
combustion cylinder. The high intake air pressure incr
eases

the

compression between the cylinder and the piston, which
translates
in
to more power produced by the engine at certain
rpms. However, turbos have some
difficulty
producing hi
gh
power when going from low
or
id
ling rpms to high rpms
.
The problem occur
s because

the exhaust gas pressure

must
fi
rst build up in order for the turbo to be properly wound up
.
The lack of

power due to the turbo winding

is called turbo
lag in the auto industry. The electric m
otor in the OPOC’s

turbo allows it to spin up the turb
o even when exhaust
pressure is low, thereby eliminating turbo lag. This turbo
was designed to dissipate heat around the electric motor and
be able to withstand the high temperatures of the engine.
This turbo also can be used as a generator that uses exces
s
exhaust gas to make electricity for the car rather than letting
that energy go to waste like standard turbos. Basically, the
e
lectronic turbo allows the OPOC

to control the optimum
intake and exhaust pressures
for certain rpms of the engine
[
5,
7].



FIGURE 7

ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED TURBO DIAGRAM

A
DVANCED
E
XHAUST
S
CAVENGING
S
YSTEM

The OPOC engine contains a few unique features that
allow

it to achieve unprecedented efficiency.

T
he
designers of the
OPOC
at EcoMotors International have claimed that the

engine can achieve
90% cylinder scavenging.

Cylinder
scavenging is a process that recycles fuel from th
e exhaust
that did not fully combust

and puts it back into the
combustion chamber to be burned again. This leads to less
harmful chemicals being produce
d by the engine and
drastically reduces that amount of harmful emissions
.
The
OPOC boasts three

key features that allow it to achieve such
a significant reduction of fuel emissions
. These features are
the electronically controlled turbo, asymmetric port
timing,
and circumferential ports

[1, 3]
.

The electronically controlled turbo
supports

cylinder
scavenging by producing a resistance to exhaust gas
pressure. This resistance causes some combusted fuel to
reenter the cylinder while the exhaust port is still

open.

Asymmetric ports refer

to the ideal locations of the intake
and exhaust ports in the cylinder. S
ince the inner pistons
have a shorter distance to

travel than the outer pistons, the
exhaust port is on their side. This allows the exhaust port to
open before the intake as well as

close after it. Additionally,
t
he intake port is on the outer piston side. This allows the
OPOC to let some of the exhaust
gas

in

before it enters the
turbo to blow back into the cylinder to be burned again.

Circumferential ports refer to the intake and exhaust
ports on the engine. The ports are circumferential because
they wrap around the whole combustion cylinder. This
allow
s for even gas flow

around the cylinder
. Even gas flow
is important to the fluid dynamics of the engine because it
allows it to efficiently move intake and exhaust gases
without causing turbulence that leads to inefficient air flow.

The design and placemen
t of these ports does much more for
the engine than
what

can be
initially
observed
. As said
before, it is important that the exhaust ports allow some
backflow for combusted fuel scavenging. This port has more
advant
ages:

t
he design of the exhaust and intak
e ports allow
the backflow of exhaust gas to hit the fresh fuel coming in
from the intake ports at a tangential angle. Using fluid
dynamics, EcoMotors engineers were able to make the
exhaust gas hit the intake gas

at a tangential angle, causing
the gas to
tumble in a manner

similar to an ocean wave
crashing. This tumble effect promotes swirl in the cylinder.
By having proper swirl of fuel gases in the cylinder, there is
a more homogenous mixture of fresh fuel and recycled fuel.
Therefore, when the mixture i
s ignited during combustion, it
explodes better and therefore produces more power and
increases fuel efficiency.

These features all combine to contribute to a reduction of
harmful

emissions that meet

the

Environmental Protection
Agency 2010 standards for heavy duty commercial trucks
with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR is a
chemical converter on the exhaust end of the engine that
uses a chemical reaction to convert harmful NO
x

gas into
nonhazar
dous N
2

and H
2
O. EcoMotors

International,

as well
as

multiple

independent engineering firms
,

confirmed that
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Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

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February 10, 2012

the OPOC
engine
meets these
requirements;

however
,

the
engine is still
being updated and small changes to its design
are co
ntinuously being made in
an eff
ort to meet
the EPA
standards of converting
NO
x

into nonhazardous compounds
without the use of SCR

[4]
.

