CBET Cluster #3 Summary - National Science Foundation

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Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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NSF Directorate for Engineering


Division of Chemical, Bioengineering,
Environmental, and Transport Systems
(
CBET
)

Highlights of CBET Cluster on
Environmental Engineering &
Sustainability

Presented by Ram B. Gupta*


Paper 106e, NSF Workshop 1

2012 AIChE Annual Meeting, October 29, 2012


*Program Director, Energy for Sustainability,
gupta@nsf.gov

National Science Foundation
|

Directorate for Engineering


Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental,

and Transport Systems Division
(
CBET
)

Deputy


Division Director



Bob
Wellek

5345
-

Biomedical

Engineering


Kaiming

Ye

7644
-

Energy for

Sustainability


Ram Gupta

1179
-

Environmental

Health and Safety

of Nanotechnology


Barbara
Karn


7643
-

Environmental

Sustainability


Bruce Hamilton

15 October 2012

Photo

1443
-

Fluid

Dynamics


Henning Winter

Photo

Photo

Photo

Photo

1407
-

Combustion,

Fire, and Plasma

Systems

Ruey
-
Hung Chen



Part
-
time Until 17 Dec, then Full
-
time

1414
-

Interfacial

Processes and

Thermodynamics


Bob
Wellek

1415
-

Particulate

and Multiphase

Processes


Ashok
Sangani

1406
-

Thermal

Transport

Processes


Sumanta

Acharya

Photo

Photo

Photo

Photo

Photo

Pending

Photo

Photo


Division Director

(
Acting
)




Sohi

Rastegar

5342


General

and Age Related


Disabilities

Engineering


Ted Conway

Photo

Photo

Pending

1401
-

Catalysis

and
Biocatalysis


George
Antos


1491 Biotechnology,

Biochemical, and


Biomass Engineering


Friedrich
Srienc

1403
-

Process

and Reaction

Engineering


Luke
Achenie

Photo

7909
-

(
Acting
)

Biosensing


Eddie Chang

1440
-

Environmental

Engineering


Debra Reinhart

1403


On

Sabbatical

Leave


Maria Burka

Photo


Program Director Replacement
Pending for: 7909 Biosensing


Photo

Photo

Photo

Photo

1417


Chemical

and Biological

Separations


Rose Wesson


On Detail

Photo

1417


Chemical

and Biological

Separations
(
Acting
)


Geoff Prentice


7236

Biophotonics


Leon
Esterowitz


Chemical, Biochemical,

and Biotechnology

Systems

Transport, Thermal,

and Fluid

Phenomena

Environmental

Engineering and

Sustainability

Bioengineering

and Engineering


Healthcare

CBET Environmental Engineering &

Sustainability Cluster: Programs

Environmental

Engineering


Debra Reinhart

Energy for

Sustainability


Ram B. Gupta

Environmental

Health & Safety

of
Nanotechnology


Barbara Karn

Environmental

Sustainability


Bruce Hamilton

3

Budget FY 2012

-

Approximately $36 Million

# of Awards


Total Dollars




-

4

Description


107

14

10

13

4

--

27

68

--

78

3

$22,993,267

$1,311,094

$3,089,428

$896,174

$975,768

$4,271,575

$538,700

$1,016,117

$865,766

$145,954

$25,000

Unsolicited

Special Initiatives (CIF21, CREATIV, etc)

CAREER

EAGER/RAPID

GOALI

CGIs

Workshops/Conf

Supplements

Other

Grantee Conf

Planning Grants

Environmental Health and Safety of
Nanotechnology:

Barbara Karn

Program Description:
supports fundamental research to
develop and test the effects of nanomaterials on the
environment and biological systems

Sample Award


Cellular and Biomolecular
Interactions with Graphene
-
Family Nanomaterials


Robert Hurt

Brown University

(CBET 1132446)

5

Copper Nanoparticle Interactions

with Nitrogen
-
Cycling Bacteria



Shaily Mahendra and M. Stenstrom, UCLA
-

CBET 1134355



Do copper NPs selectively affect the population, diversity, and activity
of bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycling based on the
specific nature of NP
-
cell interactions (ionic copper uptake versus NP
uptake; external versus internal dissolution followed by ROS generation
and membrane/DNA/ATP damage; etc.)?

Mechanisms for cell damage

Copper in natural waters

Bacterial nitrogen cycle

6

Environmental Health & Safety

of Nanotechnology Program


Budget FY 2012

-

Approximately $4.7 Million

Description


Unsolicited


CAREER



GOALI


EAGER





Workshop
/
Conferences


Supplements
(
REU, etc.
)


CBET Grantee Conference


Continuing Grant Increments (CGIs)


Other



# of Awards


19


1



1



1


8


12


16


--


--

Total Dollars



$2,854,127



$82,865


$235,001



$154,598


$177,162


$236,999


$29,464


$823,208


$65,971

Environmental Sustainability:

Bruce Hamilton

Program Description



This program funds
engineering research

with the goal of advancing
sustainable
engineered systems

that support human
well
-
being and that are also compatible with
sustaining natural
(
environmental
)

systems.

