Biotechnology is - South African Technology Network Conference ...

aquaaniseBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Conceptualising

postgraduate training

in Biotechnology at

Universities of Technology

Annabel Fossey


Biotechnology


Central University of Technology, Free State,

Park Street 1, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 9300

Biotechnology is:



Modern word for a practice that is



thousands of years old



Biotechnology gave us our first beer



Plant and animal breeding are older technologies



Today


sophisticated field

Introducing Biotechnology

Biotechnology is:



Interdiscipline

between
Biological Sciences


and
Technology




Any technique that uses living organisms or


substance from those organisms




To make or modify a product




Used by humans, animals, plants,



microorganisms ...






Solve problems in many different industries

Introducing Biotechnology

Biotechnology industries are too diverse

and too numerous to list


Industries range from



Enzyme production


indigo dye for denims

to



Production of genetically modified


pigs for
xenotransplantation


Biotechnology Industry

Biotechnology Achievements

Textiles

Detergents

lens cleaning

Lens cleaners

Paper and pulp

Fructose

production

Industrial

Enzymes

Yeast produce
hepatitis antigen
based vaccine

African Green
monkey

kidney cells

produce

influenza vaccine

Biotechnology Achievements

Spodoptera

insect cells
produce human
papilloma

virus
vaccine

Vaccine

Production

Biotechnology Achievements

Disease

Identification





Kinship

Determination





DNA profiling

Perpetrator

Identification





Remains

Identification






Romanov

Genetic
Testing
(Forensic)




GMO

Multi
-
drug


resistant

TB (MDR
-
TB)

To propose curricular framework for:



An Advanced Postgraduate Diploma in Biotechnology,


and



A Master of Biotechnology

Aim

2003:

Minister of Education announced that some
technikons



would be designated “universities of technology”




Draw upon a
greater diversity
of people as students



Educational map will be more diverse



Provide
career
-
orientated learning programmes



Contribute more meaningful
technology transfer
and international

competitiveness



Respond to the needs of industry
, community and society


What the Government says

Universities of Technology (
UoTs
):



Technology

is the qualifying factor inherent in all academic activities

What the Government says

Kagisano

2010

Therefore, characteristics of
UoTs
:



Research
-
informed



Curriculum around graduate profile
defined by industry and

professions



Focus on
strategic/applied research



Focus on
vocational/professional education



Technological capabilities
as important cognitive skills


Technology at a
UoT
:



Should teach an understanding of the
application


of the subject in the real world




What the Government says

Kagisano

2010

Students should be encouraged to:



Reflect on broader
issues of technology



Consider impact on society



Be
exposed to a wide range of disciplines



Deal
management issues relating to technology



Work in teams



Be able to
discuss, debate policies relation to technology

Biotechnology industry:

Requires innovation/creativity in all stages of the process pipeline

What the World
-
of
-
work says

Science

Innovation

Continuum

Applied research


Basic

research


Societal
benefit

Enterprises


Patents

Biotechnology

Industrial

application

Product

Service

Factories

-

Enzymes

-

Pharmaceuticals

DNA technologies

-

Forensic profiling

-

Diagnosis

Industry related requirements for graduates:





Provide

innovative solutions



Have
technological knowledge



Have
creative capability




Have the
ability to adjust
to the evolving industry


What the World
-
of
-
work says

Graduate employability skills requirements:




Oral/written

communication



High level
learning skills



Problem solving



Decision making



Affective skills
and traits such as responsibility, a

positive attitude, interpersonal skills and the ability


to work both in a team and independently



What the World
-
of
-
work says

Knowledge and innovation contribute to wealth and welfare:



Postgraduate education gains prominence



Postgraduates essential to drive innovation


in modern societies

New Education Landscape

DST adopts the 10
-
Year Innovation plan (2008
-
2018):



Helps drive SA to knowledge
-
based economy



Outlines: “Farmer to
Pharma
” value chain to


strengthen bio
-
economy



SA must become a leader in
biotechnology



and pharmaceuticals


Answer questions:



At what
level

should the programme be pitched?



