Learning Objectives for AP Physics

architectgeorgeMechanics

Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Learning

Objectives for A
P
®

Physics


I.

NEW
T
O
NI
AN

ME
C
H
A
NICS


35%

A.

Kin
e
matics

(
including

vectors,

vector

a
l
gebra,

co
m
ponents

of

v
ectors,

coordinate

systems,
dis
p
lacement,

v
e
lo
city,

and

acceleration)


1.

Motion

in

on
e di
m
ension


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

general

relationships

a
m
ong

posit
i
on,

veloci
t
y
,

and

acce
l
eration

for

the

m
o
tion

of

a particle along

a straight

line,

so

t
h
at:


(1)

Given

a graph

of

one

of

the

kinematic

q
u
antities,

pos
i
tion,

ve
l
o
ci
t
y
,

or

acce
l
eration,

as

a function

of

ti
m
e,

they

can

recognize

in

what

ti
m
e

intervals

the

other two

are

positive,

neg
a
tive,

or

zero,

and

can

iden
t
ify

or

sketch

a graph

of

each as a function

of

ti
m
e.





(2)

Given

an

expression

for

one

of

the

kin
e
matic

quantities,

position,

velocit
y
,

or

acce
l
eration
,

as

a function

of

ti
m
e,

they

can

dete
r
m
i
n
e

the

other

two

as

a function

of

time, and

find

when

these

quantities

are

zero

or

achieve

their ma
xi
m
u
m

a
n
d
m
i
ni
m
u
m

v
al
u
es.


b)

Students

should

understand

the

special

case

of

m
o
ti
o
n

with

constant

accele
r
ation,

so

th
e
y can:


(1)

Write

down

expressions

for

velocity

and

position

as

functions

of

time, and

identify

or

sketch

graphs

of

these

quantities.




(2) Use the equations
v = v
0

+ a
t, x = x
0

+ v
0
t +1/2at
2
,
and
v
2

=

v
0
2

+
2
a

(
x

-

x
0

)

to

solve



p
r
o
b
le
m
s

involvi
n
g

one
-
di
m
ensional

m
o
tion

with constant

acce
l
eration.








2.

Motion

in

t
w
o

dimensions,

including

p
rojectile

motion


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

be

able

to

add,

subtract,

and

resolve

displac
e
ment

and

velocity

vectors,

so

they

can:


(1)

Determine

c
o
m
ponents

of

a vector

along

two

specified,

m
u
tually

perpendicular

axes.



(2)

Dete
r
mine

the

net

displac
e
ment

of

a particle

or

the

location

of

a par
t
icle

relative

to

another.




(3)

Determine

the

change

in

velocity

of

a

particle or

the

velocity

of

one

particle

relative

to

another.




c)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

m
o
tion

of

projectiles

in

a uniform

gravitational

field,

so

th
e
y

can:


(1)

Write

down

expressions

for

the

horizon
t
al

and

vertical co
m
ponents

of

veloci
t
y

and

position

as

functions

of

time,
and

sketch

or

identify

graphs

of

these c
o
m
ponents.




(2)

Use

these

expressions

in

anal
y
zing

the

motion

of

a projectile that is

projected

with an
arbitrary

initial ve
l
o
city.



B.

Ne wton’s

l
a
ws

of

motion



1.

Static

equilibrium

(first

law)

Students

should

be

able

to

anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

a particle remains

at rest,

or

m
ov
e
s with

c
onstant

velocity,

under

the

influence

of

several

forces.



2.

Dynamics

of

a

single

part
i
cle

(second

law)


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

relation

b
e
tween

the

force

that acts

on

an

object

and

the resulting

change

in

the

object

s

velo
c
ity,

so

th
e
y

can:


(1)

Calculate, for

an

object

m
o
ving

i
n one

d
i
mension,

the

velocity

cha
n
ge

that results when

a
constant

force

F
acts over

a specified

time interval.



(2)

Calculate, for

an

object

m
o
ving

i
n one

d
i
mension,

the

velocity

cha
n
ge

that results when

a
force

F
(
t
)

acts over

a specified

t
i
m
e

interval.


(3)

Dete
r
mine,

for

an

object

moving

in

a pl
a
n
e

whose

velocity

vector

u
ndergoes

a specified

ch
a
nge

over

a specified

t
i
m
e

i
nterval,

the

average

force

th
at

acted on

the

object.








b)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

how

Newton’s

Second

L
aw,


F

=

F
net

=

m
a

, applies to

an

object

subject

to

forces

such

as

gravit
y
,

the

pull

of

strings,

or

conta
c
t

forces,

so

they

can:


(1)

Draw

a

well
-
l
abeled,

free
-
b
o
dy

diagram

showing

all real forces

th
a
t

act on

the

object.



(2)

Write

down

t
h
e

vector

eq
u
ation

that results

from

ap
p
l
y
i
ng

Newto
n
’s

Second

Law

to

the

o
b
ject,



and

take

c
o
m
ponents

o
f

this

equati
o
n

along

a
p
pr
o
p
riate

axes.



c)

Students

should

be

able

to

anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

an

object

moves

with

specified

a
cc
eleration

under

the

influence

of

one

or

m
or
e

forces

s
o th
e
y can

dete
r
m
ine the

magnitude

and

direction

of

the

net

force,

or

of

one

of

the

forces

that makes

up

th
e net force,

such

as
m
o
tion

up

or

down

with

constant

acceleration.






d)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

signifi
c
ance

of

the

coefficient

of

friction,

so

th
e
y

can:


(1)

Write

down

the

relationship

between

the

nor
m
al

and

f
rictional

forces

on

a

surface.



(2)

Anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

an

object

moves

along

a
r
ough

inclined

plane

or

horizontal

surface.



(3)

Anal
y
ze

und
e
r

what

circ
u
mstances

an

object

will start

to

slip,

or

to

c
alculate the

magnitude

of

the

force

of

static friction.



e)

Students

should

understand

the

effect

of

drag

forces

on

the

m
o
tion

of

an

object,

so

they

can:


(1)

Find

the

terminal

veloci
t
y of

an

object

m
oving

vertically

under

the

influence

of

a

retarding

f
o
rce

dependent

on

veloci
t
y
.



3.