8

Short
-
term Priority Areas



Biofuels Sustainability




The Water
-
Energy Nexus




Advances in Life Cycle Analysis




M
aterials



Recycle
-
Reuse
-
Sustainability




Sustainability of Hydro
-
fracturing

9



Complex Systems and Global



Environmental Problems




(
includes climate change
)




Scale Effects in the Analysis of



Sustainability

of
Complex Environmental



Systems

(

Earth Systems Engineering

)




Sustainable Water Resources in a



Changing Environment

(
includes



the water
-
energy nexus
)

Long
-
term Priority Areas

10

Integrating Green Roofs and Photovoltaic Arrays

Carl Wamser, David Sailor, Todd Rosenstiel

Portland State University
-

CBET
-
0853933

Thermal properties of the green roofs (GRIPV) show low thermal

conductivity and high heat capacity versus different models.

Photovoltaic power output is very sensitive to temperature

effects, as expected for silicon photovoltaic materials.

Green roof pans with mixed plant matter are
much more effective than sedum in retaining
moisture from storm events.


Ongoing work is aimed at understanding interactions
between green roof functions and photovoltaic functions.


The working hypothesis is that each system will function
at least as well even when the two are integrated.

11

Environmental Sustainability Program
Budget FY 2012

-

Approximately $7.2 Million

Description


Unsolicited


CAREER



EAGER/RAPID





Special Initiatives/Other Awards


Workshop
/
Conferences


Supplements
(
REU, etc.
)


CBET Grantee Conference


Continuing Grant Increments (CGIs)


Other



# of Awards


19


2


3


10


13


21


14


--


--

Total Dollars



$3,762,659



$155,084



$214,944


$1,103,794


$249,063


$368,724


$25,319


$1,186,101


$95,723

Environmental Engineering Program

Debra Reinhart



The Environmental Engineering program supports fundamental
research and educational activities across the broad field of
environmental engineering.




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and energy conservation and recovery.





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-
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13

Emphasis areas:

Implications of Energy
and Resource Consumption



Research focus on conversion of wastes into
value
-
added materials and energy, reduction of
energy/water demand for environmental
technologies, and the impact of energy and
transportation processes on the environment.

14



US generates > 250 MT/yr of
municipal solid waste and landfills
> 50%




呲T慴浥湴n潦⁷慳a敷慴敲 捯湳畭敳
縠㌥~潦⁥汥捴物捡r 灯睥爠楮r啓





2

emissions are projected to
increase from 29 GT/yr to 43 Gt/yr
in 2035

Emphasis areas:

Availability of High
Quality Water Supplies



Develop innovative biological, chemical and physical treatment
processes to meet the growing demand for water;




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Investigate environmental engineering aspects of urban watersheds,
reservoirs, estuaries and storm water management;




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煵qli瑹 i渠瑨攠慱e慴i挠慮搠獵扳b牦慣r 敮ei牯湭敮琮

15



About 1 out of every 6 people living today do
not have adequate access to water, more
than double that lack basic sanitation,




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f牯洠m楡牲桥h
-
牥污r敤 摩獥慳es




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灯汬pt楯測 慮搠潶敲ds攠of⁷慴敲eso畲捥sⰠ
杯癥牮浥湴 楮敦f楣楥湣楥s

Emphasis areas:

Fate and Transport of
Contaminants of Emerging Concern



Investigate the fate, transport and remediation
of potentially harmful contaminants such as
pharmaceuticals, personal care products,
pesticides and insecticides, endocrine
-
disrupting compounds, and fire retardants and
their degradates.

16



Pharmaceuticals and personal care
products reach the environment via
treated wastewater due to high use of
prescriptions and commercial products,





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睥牥 景畮搠i渠80┠潦 139 獴牥慭猠i渠
30 獴慴敳




䕮摯d物湥n摩獲異si湧n捯浰潵m摳d慲攠
persistent in the environment and
cause feminization of aquatic animals

Soot and Char
-
Catalyzed Destruction of Persistent
Organic Pollutants in Sediments by Sulfides


William Mitch


Yale University

Among the most important environmental
contaminants are Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs), a class of pollutants that
resist degradation, including legacy
contaminants like PCBs and a range of similar
compounds still under production.


These
hydrophobic compounds accumulate in
sediments within estuaries (Figure 1), the
nursery for important fisheries, and magnify
in the fatty tissues of organisms at the top of
the food chain.