What are the
educational objectives
?



What
graduate attributes
should be developed?



How will the curriculum accommodate
flexibility
?



How will the curriculum be
delivered
?


Designing a Curriculum in Biotechnology

Pitching a Biotechnology Programme



Rapidly changing industry



Ever widening scale of applications






Create a workforce capable of:

UoT’s

are perfectly
positioned to train
this workforce



Understanding of / and working in a

range

of industries



Technically

skilled



Strong life science
background

Pitching a Biotechnology Programme



Foundation laid at universities


four years



Bachelor’s and Honours degrees (equivalent)

?

Do not focus on
applications

?

Do not focus on
how the industry works



Appropriate to pitch qualifications at:





5
th

year post grade 12


Educational Objectives

Need to accommodate students from diverse backgrounds



Understand of the
nature of the biotechnology



Enhance mastery of biotechnology
subject matter



Enhance
practical skills



Develop
scientific reasoning



Develop
business acumen
relating to biotechnology industry



Develop
transferable/employability skills



Develop
entrepreneurial and innovative skills



Understand
ethical principles
relating to biotechnology

Identifying Graduate Attributes

SAQA’a

the learning achievements

at level 9 as a template:

Attribute description

Scope of knowledge

Knowledge literacy

Method and procedure

Problem solving

Understand
applications
in field

Design,
creative
methods,
processes,

technologies

Use a wide
range of
specialised
skills

Identifying Graduate Attributes

Attribute description

Ethics and professional practice

Accessing, processing and managing information

Producing and communication information

Accountability

Employability/

Transferable

skills

Proposing a Biotechnology Curriculum



Need a
flexible curriculum
to allow for rapid

developments



Follow an
integrated approach
to stimulate intellectual

curiosity and enhanced problem
-
solving skills



Core curriculum



Elective curriculum

Proposing a Biotechnology Curriculum

Integrated approach to the
curriculum


Greater intellectual curiosity


Improved attitude towards
education


Enhanced problem
-
solving
skills

Curriculum framework


Enhance disciplinary
knowledge


Enhance technical acumen


Include supplementary
knowledge
-

business,
legislation and ethics

Jerome Bruner’s Spiral Model:


At each level


subject matter at
greater depth


Major focus
-

industrial applications

Proposing a Biotechnology Curriculum

Business and legislative content


Biotechnology practical
laboratories


Ethics relating to biotechnology


Research project and

mini dissertation (20 000 words)

Biotechnology disciplinary topics

-

Select from a list of about



8 topics, for example:

Enzymology

Genetically modified organisms

Stem cell technology

Immunotechnology

Plant tissue culture techniques

Cloning technology

Forensic technology

Core curriculum

Elective curriculum

Postgraduate Qualifications

Business

Legislation

Ethics

E

E

E

E

E

Research project and mini dissertation

Advanced Postgraduate Diploma in Biotechnology

Master of Biotechnology

Two postgraduate qualifications

Business

Legislation

Ethics

Core

Elective



Developed during the mode of delivery

Delivery



No formal teaching (or very little)



E
-

learning



Debates / presentations



Seminars / proposals / business proposals



Guest speakers

Graduate Attribute Development

Curriculum Mapping Process

1.

Define

purpose

of

the

qualification

2.

Components

of

curriculum

outlined



Learning

objectives

detailed





Specify

graduate

attributes

to

develop



‘At

the

completion

of

this

module

you

will

be

able

to

...



3.

Devise

learning

activities

and

assessment

criteria

4.


Review

of learning objectives, learning activities and

assessment criteria






Use

panel

of

specialists

5
.

Construct

student

guide

Conclusions

These qualifications should provide the students with:




Subject knowledge
to support a career in biotechnology



Technical

understanding of biotechnology



An understanding of the
business

of biotechnology



Ability to “
think outside the box




Ability to
adapt

to the evolving industry



Transferable skills
required by industry


Thank You


Annabel Fossey



afossey@cut.ac.za


Biotechnology


@ CUT