Systems

of

t
wo

or

more

objects

(thi
r
d

law)


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

Newton’s

T
h
ird

Law

so

t
h
at,

for

a giv
e
n

s
y
ste
m
,

they

can

identify

the

force

pairs

and

the

o
b
jects

on

which

they

act, and

state the magnitude and

direction

of

each

force.



b)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

be

able

to

app
l
y

Newton’s

T
h
ird

L
a
w

in

anal
y
zi
n
g

the

force

of

contact

between

two

objects

that acce
l
e
r
ate

together

along

a horizontal

or

vertical line,

or
between

two

surfa
c
es

that slide

a
cross

one

another.



c)

Students

should

know

that the

tension

is

constant

in

a

light

string

that
pass
e
s

over

a

massless

pulley

and

shou
l
d

be

able

to

u
s
e

this

fact in

anal
y
zing

the

m
o
tion

of

a s
y
stem

of

t
w
o

objects

joined

by a string.



d)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

be

able

to

solve

probl
e
ms

in

which

application

of

Newton’s

laws

leads

to

two

or

three

s
i
m
u
l
t
aneous

linear

equations

involving

unknown

forces

or acce
l
erations.



C.

Work,

ener
g
y,

power



1.

Work

and

the

work
-
en
er
gy

theorem


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

definit
i
on

of

wo
r
k
,

i
n
cluding

when

it is

posit
iv
e,

negative,

or

zero,



so

th
e
y
c
an:


(1)

Calculate the

work

done

b
y a specif
i
ed

constant

force

on

an

o
b
ject

that

undergoes

a specified



displacement.



(2)

Relate the

w
o
rk

done

b
y

a
f
o
rce

to

the

area

under

a graph

of

force

as

a function

of

position,



a
nd

calculate this

work

in

th
e

case

where

the

force

is

a linear function

of

p
o
sition.



(4)

Use

the

scalar

product

op
e
ration

to

calculate the

work

perfor
m
ed

b
y

a specified

constant

force

F
on

an

o
b
j
ect

that undergoes

a displacement

in

a
p
lane.




b)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

and

be

able

to

apply

the

work
-
energy

theor
e
m
,

so

they

can:


(1)

Calculate the

change

in

kinetic energy

or

speed

that results

from

pe
r
for
m
ing

a

specified

a
m
o
unt

of

work

on

an

object.



(2)

Calculate the

work

performed

by the

net

force,

or

by
e
ach

of

the

forces

that

make

up

the



net

force,

on

an

object

that

undergoes

a

specified

change

in

speed

or kinetic ener
g
y
.



(3)

App
l
y

the

th
e
o
rem

to

determine

the

c
h
ange

in

an

ob
j
ect’s

kinetic ener
g
y

and

speed

that re
su
lts

from

the application

of

specified

forces,

or

to

dete
r
m
ine

the

force that is

required

in

o
r
der

to

bri
n
g

an

object

to

r
e
st

in

a specified

distance.



2.

Forces

and

potential

ene
r
gy


b)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

concept

of

potential

e
n
er
g
y
,

so

th
e
y

can:


(4)

Write

an

expression

for

the

force

exert
e
d

by an

ideal spring

and

for

the

potential

energy

of

a stretched

or

co
m
pr
es
s
ed

spring.



(5)

Calculate the

potential

ener
g
y

of

one

or

m
o
re

objects

in

a uniform

gravitational

field.



3.

Conservation

of

energy


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

concep
t
s

of

mechani
c
al

energy

and

of

total energy,

so

th
e
y can:


(2)

Describe

and

identi
f
y

situa
t
ions

in

w
h
ich

mechani
c
al

en
ergy

is

converted

to

other

for
m
s

o
f

energy.



(3)

Anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

an

objec
t

s

mechani
c
al

en
ergy

is

changed

by

friction

or

by

a specified

e
x
ternally

applied

force.



b)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

conservation

of

ener
g
y
,

so

th
e
y can:


(1)

Identi
f
y

situa
t
ions

in

which

mechani
c
al

ener
g
y

is

or

is

not

conserve
d
.


(2)

App
l
y

conservation

of

ene
rg
y

in

ana
l
y
zing

the

m
o
tion

of

s
y
st
e
m
s

of

connected

objects,

such

as

an

Atwood’s

m
a
chine.



(3)

App
l
y

conservation

of

ene
rg
y

in

ana
l
y
z
i
ng

the

m
o
tion

of

objects

t
h
at

m
ove

under

the

inf
l
uence

of

springs.




4.

Power

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

definit
i
on

of

power,

so

th
e
y can:


a)

Calculate the power

required

to

m
aintain

the

m
o
tion

of

an

object

with

constant

acce
l
eration

(e.g.,

to

m
ove

an

object

along

a level surface,

to

raise

an

object

at a
constant

rate,

or

to

o
v
ercome

friction

for

an

object

t
h
at

is

m
oving

at a
constant

speed).




b)

Calculate the

work

performed

by a f
o
rce

that supplies

constant

po
w
er,

or

the

average

power

supplied

b
y

a force

that perfor
m
s

a s
p
ecified

a
m
ount

of

work.



D.

Systems

of

pa
rticles,

lin
ea
r

moment
u
m



2.

Impulse

and

moment
u
m

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

i
m
pulse

a
n
d

linear

m
o
mentu
m
,

so

they

can:


a)

Relate

mass,

velocity,

and

linear

m
o
me
n
tum

for

a

m
o
ving

object,

and

calculate the

total

linear

momentum

of

a

s
y
stem

of

objects.



b)

Relate
i
m
pulse

to

the

change

in

linear

m
o
ment
u
m

and

the

average

force

acting

on

an

object.



d)

Calculate the

area

under

a force

versus

time graph

and

relate it to

t
h
e

change

in

m
o
ment
u
m

o
f

an

object.



e)

Calculate the change

in

m
o
ment
u
m

of

an

object

given

a function

F

(
t

)

for

the

net

force

acting

on

the

object.


3.

Conservation

of

linear

momentum,

c
o
llisions


a)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

linear

m
o
mentum

conservation,

so

t
h
ey

can:


(2)

Identi
f
y

situa
t
ions

in

which

linear

m
o
m
e
ntu
m
,

or

a co
m
ponent

of

the

linear

m
o
ment
u
m

v
ector,



is

conserved.



(3)

App
l
y

linear

m
o
ment
u
m

conservation

t
o

one
-
di
m
ensional

elastic and

inelastic

collisions

and

two
-
di
m
ens
i
onal

co
m
p
le
t
ely

i
n
elastic

collisions.



(5)

Anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

two

or

m
o
re

objects

are pushed

apart

by a spring

or

other

agency,

and

calculate

how

m
u
ch

e
nergy

is

released

in

such

a
process.




E.

