Advances in biotechnology - Amazon S3

aquaaniseBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Instruments

By

Glory
Basumata

(
MSc

Applied Genetics)

2011


Bioreactors


Biofuels


Biochips


Biosensors


Bioremediation



A device(vessel) that supports biologically active
environment



A bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical process is
carried out which involves organisms or biologically
active substances



This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic



These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging
in size from liters to cubic meters, and are often made
of stainless steel



These devices are being developed for use in tissue
engineering or biochemical engineering









Biofuels

are a wide range of fuels which are in some way
derived from biomass




The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various
biogases



Biofuels

are gaining increased public and scientific attention,
driven by factors such as


-

Oil price hikes


-

the need for increased energy security


-

concern over greenhouse emission from


fossils fuels



Bioethanol

is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar
components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar
and starch crops



Biodiesel is
made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled
greases



With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass,
such as trees and grasses, are also used as
feedstocks

for ethanol
production




Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form




Bioethanol

is widely used in the USA and in Brazil





The development of
biochips

is a major thrust of the rapidly
growing biotechnology industry, which encompasses a very diverse
range of research efforts including genomics, proteomics, and
pharmaceuticals, among other activities




Advances in these areas are giving scientists new methods for
unravelling

the complex biochemical processes occurring inside cells,
with the larger goal of understanding and treating human diseases




At the same time, the semiconductor industry has been steadily
perfecting the science of micro
-
miniaturization




The merging of these two fields in recent years has enabled
biotechnologists to begin packing their traditionally bulky sensing
tools into smaller and smaller spaces, onto so
-
called biochips






These chips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that
can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous
biochemical reactions.



A
biosensor

is an analytical device for the detection of an
analyte

that combines a biological component with a
physicochemical detector component



It consists of 3 parts:



a) the
sensitive biological element

(biological
material (e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell
receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.), a
biologically derived material or
biomimic
) The sensitive
elements can be created by biological engineering



b) the
transducer

or the
detector element

(works
in a physicochemical way; optical, piezoelectric,
electrochemical, etc.) that transforms the signal resulting
from the interaction of the
analyte

with the biological
element into another signal (i.e., transducers) that can be
more easily measured and quantified



Associated electronics or signal processors that are primarily
responsible for the display of the results in a user
-
friendly way.
This sometimes accounts for the most expensive part of the
sensor device, however it is possible to generate a user friendly
display that includes transducer and sensitive element




Bioremediation

is the use of microorganism metabolism to
remove pollutants




Can be generally classified as
in situ
or
ex situ




In situ

bioremediation involves treating the contaminated
material at the site, while
ex situ

involves the removal of the
contaminated material to be treated elsewhere




Some examples of bioremediation technologies are
phytoremediation
,
bioventing
,
bioleaching
,
landfarming
,
bioreactor
,
composting
,
bioaugmentation
,
rhizofiltration
, and
biostimulation



Bioremediation can occur on its own (natural attenuation or
intrinsic bioremediation) or can be spurred on via the addition of
fertilizers to increase the bioavailability within the medium
(
biostimulation
)



Microorganisms used to perform the function of
bioremediation are known as
bioremediators