M
ODULAR
D
ESIGN OF THE
OPOC

E
NGINE

A unique feature of the OPOC engine is its modular design.
Since the OPOC is extremely well balanced, it can eas
ily be
connected to another OPOC engine next to it for added
power. EcoMotors has designed an electronically controlled
clutch that can engage and disengage multiple engines. The
ability to simply add more OPOC engine
s

to a vehicle

s
drivetrain greatly
increases fuel efficiency. EcoMotors
cl
aims that a single OPOC engine is able to achieve

15%
better fuel economy than a standard four stroke intern
al
combustion engine. W
hen two OPOCs are coupled using the
electronically controlled clutc
h, this is called a

Dual Module.
In this case, the

fuel efficiency
of the pair increases

to 45%
better than
that of a standard four stroke. Furthermore,
EcoMotors

claim
s

that

the addition of

a third engine, called a
Dual Module Tribr
i
d can achieve 55% better fuel economy

[4]
.


This is much more efficient

than current forms of flex
fuel
engines (flex fuel engines are engines that are designed
to run on gasoline or a blend of up to 85% ethanol) such as
those found in the typical car today. N
ormally
,

cars that shut
off part of t
heir engine when they aren’t under high load just
stop combustion in a few chambers

of the engine
. However,
since these pistons are still connected to the camshaft, they
still move up and down as the other pistons still fire. T
his
leads to natural

parasiti
c

losses

(parasitic loss comes from
any device that takes energy away from the engine in order
to enhance the engine’s ability to create more energy)

in
energy from friction in the pistons that aren’t producing
power. The EcoMotors OPOC

engine,

however
,

completely
disengages the other module when under low engine load,
which results in no parasit
ic energy loss.
With the OPOC,
EcoMotors solved the other potential problem of

starting the
second module

through the use of the electronically
controlled clutch
. Normally
,

an electric starter motor is
needed to start the engine. Although the first module needs
one, the second module does not because when the clutch
engages it, the power of the running modules turns and starts
the engine by starting the compressio
n process.
In the auto
industry, t
his is referred to as bump starting

[5]
.


The electr
onically controlled clutch is the essential piece
that maintains

the OPOC’s
well
-
balanced

characteristics. It
achieves

this by making sure the forces of each module
cance
l each other out. EcoMotors says it doe
s this by using a
“two
-
position

lockup element” that generates a phase angle
of ninety degrees between each module. This effectively
cancels out opposing forces and produces an even firing
order similar to a
powerful
V8

engine

w
ithout sacrificing
performance [9].

I
NTEGRATION
I
NTO THE
M
ANUFACTURING
I
NFRASTRUCTURE

One of the majo
r ethical concerns of any new technology is
ease and cost of production. These factors are important
because if a product requires rare
materials or parts that are
hard to make

or obtain
, it will be more expensive to produce
.
With the current condition of the United States consumer
market, an expensive automobile will never replace the
standard cars used every

day. However, the
versatility

of the
OPOC falls perfectly into the
strict demands of the
consumer market. Since the OPOC engine works off of the
same principles as standard internal combustion engines,
many of its parts
are very similar

to those of its
predecessors
. This means that

th
e current automobile
production infrastructure today
can easily be converted to
begin the production of OPOC engines. Additionally,

because the OPOC doesn’t need a valve train like
that of the
standard four

stroke
, it doesn’t require

the contributing
timin
g parts
, thereby eliminating the extra costs
that
the
typical four stroke engine

brings with it
. The EM100 model
of the OPOC only has 62 parts, while a

four stroke engine
with comparable

has 385 parts

[7, 9].

This means that the
OPOC engine is not only more efficient than standard four
stroke engines, but it is also cheaper to produce.
All of these
factors amount to a 20% lower cost of production.
Additionally, the long term investment in the OPOC will be
more
than 30% lower than the investment needed for
conventional internal combustion engines. The OPOC is
projected to have a much longer lifespan than most standard
engines and with less glitches and failures, which means the
costs of repairs will also be decre
ased.
T
he OPOC could not
only be an ethical solution to automobile power, but also a
solution to
creating new jobs

and pulling out of the

global

recession

[7, 9]
.

C
LOSING THE
D
EAL

Although clearly an innovative design with the ability to
produce unpreceden
ted efficiency
and emissions
results, the
EcoMotors OPOC engine is not currently in mass
production because no single company has agreed to buy the
design and begin producing them to be sold on the market.