Circular

motion

and

rotation



1.

Uniform

circular

m
otion

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

the

uni
f
o
rm

circular

m
o
tion

of

a partic
l
e, so

th
e
y can:


a)

Relate the

ra
d
ius

of

the

circle and

the

speed

or

rate of

revoluti
o
n

of

t
h
e

particle to

the

magnitude

of

the

centripetal ac
c
eler
a
tion.



b)

Des
c
ribe

the

direction

of

the

particl
e

s

velocity

and

acce
l
eration

a
t any

instant

during

the

motion.



c)

Dete
r
mine

the

c
o
m
ponents

of

the

veloci
t
y and

accele
r
ation

vectors

at any

i
n
stant,

and

sketch

or

identify

graphs

of

these

quantities.



d)

Anal
y
ze

situations

in

whi
c
h

an

object

moves

with

specified

ac
c
ele
r
ation

under

the

influence

of

one

or

m
o
re

f
o
rces

so

they

can

dete
r
m
ine

the

magnitude

and

direction

of the net

force,

or

of

one

of

the

forces

that makes

up

the

net

force,

in

situations

such as

the following:


(1)

Motion

in

a horizontal

circle (e.g.,

mass

on

a rotating

merr
y
-
go
-
round,

or

car

round
i
ng

a

b
a
nked curve).



(2)

Motion

in

a vertical

ci
r
cle
(
e.g.,

m
a
ss

sw
inging

on

the

end

of

a string,

cart

rolling

down

a curved

tra
c
k,

rider

on

a Ferris

wheel).



2.

Torque

and

rotational

s
t
atics


a)

Students

should

understand

the

concept

of

torque,

so

they

can:


(1)

Calculate the

magnitude

and

direction

of

the

torque

associated

with

a given

force.



(2)

Calculate the

torque

on

a rigid

object

due

to

gravit
y
.


b)

Students

should

be

able

to

anal
y
ze

probl
e
m
s

in

stati
c
s,

so

th
e
y can:


(1)

State the

conditions

for

translational

a
n
d

rotational

equilibrium

of

a rigid

object.


(2)

App
l
y

these

condit
i
ons

in

a
n
al
y
zing

the

equilibrium

of

a rigid

object

under

the c
o
m
b
ined
influence

of

a nu
m
b
er

of

coplanar

forces

a
p
plied

at different

locations.




F.

Oscillations

and

Gravita
t
ion



1.

Simple

harmonic

m
o
tion

(dynamics

and

energy

relationships)

Students

sh
o
u
ld

u
nderstand

si
m
p
le

har
m
onic

m
o
ti
o
n,

so

th
e
y ca
n
:


a)

Sketch

or

id
e
n
ti
f
y

a graph

of

displace
m
e
nt

as

a function

of

ti
m
e,

and

deter
m
ine

from

such

a graph

the

a
m
plitude,

perio
d
,

and

frequency

of

the

m
o
tion.




b)

Write

down

an

appropriate

expression

for

displac
e
m
e
n
t

of

the

form

A

sin

w
t

or

A

cos

w
t

to

describe

the

m
o
tion.



c)

Find an expr
e
ssion for vel
o
city

as a func
t
ion of ti
m
e.


d)

State the rela
t
ions between acce
l
eration,

velocity, and

displac
e
ment, and identify

points

in the



m
otion where these quantities are zero or achieve their greatest positive and

negative values.



e)

State and apply the relation between fre
q
uency

and p
e
riod.


g)

State how the total energy of an oscillating
s
y
stem

depends on
t
he

a
m
plitude of the

m
otion, sketch or identi
f
y

a graph of k
ine
tic or potent
i
al energy

as a function

of time, and
identi
f
y

points
i
n the
m
otion w
h
ere this energy

is all

po
t
ential or all kinetic.




h)

Calculate the

kinetic and potential
energies

of an oscillating
s
y
stem

as functions of ti
m
e, sketch or
identi
f
y

gr
a
phs of these functions, and

prove that the

sum

of kinetic

and

potential

energy

is c
ons
tant.



2.

Mass

on

a

spring

Students

sh
o
uld be able to

app
l
y

their

k
nowledge of

si
m
ple har
m
o
nic
m
otion to the case of a

ma
s
s
on a spring, so th
e
y

can:


a)

Derive the expression for
t
he period of

oscillation of a mass on a s
p
ring.


b)

App
l
y

the expression for
t
he period of

oscillation of a mass on a s
p
ring.


c)

Anal
y
ze proble
m
s in which a mass

ha
n
gs from

a

spring and

oscillates verticall
y
.


d)

Anal
y
ze proble
m
s in which a mass

att
a
ched to a spring oscillates horizontal
l
y
.


e)

Deter
m
ine the period of o
s
cillation f
o
r s
y
ste
m
s involving series or parallel c
o
m
binations
of identical springs, or sp
r
ings of differ
i
ng leng
t
hs.


3.

Pendulum

and

other

oscillations

Students

sh
o
uld be able to

app
l
y

their

k
nowledge of

si
m
ple har
m
o
nic
m
otion to the case of a
pe
n
dulu
m
, so they can:


b)

App
l
y

the e
x
pression for
t
he period of a

si
m
ple pendulu
m
.


c)

State
what a
p
proxi
m
a
tion
m
u
st be

m
a
de in derivi
n
g
t
he period.


4.

Newton’s

l
a
w

of

gravity

Students

sh
o
uld
k
now Newton’s Law
o
f Universal Gravitation, so

they can:


a)

Dete
r
m
ine the force that one spherically s
y
m
m
etr
i
cal

ma
s
s exerts
o
n another.


b)

Deter
m
ine the strength of
t
he gravitatio
na
l field at a specified point

outside a

spherically

s
ymme
t
rical

m
a
ss.






5.

Orbits

of

planets

and

satellites

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the
m
otion of an object
i
n orbit

under

the influence of gravitational

forces, so
they can:


a)

For a circular orbit:


(1)

Recognize that the

m
otion

does not dep
e
nd
o
n the
o
b
j
ect’s
ma
ss; describe

qualitative
l
y how the velocit
y
,

period

of r
e
volution,

and centripetal accelerati
o
n depend upon

the radius of
t
he orbit; and

d
e
rive
expressions for the

velocity and period of re
v
oluti
o
n in su
c
h
an orbi
t
.




(2)

Derive Kepler

s Third Law for the case

of circular orbits.



II.

FLUID

M
E
CH
A
N
I
CS

AND

T
H
ER
MAL

PHYSICS




15%

A.