Researchers from Yale University have
demonstrated that sorption to black carbons
of two military explosives, nitroglycerin and
RDX, significantly increases their destruction
rates in the presence of sulfides.


This
research highlights the capacity of black
carbons to catalyze the destruction of sorbed
contaminants, and seeks to understand the
underlying causes at a fundamental level.




Highlight ID: 21645
CBET
-
0747735

Figure 1
.

Structure of PBDEs.

Figure 1.




Image Credit: NASA

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=1257

17

Environmental Engineering Program


Budget FY 2012

-

Approximately $11 Million

Description


Unsolicited


CAREER



GOALI


EAGER/RAPID





Other Awards (IRFellow/RUI)


Workshop
/
Conferences


Supplements
(
REU, etc.
)


CBET Grantee Conference


Continuing Grant Increments (CGIs)


Other



# of Awards


34


4



1



5


3


8


17


31


--


--

Total Dollars



$6,731,893



$1,650,023


$261,322



$181,827


$253,256


$110,379


$123,855


$59,888


$1,425,890


$217,406

Energy for Sustainability

Ram B. Gupta

Program Description:
supports innovative research &
education for the sustainable production of electricity
and transportation fuels. Processes must be
environmentally benign, reduce greenhouse gases, and
utilize renewable or bio
-
based resources.

Solar Energy

Biofuels &

Bioenergy

Wind &

Wave Energy

19

Renewable Energy

Production Technologies

Batteries

for

Transportation

Wind

Energy



Wave
/
Tidal

Hydrokinetic

Energy

Solar

Photovoltaics

Photocatalysis

(
solar fuels
)

Biofuels &

Bioenergy

Lignocellulose

Bio
-
Conversion

Thermocatalytic

Biomass Conversion

to Liquid Fuels

Microbial

Fuel Cells

Metabolic

Engineering

for Biofuels

Algae for

Biofuels

Bio H
2

ENG
/
CBET Energy for Sustainability Program:
Current Emphasis Areas

Nanostructured

Semiconductors

for PV

Polymer
/

Organic PV

Photonic
/

Plasmonics

for PV

20

Measurements and Modeling of Multiple Wake
Interactions in Large Wind Farms

Barthelmie
/
Pryor, Indiana University, CBET
-

1067007

Highlights

For large on
-

and offshore wind farms:

i)
Wind farm measurement with lidar

ii)
Access and analyze wind farm data

iii) Develop new wind farm model

Parameter

Wind farm
Δ
efficiency


from average

Range

Wind speed

+1.73 to 2.39%


for 1 ms
-
1
-
increase

U=5
-
15 ms
-
1

Turbine
spacing

+1.06 to 1.49 %

for 1 D spacing increase

4
-
20 D,

U=5
-
15 ms
-
1

Turbulence
intensity

0.98 to 1.40%

for 1% increase

5
-
13% TI,

U=7
-
8 ms
-
1

Atmospheric
stability

-
8.13 to 9.71%

over range of stabilities

U=5
-
15 ms
-
1

Nysted

10.5 D

Horns
Rev

7 D

Reference: Barthelmie, Hansen & Pryor 2011. Submitted to IEEE Special Issue on Marine Energy and
Environments Sep 2011. ID 0176
-
SIP
-
2011
-
PIEEE.

Objectives

i)
Reduce uncertainty in modeling
wind turbine wake losses

ii)
Optimize power output and layout
for large wind farms

For a narrow range of wind speeds/directions:

21

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1/2
T. K. Townsend, EES 2011


F. A. Frame, et al. JACS 2011

22

Modular Construction of Nanostructured Catalysts

for Solar Hydrogen Generation from Water


Frank E. Osterloh, University of California, Davis, CBET 0829142

Energy for Sustainability Program

Budget FY 2012

-

Approximately $13.3 Million

Description


Unsolicited


CAREER



GOALI


EAGER





Special Initiatives/Other Awards


Workshop
/
Conferences


Supplements
(
REU, etc.
)


CBET Grantee Conference


Continuing Grant Increments (CGIs)


Other



# of Awards


35


3



2



4


4


2


18


18


--


--

Total Dollars



$9,644,588



$1,201,456


$479,445



$344,805


$207,300


$58,841


$286,539


$33,283


$836,376


$200,666

CBET Environmental Engineering &

Sustainability Cluster: Contacts

Environmental

Engineering


dreinhar@nsf.gov

Debra Reinhart

Energy for

Sustainability


gupta@

nsf.gov

Ram B. Gupta

Environmental

Health & Safety

of Nanotechnology

bkarn@

nsf.gov

Barbara Karn

Environmental

Sustainability


bhamilto@nsf.gov

Bruce Hamilton

24