As in the case with hybrid vehicles, which were re
searched
for many years before they were put into production,
significant research and development must still be conducted
before this engine becomes standard in vehicles.


However,
it has been developed for some military uses with a DARPA
(Defense Advance
d Research Projects Agency) contract.
There are also several private company customers: Navistar,
Generac, and Anhui Zhongding Holding Group Co. have all
agreed to development and commercialization contracts

[9]
.

Session C6











Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

7

February 10, 2012

E
FFICIENCY FOR THE
F
UTURE

The
implementation of the OPOC
engine

into automobiles is
driven by the need to develop suitable new technologies that
will make energy consumption efficient and environmentally
friendly.

The conventional internal combustion engines are
no longer able to keep
pace with rapidly changing consumer
demands and emission standards. A new engine design as
innovative and efficient as the EcoMotors OPOC engine is
precisely what is needed in order to maximize the available
fuel sources that we have remaining, and minimiz
e the
harmful effects that they have on the environment. Since the
OPOC possess the best strengths of both the two stroke and
four stroke engines, it is the ideal engine that has the
capability of accomplishing this.
Not only is the OPOC a
clean, lightweig
ht, and power dense engine that can be
used
in a variety of applications, it also has the proper dimensions
that allow it to be integrated directly into the current
manufacturing facilities and assembly lines.

This ease of
production eliminates the need fo
r any ethical concerns
regarding excessive manufacturing costs
as well as any
concerns of being able to produce the engine on a large
scale. The OPOC engine
will eventually render all
conventional internal combustion engines obsolete. With its
high energy
efficiency and clean emissions, the OPOC
engine is the proper solution to today’s automobile energy
needs.

R
EFERENCES

[1]
Aston, A. (21 March 2008). “Diesel Design by EcoMotors.”
Bloomberg
Businessweek
. [Online]. Available:
http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/mar2008/db200803
21_874119.htm

[2]
(July 2010). “Ecomotors receives funding for OPOC engine.”
The
Engineer
,
J
uly Volume
, 2.

[3]

Ellzey, C. (1 July 2008). “Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder Engine.”
EngineeringTV.
[Online]. Available:
http://www.engineeringtv.com/video/Opposed
-
Piston
-
Opposed
-
Cylinder



[4]
(20 April 2011). “Greenhouse Gas Emissions.”
U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
. [Online]. Available:
http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/index.html

[5
]
(28 Febru
ary 2012). “New Electronic Turbo.”
RSE Innovators.

[Online].
Available:
http://www.rse.co.uk/images/turbo2.jpg

[6]
Ping, H. (February 2011). “Analysis of Self
-
Balance Characteristics of
OPOC Engine.”
Advanced Materials Research
, 211
-
212, 93
-
96.

[7
]
Runkle, D. (16 June 2010). “Tribrid Power System.”
Automotive News
Green Car Conference.
[Online]. Available:
http://www.autone
ws.com/Assets/html/10_angc/pdf/pres_runkle.pdf



[8
]
Skipor, A. (May 2006). “Liquid to Gas Combustion.”
Newton


Ask a
Scientist.”
[Online]. Available:
http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/chem03/chem03768.htm


[9
]
(2012). “Technology.”
EcoMotors International
. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ecomotors.com/technology

[
10
]
Walker, J. R. (1981).
Exploring

Power Technology
. South Holland:
The Goodheart
-
Willcox Co., Inc.

[
11
]
Wojdyla, B. (2012). “Ecomotors Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder
(OPOC).”
Popular Mechanics
. [Online]. Available:
http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/fuel
-
economy/6
-
prototype
-
engines
-
to
-
get
-
your
-
brain
-
firing#fbIndex1

[
1
2
]
Xu, H.
-
J. (September 2009). “Simulation on in
-
cylinder flow on
mixture formation and
combustion in OPOC engine.”
Neiranji Xuebao
,
27(5), 395
-
400
.


A
CKNOWLEDG
MENTS

We would like to thank the Engineering Library for
providing us with the useful information on how to find the
sources necessary for writing this paper.

We would also like
to thank Lincoln Hill and the engineers at Ecomotors f
or
a
ssisting us in our research.
Session C6











Paper #2308



Twel fth Annual Freshman Conference

8

February 10, 2012