Fluid

Mechanics



1.

Hydrostatic

press
u
re

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of pressure as it applies to
f
luids, so th
e
y can:


a)

App
l
y

the re
la
tionship be
tw
een pressure, force, and area.


b)

App
l
y

the pr
i
nciple that a fluid exerts p
r
essure in all directions.


c)

Apply

the principle that a fluid at rest

exerts pressure

perpendicular to any

surface

that

it contacts.



d)

Deter
m
ine locations of equal pressure in a fluid.


e)

Determine the values of absolute and g
a
uge pressure for a particular situation.


f)

App
l
y

the re
la
tionship be
tw
een p
r
essure and depth
i
n a liqu
i
d,








2.

Buoyancy

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of bu
o
y
a
n
c
y
,

so th
e
y

can:


a)

Dete
r
m
ine the forces on an object imme
r
s
ed partly or

c
o
m
pletely

in a liquid.


b)

App
l
y

Archimedes’ principle to deter
m
i
ne buo
y
a
nt forces and densities of solids

and

liqu
i
ds.



3.

Fluid

flow

continuity

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the equati
o
n of
c
ont
i
nui
t
y so that th
e
y can app
l
y

it
t
o fluids in

m
otion.




4.

Bernoulli’s

equation

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Bernoull
i
’s

equation so
t
hat th
e
y

can app
l
y

it

to flu
i
ds in
m
otion.





B.

Te m
p
erature

and

he at



1.

Mechanical

equivalent

of

heat

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the “
m
echanical equivalent of heat” so th
e
y

can deter
m
ine how

m
uch heat

can be prod
u
ced by the p
e
rformance
of

a specified quantity of mechanical wo
r
k.




2.

Heat

transfer

and

thermal

expansion

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand heat transfer and ther
m
a
l

expansion, so

th
e
y

can:


a)

Calculate how the flow of heat through

a s
l
ab of mat
e
rial is affec
te
d by

changes in

the

thickness


or area of the slab, or the te
m
p
erature di
f
ference betw
e
e
n the two faces of the s
l
ab.



b)

Anal
y
ze what happens to the size and

sh
a
pe of an obj
e
c
t when it is heated.


c)

Anal
y
ze qual
i
tatively

t
he effects of conduction, radiat
i
on, and c
o
nv
e
ction in

the
r
m
a
l proc
e
sses.



C.

Kinetic

the
o
ry

and

thermodynamics



1.

Ideal

gases


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the kinetic
t
heo
r
y

m
odel of an ideal gas, so th
e
y

can:


(1)

State the ass
u
m
ptions of the

m
odel.


(2)

State the connection between te
m
pe
r
ature and
m
ean translational kinetic

energ
y
, and
a
pply

it to det
e
r
m
ine the

m
e
an speed of gas

m
olecul
e
s

as a function of their
m
ass

and the te
m
p
erature of the gas.



(3)

State the relationship a
m
ong Avogadr
o

s

nu
m
ber, Boltz
m
a
nn’s constant, and

the

gas constant
R
, and express the ene
r
gy

of a
m
ole of a
m
onat
o
mic ideal gas as a function
of its te
m
p
erature.



(4)

Explain qualitatively how
t
he
m
odel ex
p
la
i
ns the pressure of a gas in terms of

collisions

with the container walls, and
e
xplain how
t
he
m
odel

predicts that, for fixed vo
l
u
m
e,

pressure

m
ust be pro
p
orti
o
nal to te
m
perature.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
k
now h
o
w to app
l
y

th
e ideal gas law and ther
m
o
d
y
na
m
ic

principles,

so

they can:


(1)

Relate the pressure and vo
l
u
m
e of a gas during

an iso
t
her
m
al expa
n
s
ion or

c
o
m
pression.



(2)

Relate the pressure and te
m
perature of a gas during c
o
nstant
-
volu
m
e heating or

cooling,

or t
h
e volu
m
e and

te
m
perature

during

constant
-
pressure heating or cooling.



(3)

Calculate the

work perfor
m
ed on or

b
y

a

gas during an

expansion or c
o
m
pression at
constant pressure.



(4)

Understand the process of adiabatic expansion or c
o
m
pression of a gas.


(5)

Identify

or sketch on a

PV

diagram

the curves that represent each of the above process
e
s.



2.

Laws

of

ther
m
o
dyna
m
ics


a)

Students sh
o
uld
k
now h
o
w to app
l
y

th
e first law of ther
m
odyna
m
ics, so they

c
a
n:


(1)

Relate the h
e
at absorbed by a gas,

the work perfor
m
ed by

the gas,

and the

internal

energy change of
t
he gas for any of the

processes

above.



(2)

Relate the w
o
rk perfor
m
ed

by

a gas in a c
y
clic process to the area
e
nclosed by

a

curve

on a
P
V
diagra
m
.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the second
la
w of ther
m
o
d
y
na
m
ics, the concept of

entrop
y
, and

heat engines and the Carnot
c
y
cle, so they

can:


(1)

Determine whether entropy
will increase, decrease, or re
m
a
in the sa
m
e during a

particular

situation.




(2)

C
o
m
pute the max
i
m
u
m

p
o
ssible efficie
n
cy

of a heat engine operating between

two

given t
em
p
eratures.



(3)

C
o
m
pute the actual effic
ie
ncy

of a heat

engine.


(4)

Relate the h
e
ats exchang
e
d at each the
r
mal re
s
e
rvoir in a Carnot c
y
cle to the

te
m
peratures

of the reservoirs.







III.

ELE
C
TR
IC
ITY

A
ND

M
AG
N
ETISM



25%

A.

Electrostati
c
s



1.

Charge

and

Coulomb’s

Law


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of electric c
h
arge,
so they

can:


(1)

Describe the types of charge and

the attraction and repulsion

of c
h
arges.


(2)

Describe polarization and
i
nduced char
ge
s.


b)

Students should understand Coulo
m
b’s

L
a
w and the principle of
s
uperposition,

so

they

can:


(1)

Calculate the

magnitude and direction of

the force on

a positive or

negative

charge

due to

other specified point cha
r
ges.



(2)

Anal
y
ze the

m
otion of a particle of specified charge and
m
ass under the

influence

of an electrostatic

force.



2.

Electr
i
c field

and

electric

pot
e
ntial

(i
n
cluding

poi
n
t

charges)


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of electric field, so th
e
y

c
a
n:


(1)

Define it in ter
m
s of the force on a test charge.


(2)

Des
c
ribe and calculate the

electric f
i
eld of a single point charge.


(3)

Calculate the

ma
gnitude and direction of

the electric field pro
d
uced
b
y

two or

m
ore point c
h
arges.



(4)

Calculate the

magnitude and direction of

the force on

a positive or

negative

charge

placed

in a specified field.



(5)

Interpret an electric field
diagra
m
.


(6)

Anal
y
ze the

m
otion of a particle of specified charge and
m
a
ss in a uniform

electric

f
i
eld.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of electric potential, so th
e
y can:


(1)

Determine the electr
i
c potential in the vicini
t
y

of

one

or
m
ore

point charges.


(2)

Calculate the

electric
a
l wo
r
k done on a
c
harge or use conservation of energy to

deter
m
ine the speed of a charge that

m
oves through a
s
pecified potential difference.



(3)

Dete
r
m
ine the direction and approxi
m
a
t
e

m
a
gnitude of the
electric

field at

various

posit
i
ons given a
s
ketch of equ
i
potentials.



(4)

Calculate the

potential difference betw
e
e
n two points

in a uni
f
orm

electric field,

and

state which point

is at the higher
p
o
te
ntial.



(5)

Calculate how

m
uch work is required

to
m
ove a test charge from

o
ne location

to

another in

t
he field of fi
xe
d point cha
r
ges.



(6)

Calculate the

electrostat
i
c potential energy of a
s
y
stem

of two or
m
ore point

charges,

and calculate how
m
uch work

is required to

establish the charge s
y
ste
m
.




B.

Conductors,

capacitors,

die lectr
i
cs



1.

Electrostatics

with

conductors


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the nature
o
f

electric fields in and ar
o
und co
n
duct
o
rs,

so

th
e
y

can:


(1)

Explain the

m
echanics responsible for

the absence of electric field
inside a

conductor,

and know that all excess cha
r
ge
m
ust
r
e
si
d
e on the surface of the conductor.



(2)

Explain w
h
y a conductor

m
u
st be an equipotential,
a
nd app
l
y this

principle in

anal
y
z
ing

what happens when condu
c
t
o
rs are connected
b
y

wires.



b)

Students sh
o
uld be able to

describe and sketch a graph of the electric field and

potential

ins
i
de and outsi
d
e a charged conducti
n
g s
p
here.




c)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand in
d
uced charge and electrostatic shielding, so
t
h
e
y

can:


(1)

Describe the process of charging
b
y in
d
uction.


(2)

Explain w
h
y a neutral conductor is attracted to a charged object.


2.

Capacitors


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the definit
i
on

and function of capacitance, so they can:


(1)

Relate stored

charge and
voltage for a capacitor.


(2)

Relate voltage, charge, and stored energy for a capacitor.


(3)

Recognize situations in w
h
ich energy stored in a capacitor is converted to other

forms.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
y
s
ics

of the parallel
-
plate
capacitor, so th
e
y

c
a
n:


(1)

Des
c
ribe the electric f
i
eld inside the capacitor, and relate the strength of this

field

to the potential difference between

t
he plates and the plate separation.



(4)

Determine how changes in dimension
w
ill affect the value
of the capacitance.


C.

Electr
i
c ci
rc
uits



1.

Current,

r
es
i
stance,

pow
e
r


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the definit
i
on of electric current, so t
h
ey

can relate the magnitude and
direction of

the current to

the rate of flow of

positive and negative

charge.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand conduct
i
vi
t
y, r
e
sistivi
t
y
,

and resistance, so th
e
y

can:


(1)

Relate cur
r
ent and voltage for a resistor.


(2)

Write the relationship

between electr
i
c

field strength and current d
e
nsity in a

conductor,

a
n
d


describe, in ter
m
s of the drift veloci
t
y of electrons, why

such

a relationship
i
s plausible.



(3)

Describe how the resistance of a r
e
sistor depends u
po
n its length
a
nd cross
-

sectional

area, and app
l
y t
h
is result in co
m
p
aring current flow in resistors of

different

m
a
terial or different geo
m
etr
y
.



(6)

App
l
y

the re
la
tionships for

the rate of heat producti
o
n

in a resistor.


2.

Steady
-
state

direct

c
u
rr
e
nt

circ
u
its

w
i
th

batteries

and

resistors

only


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the behavi
o
r of series a
n
d
parallel co
m
binations of

resistors,

so they

can:


(1)

Identi
f
y

on a circuit diagram

whether resistors are in series or in parallel.


(2)

Determine the ratio of the

voltages across res
i
stors connected in series or the

ratio

of the c
u
rrents throu
g
h
resistors connected in p
a
rallel.



(3)

Calculate the

equivalent resistance of

a network of resistors that can be broken

down

in
t
o series and parallel c
o
m
binations.



(4)

Calculate the

voltage, current, and

power dissipation
f
or a
n
y

resistor in such a

network

of resistors connected to a sing
l
e power supply.



(5)

Design a s
i
mple series
-
pa
r
allel circuit

that produces a given current

throu
g
h and

potential

dif
f
erence across one specified

co
m
ponent, and draw a diagram

for the circuit using

conventional

s
y
m
bols.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the pr
o
perties of ideal and real batteri
e
s
, so th
e
y

can:


(1)

Calculate the

ter
m
inal voltage of a

battery of specified e
m
f and internal

resistance

from

which a known current
i
s flowing.



c)

Students sh
o
uld be able
to

app
l
y

Oh
m

s law and Kirchhof
f

s rules to direct
-
current

circuits,

in o
r
der to:


(1)

Deter
m
ine a single u
n
kno
w
n current, vo
l
tage, or resistance.


(2)

Set up and s
o
lve si
m
ultaneous equations

to deter
m
ine

two un
k
nown

currents.


d)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the pr
o
perties of volt
m
eters and a
mm
e
ters, so they

c
a
n:


(1)

State whether

the resistan
c
e of each is high or low.


(2)

Identi
f
y

or s
h
ow correct

me
thods of co
nn
ecting
m
e
ters into circuits in order
t
o
me
asure
voltage or current.



3.

Capacitors

in

circuits


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the

t

=

0

and stead
y
-
state behavior of capacitors

connected

in

series or in parallel, so they can:


(1)

Calculate the

equivalent capacitance

of a series or parallel c
o
m
bination.


(2)

Describe how stored charge
is divided

between capacitors connected in parallel.


(3)

Determine the ratio of vol
ta
ges for cap
a
c
itors connected in series.


(4)

Calculate the

voltage or stored charge, under stead
y
-
s
t
ate condition
s
, for a

capacitor

connected to a circuit consisting of

a battery and resistors.




D.

Magnetic

Fields



1.

Forces

on

moving

charg
e
s

in

magnetic

fields


Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the force experie
n
ced by

a charged particle in a

m
a
g
netic

field,

so th
e
y can:


a)

Calculate the

magnitude and direction of the

force in te
r
m
s of

q
,
v
,

and,
B
,

and

explain

w
h
y

t
he
ma
gnetic force can perform

no work.



b)

Deduce the direction of a
ma
gnetic field from

infor
m
ation abo
u
t the
f
orces

experienced

by charged particles

m
oving thro
u
gh that

field.



c)

Describe the paths
of charged pa
r
ticles
m
oving in u
n
iform

ma
gnetic fields.


d)

Derive and app
l
y

t
he for
m
ula for the radius of the ci
rc
ular path of

a charge that

m
oves perpendicular to a
u
niform

ma
gnetic field.



e)

Describe under what conditions particles

will
m
ove w
i
th
constant v
e
loci
t
y

through

crossed

electric and
ma
gnetic fields.



2.

Forces

on

c
u
rrent
-
carry
i
ng

wires

in

magnetic

fie
l
ds


Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the force exerted on a current
-
carr
y
ing

wire in a

m
a
g
netic

field,

so th
e
y can:


a)

Calculate the

ma
gnitude and direction of

the force on

a straight seg
m
ent of current
-

carr
y
ing wire

in a uni
f
orm

ma
gnetic field.



b)

Indicate the direction of
ma
gnetic forces on a current
-
carr
y
ing
l
oop

of wire in a

ma
gnetic field, and deter
m
ine how the
l
oop
w
ill tend

to
rotate as a consequence of these forces.



3.

Fields

of

long

current
-
c
a
rrying

wires


Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the
m
a
gnetic field produ
c
ed
b
y

a l
o
ng
s
traight current
-

carr
y
ing wir
e
, so th
e
y

can:


a)

Calculate the

ma
gnitude and direction of

the field at a point
i
n the
v
icini
t
y

of su
c
h a

wire.



b)

Use superposition to

deter
m
ine the

m
a
g
netic field produced
b
y two lo
n
g wires.


c)

Calculate the

force of attraction or

repu
l
sion between two long cur
r
ent
-
carr
y
ing

wires.




E.

Electr
o
magnetism



1.

Electr
o
magnetic

induction

(including

Faraday’s

law

and

Le
n
z
’s

law)


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of
ma
gnetic flux, so
t
h
e
y

can:


(1)

Calculate the

flux of a
u
ni
f
orm

ma
gnetic field thro
u
gh

a loop

of ar
b
itrary

orientation.



b)

Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Faraday’s law and Lenz

s law, so they can:


(1)

Recognize situations in which ch
a
nging

flux th
r
ough

a loop will cause an induced e
m
f

or current in
t
he loop.



(2)

Calculate the

ma
gnitude and direction of

the induced
e
m
f

and current in a l
o
op of wire or a
conducti
n
g bar

under the fo
l
lowing co
n
di
t
ions:


(a)

The
ma
gnitu
d
e of a related quanti
t
y

such

as

m
a
gnetic field or area of the loop is
chan
g
ing at a cons
ta
nt rate.





IV.

WAVES

A
N
D

OPT
I
CS



15%

A.

Wave

motion

(including

sound)



1.

Traveling

waves

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the description of travel
i
ng waves, so they can:


a)

Sketch or id
e
ntify

graphs that rep
r
esent traveling waves and determine the a
m
plitude,
wavelength, a
n
d frequen
c
y

o
f a wave fr
o
m

such a
graph.



b)

App
l
y

the re
la
tion a
m
ong wavelength,

frequenc
y
,

and veloci
t
y

for

a wave.


c)

Understand qualitatively the Doppler effect

for sound

in order to explain why

th
e
re is a frequency
shift in

bo
t
h the
m
ovin
g
-
source and
m
oving
-
observer case.



d)

Describe reflection of a wave fr
o
m

the fixed or free end of a stri
n
g.


e)

Describe qualitatively

what

factors det
e
rmine the speed of waves on a string and

speed of soun
d
.



2.

Wave

prop
a
gation


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the differ
en
ce between
transverse and

longi
t
udinal

waves,

and be able to exp
l
ain qualitati
v
ely

why transverse waves can exhibit polarization.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the inverse
-
square law, so th
e
y

can calculate the intensi
t
y

of
w
a
ves at a given distance from

a source
of

specified power and

c
o
m
pare the
i
ntensities at different distances fr
o
m

the source.



3.

Standing

waves

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
y
s
ics

of standing
w
a
ves, so they can:


a)

Sketch possi
b
le standing wave

m
odes for a stretched string that is f
i
xed

at both

ends,

and de
te
r
m
ine the a
m
plitude, wavel
e
ngth, and

frequency of

such standing waves.



b)

Describe possible standing

sound waves in

a pipe that

has either open or closed

ends,

and de
te
r
m
ine the wavelength and

frequency of

such standing

waves.



4.

Superposition

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the princip
l
e of superposition, so
t
h
e
y can apply it
t
o traveling waves

m
oving in

opposite dir
e
ct
i
ons, and d
e
scribe how a standing wa
v
e
ma
y

be for
m
ed
b
y

s
u
perpo
s
ition.



B.

Phys ical

optics



1.

Inter
f
ere
n
ce

and

diffraction

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the interference and diffraction of waves, so they

c
a
n:


a)

App
l
y

the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rferen
c
e to coherent sources in order to:


(1)

Describe the conditions under which

the waves reach
i
ng an observation point

from

two or
m
ore sources

will all interf
e
re constructively, or

under

which the waves fr
o
m

t
w
o sources will interfere destructivel
y
.



(2)

Determine locations of in
te
rference

m
a
xi
m
a or

m
ini
m
a for two sources or

deter
m
ine the frequencies

or

wavelengths that

can lead to constructive or destructive
interference at

a certain point.



(3)

Relate the amplitude p
r
od
u
ced by two or

m
ore sources that interfere constructively to
the a
m
plitude and int
e
nsity pr
o
duced
b
y

a si
n
gle source.


b)

App
l
y

the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rference and diffraction to

waves that pass through a single or
double slit or th
r
ough a diffraction grating,

so th
e
y

can:


(1)

Sketch or id
e
nti
f
y

the
i
ntensity pattern
t
hat results when
m
onochro
m
atic waves pass through

a
single slit and fall on a d
i
stant screen, and describe how this

pattern

will change if the slit
width or

th
e wavelength of the waves is changed.




(2)

Calculate, for a single
-
slit pattern, the ang
l
es or the positions on a distant screen

where

the intensity

is zero.




(3)

Sketch
or id
e
nti
f
y

the
i
ntensity pattern
t
hat results when
m
onochro
m
atic waves

pass

through

a double slit,

and identi
f
y which features of the pattern result from single
-
slit
diffraction and

which from

t
w
o
-
slit interference.



(4)

Calculate, for a two
-
slit
interference

pattern, the angles or the posit
i
ons on a

distant

screen

at which inten
s
ity
m
a
xi
m
a

or
m
ini
m
a occur.



(5)

Describe or identi
f
y

the interference pattern for
m
ed by a diffraction grating,

calculate

the
l
ocation of in
te
nsity

m
a
x
i
ma, and explain q
ualitative
l
y why

a
m
ultiple
-
slit

grating is bet
t
er than

a two
-
slit grating for making accurate deter
m
inations of wavelength.




c)

App
l
y

the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rference to l
i
ght reflected by

th
i
n fil
m
s,

so th
e
y

can:


(1)

State under what conditions a
phase rever
s
al occurs when light

is reflected fr
o
m

the

interface

between two media of

different indices of refraction.



(2)

Deter
m
ine whether ra
y
s of

m
onochr
o
ma
tic light reflected perpendicularly

from

two

such interfaces will interfere const
r
u
c
tively or
destructively, and thereby account for
Newton’s rings

and si
m
ilar pheno
m
ena, a
n
d explain
ho
w

glass

ma
y be coated to

m
ini
m
ize
reflection of vis
i
ble light.




2.

Dispe
r
sion

of

light

and

the

elec
t
romagnetic

sp
e
ctr
u
m

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand dispersion
a
nd
the electro
ma
gnetic spectr
u
m
, so they can:


a)

Relate a variation of
i
ndex

of refraction
w
ith frequency to a variati
o
n in refraction.


b)

Know the names

assoc
i
at
e
d with electr
oma
gnetic radiation and be
a
ble to arrange

in

order of
in
creasing wa
v
e
length
the f
o
llowing: vis
ib
le light of

various colors, ultraviolet
light, infrared l
i
ght, rad
i
o

waves, x
-
ra
y
s
,
a
nd ga
mm
a ra
y
s
.



C.

Geometric

o
ptics



1.

Refle
c
tion

and

refracti
o
n

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the princip
l
es of reflecti
o
n and refraction, so th
e
y

can:


a)

Deter
m
ine how the speed and wavelength

of li
g
ht ch
a
nge when li
g
ht passes from

one

m
e
di
u
m

into ano
t
her.



b)

Show on a diagram

the directions of reflected and ref
r
acted ra
y
s
.


c)

Use Snell’s Law to relate
t
he directions of the incident ray

and
the refrac
t
ed ra
y
,

and

the indi
c
e
s of refracti
o
n of the
m
e
dia.



d)

Identi
f
y

conditions under which t
o
tal internal reflect
i
on will occur.



2.

Mirrors

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand i
m
age formation
b
y pla
n
e or spherical
m
irrors, so they can:


a)

Locate by

r
a
y tracing the image of an

object formed by

a plane
m
i
rror, and

deter
m
ine w
h
ether


the i
m
age is real or virtual, upri
g
ht

or inverted,
e
nlarged or reduced in size.



b)

Relate the foc
a
l point

of a spherical

m
ir
r
or to its center of curvature.


c)

Locate by

r
a
y tracing the image of a real object, giv
e
n a diagram

o
f a

m
irror wi
t
h

the

focal poi
n
t shown, and

deter
m
ine w
h
ether the i
m
age is real or virtual, upri
g
ht

or inverted,
enlarged or redu
c
ed in size.



d)

Use the

m
irr
o
r equation to

relate the object distance,
i
m
age distanc
e
, and focal

length

for a l
e
ns, and deter
m
ine the i
m
age size in ter
m
s of the ob
j
ect size.




3.

Lenses

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand i
m
age formation
b
y

c
o
n
v
erging or

di
ve
rging lenses, so they can:


a)

Dete
r
m
ine
whether the focal length of a

lens is increased or decreased as a result of

a

change in the curvature of its surfaces,

or

in the ind
e
x of refraction of the
m
a
te
r
ial of which the
le
ns is

m
a
de,

or the
m
e
di
u
m

in which it is
i
mmersed.



b)

Dete
r
m
ine by ray

tracing

the location of the image of a

real object located inside or

outside

the f
o
cal point of
th
e lens, and state whether the resulting
im
age is upright or inverted,
r
eal or virtual.



c)

Use the thin lens equation
t
o relate t
h
e object distanc
e
, image
distance, and focal length for a
l
e
ns, and deter
m
ine the i
m
age size in ter
m
s of the ob
j
ect size.



d)

Anal
y
ze si
m
p
le situations in which the

image fo
r
m
ed by

one lens serves as the object for
an
o
ther lens.




V.

ATO
M
IC

A
ND

N
U
CL
E
AR

PHYSI
C
S



10%

A.

Atomic

physics

and

qua
n
tum

effects



1.

Photons,

the

photoelectric

effect,

C
o
mpton

scatter
i
ng,

x
-
rays

a)

Students sh
o
uld
k
now the

properties of

phot
o
ns, so
t
hey

can:


(1)

Relate the e
n
ergy of a p
h
o
t
on in
j
oules
o
r electron
-
volts to its wavelength or

frequenc
y
.



(2)

Relate the linear

m
o
me
ntum

of a photon

to its ener
g
y or wavelength, and ap
pl
y

linear

m
o
m
e
n
tum

conser
va
tion to

si
m
ple processes i
n
volvi
n
g the
e
m
ission, absorption,

or

reflection of phot
o
ns.



(3)

Calculate the

nu
m
ber of photons per second e
m
itted by a
m
onochro
m
atic source of
specific wavelength and

power.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
otoe
l
ectric effect,

so th
e
y

can:


(1)

Describe a typical photoe
l
ectric
-
effect experi
me
nt, and explain w
h
at experi
m
e
ntal

observations

provide ev
i
dence
for the p
h
oton

nature
o
f light.



(2)

Describe qualitatively how

the nu
m
ber

of pho
t
oelectrons and their

ma
xi
m
u
m kinetic energy
depend

on
t
he wavelength
a
nd intensi
t
y of the l
i
ght

striking the

surface,

and account for this dependence

in terms of a photon
m
odel of light.


(3)

Deter
m
ine the

m
a
xi
m
u
m

k
inetic energy of ph
o
toelectrons ejected by p
h
otons of

one

ener
g
y

or

wavelength, when given
t
he
ma
xi
m
u
m

kinetic energy of photoelectro
n
s
for a different p
h
oton en
e
r
g
y

or wavelength.



(4)

Sketch or id
e
nti
f
y

a
graph

of stopp
i
ng
p
otential versus frequency

f
or a

photoelectric
-
effect

experi
me
nt, deter
m
ine from

such

a graph the t
h
reshold frequency

a
n
d
work f
u
nction, and calcu
la
te an appro
x
i
m
ate value
o
f

h
/
e
.



c)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Co
m
pton scattering, so t
h
ey

can:


(1)

Describe Co
m
pton’s experi
m
e
nt, and state what results were observed and
b
y

what

sort of anal
y
s
is these results

m
a
y

be explained.



(2)

Account qualitatively

f
or
t
he increase of pho
t
on wavelength that is

observed,

and

explain
t
he significance

of the Co
m
pton wavelength.



d)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the nature and pr
o
ducti
o
n

of x
-
r
a
y
s
, so

they can

calculate

the

shortest


wavelength of

x
-
ra
y
s
t
hat
ma
y

b
e produced
b
y electrons acce
l
erated t
h
rough a specified voltage.




2.

Ato
m
ic

energy

levels

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of energy

levels for at
o
m
s,

so th
e
y

can:


a)

Calculate the

energy or wavelength of
th
e phot
o
n e
m
itted or absor
b
ed in a

transition

be
tw
een specif
i
ed levels, or t
h
e energy or wavelength required to i
o
nize an ato
m
.



b)

Explain qualitatively

t
he o
r
igin of e
m
iss
i
on or abso
r
pt
i
on spectra of gases.


c)

Calculate the

wavelength or energy for

a

single
-
step transition between levels,

given

the wavelengths or

energies of pho
t
ons e
m
itted or absorbed in a two
-
step
transition
be
tw
een the same levels.



d)

Draw a diagram

to depict the energy le
ve
ls of an atom

when given an expression

for

these levels,



and expla
i
n how this

d
i
a
g
ram

accounts for the various lines in
t
he at
o
m
ic spect
r
u
m
.



3.

Wave
-
particle

duality

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept

of de Broglie

wavelength, so th
e
y

can:


a)

Calculate the

wavelength of a pa
r
ticle as a function

of its
m
o
me
ntu
m
.


b)

Describe the Davisson
-
Ger
m
er experi
me
nt, and e
x
plain how it

pro
v
ides evidence

for

the wave nature
of electrons.



B.

Nucle ar

Phys ics



1.

Nuclear

r
ea
c
tions

(including

conservation

of

mass

number

and

charge)


a)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the signifi
c
a
nce of the

ma
ss n
u
m
ber and charge of

nuclei,

so th
e
y can:


(1)

Interpret s
y
mbols for nuclei

that
indicate these quantities.


(2)

Use conservation of
m
a
ss

nu
m
ber and c
h
arge to complete nuclear reactions.


(3)

Deter
m
ine the

m
a
ss n
u
m
ber and cha
r
ge of a nucleus

after it has undergone

specified

de
c
a
y

processes.



b)

Students sh
o
uld
k
now the

nature of
the

nuclear force,

so th
e
y

can co
m
pa
r
e its

strength

and
ra
nge with th
os
e of the electro
ma
gnetic force.



c)

Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand nuclear fission, so
t
h
e
y

can describe a

typical neutr
o
n
-

induced

fissi
o
n and explain

why a chain

reaction is possible.



2.

Mass
-
energy

equivalence

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the relatio
ns
hip between ma
s
s and energy

(
m
a
ss
-
e
n
ergy equivalence),
so th
e
y

can:


a)

Qualitatively relate the energy

released in

nuclear processes to the change in
m
a
ss.



b)

App
l
y

the re
la
tionship









in

anal
y
z
ing nu
c
lear proces
s
e
s
.





LA
B
OR
AT
ORY

AND

EX
PERIME
N
TAL

SI
T
U
A
TIONS

These

objectives overlay

the content objective
s
, and are a
s
se
s
s
ed
i
n the context

of those objectives.


1.

Design

expe
r
iments

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the process
of designi
n
g

experi
m
e
nts,

so th
e
y

can:


a)

Describe the purpose of an

experi
me
nt or a problem

to be investig
a
ted.



b)

Identi
f
y

equ
i
p
m
ent needed and describe how it is to

b
e used.



c)

Draw a diagram

or provi
d
e a description of an exper
ime
ntal setup.


d)

Describe procedures to be
us
ed, includi
n
g

controls a
n
d
m
e
asure
m
ents to be tak
e
n.


2.

Observe

and

measure

re
a
l

phenomena

Students

sh
o
uld be able to

ma
ke relev
a
nt observati
o
ns, and be ab
l
e to take
me
asure
m
ents with a
variety of instru
me
nts (cannot be assessed
v
ia paper
-
and
-
pencil exa
m
inations).



3.

Analy
z
e

data

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand how to

anal
y
ze data, so
t
hey

can:


a)

Display

data
i
n graphical or

tabular for
m
.



b)

Fit lines and

curves to data points
i
n gr
a
phs.


c)

Perform

ca
l
culations with

data.


d)

Make extrapolations and

i
n
terpolations
f
rom

data.


4.

Analy
z
e

err
o
rs

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand
m
e
asure
m
ent
a
nd exper
ime
ntal error,

so th
e
y

can:


a)

Identi
f
y

sour
c
e
s of error and how th
e
y p
r
opagate.


b)

Esti
m
a
te

ma
g
nitude and

di
r
ection of err
o
rs.


c)

Determine s
i
gnificant dig
i
ts.


d)

Identi
f
y

wa
y
s

to reduce error.


5.

Commun
i
cate

resul
t
s

Students

sh
o
uld
u
nderstand how to

su
mma
r
i
ze and communicate
r
e
sults, so they can:


a)

Draw infere
n
ces and concl
u
sions from

experi
me
ntal
data.


b)

Suggest wa
y
s

to i
m
prove experi
me
nt.


c)

Propose questions for fur
the
r study.