FESCIM FAIR, EFFICIENT, AND SECURE COOPERATION INCENTIVE

anisesecretaryMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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FESCIM FAIR, EFFICIENT, AND SECURE COOPERATION INCENTIVE
MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP CELLULAR NETWORKS


ABSTRACT:


We propose a fair and efficient incentive mechanism to

stimulate the node cooperation. Our
mechanism applies a fair charging policy by charging th
e source and destination nodes when
both

of them benefit from the communication. To implement this charging policy efficiently,
hashing operations are used in the ACK packets

to reduce the number of public
-
key
-
cryptography operations. Moreover, reducing th
e overhead of the payment checks is essential for

the efficient implementation of the incentive mechanism due to the large number of payment
transactions. Instead of generating a

check per message, a small
-
size check can be generated per
route, and a check

submission scheme is proposed to reduce the

number of submitted checks and
protect against collusion attacks. Extensive analysis and simulations demonstrate that our

mechanism can secure the payment and significantly reduce the checks’ overhead, and the f
air
charging policy can be implemented

almost computationally free by using hashing operations.

SENDER

MULTIHOP NODE

RECEIVER

Network Analysis

Path Analysis

Receive key from
server

Public key and private
key

Receive the message,
encrypted message and
forward message


Forward th
e message
and encrypted format

Receive
message

Data Transmission

Send the message
and encrypted the
message using keys

Receive message
and decrypted
message


Using key


ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM:























LITERATURE REVIEW:


Y. Lin and Y. Hsu, “Multihop Cellular: A New Architecture for Wireless
Communications,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3,pp. 1273
-
1282, Mar. 2000


MULTIHOP CELLULAR: A NEW ARCHITECTURE FOR W
IRELESS
OMMUNICATIONS



This
work presents
a
new
arrhttedure,
Multihop Cellular Network (MCN), for wireless
co"unieations. MCN preserves the bandit
of
conventional w e h o p cellular netwoIlts (SCN)
where the service Mrastrufture is
constructed
by fixed ba
ses, and it also incorporates the
flexibility of ad
-
hoc networks where whless
transmission
through mobile stations in multiple
hops is allowed. MCN
can
reduce the
requid

number of bases or improve the throughput
performance, while
limiting

path vulnerabili
ty encountered in &hoc networks. In addition, MCN
and SCN are analyzed, in
term
of mean hop
count,
hop
-
by
-
hop throughput, end
-
Wend
throughput, and mean number of
channels
under
ranges.

Numerical results demonstrate that
throughput of MCN exceeds that of SC
N, the former also increases as the transmission
range
decreases. Above
results
can
be accounted for by the merest orders, linear and square,
at
which
mean
hop count and
mean
number of channels Increase, and respectlvely.













H. Wu, C. Qios, S. De,

and O. Tonguz, “Integrated Cellular and

Ad Hoc Relaying Systems: iCAR,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm.,

vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2105
-
2115, Oct. 2001.


INTEGRATED CELLULAR AND AD HOC RELAYING SYSTEMS: ICAR


I
ntegrated cellular and
ad hoc
relaying systems (i
CAR) is a new wireless system architecture
based on the integration of cellular and modern
ad hoc
relaying technologies. It addresses the
congestion problem due to unbalanced traffic in a cellular system and provides interoperability
for heterogeneous netw
orks. The iCAR system can efficiently balance traffic loads between cells
by using
ad hoc relaying stations
(ARS) to relay traffic from one cell to another dynamically.
This not only increases the system’s capacity cost effectively, but also reduces transm
ission
power for mobile hosts and extends system coverage. In this paper, we compare the performance
of the iCAR system with conventional cellular systems in terms of the call blocking/dropping
probability, throughput, and signaling overhead via analysis a
nd simulation. Our results show
that with a limited number of ARSs and some increase in the signaling overhead (as well as
hardware complexity), the call blocking/dropping probability in a congested cell and the overall
system can be reduced.









G. S
hen, J. Liu, D. Wang, J. Wang, and S. Jin, “Multi
-
Hop Relay for

Next
-
Generation Wireless Access Networks,” Bell Labs Technical J.,

vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 175
-
193, 2009


MULTI
-
HOP RELAY FOR NEXT
-
GENERATION WIRELESS ACCESS NETWORKS


Recently, there has been an
upsurge of interest in multi
-
hop relay in both academia and industry.
By breaking a long distance low quality link into two or more high quality segments, multi
-
hop
relay is introduced to enable traffic
-
signaling forwarding between the base station and mob
ile
user. Coverage is effectively extended to heavily shadowed areas in the cell or other distant areas
beyond cell range by multi
-
hop relay. Meanwhile, it also provides throughput enhancement,
especially at the cell edge. This paper first reviews the key
technical advances with multi
-
hop
relay in cellular networks. Then, novel technical solutions and algorithms for multi
-
hop relay are
introduced and analyzed, including the separation of control and data, effective signal
-
to
-
interference
-
plus
-
noise ratio (S
INR)
-
based routing algorithms, and cooperative relay schemes.
Through extensive system
-
level and link
-
level simulations, we present improvements in both
capacity and coverage in multi
-
hop relay networks compared to the legacy cellular network.















R. Schoenen, R. Halfmann, and B. Walke, “MAC Performance of a

3 GPP
-
LTE Multihop Cellular Network,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf.Comm. (ICC), pp. 4819
-
4824, May 2008.


MAC PERFORMANCE OF A 3 GPP
-
LTE MULTIHOP CELLULAR NETWORK




Recently, there has been increas
ing interest in adding relaying functionalities into cellular
networks. When relaying is added to conventional cellular networks (CCNs), the resulting
system is known as Multihop Cellular Nework (MCN). MCNs combine the benefits of ad hoc
networks and conve
ntional cellular networks. For maximizing the benefit of multihop relaying, a
good medium access control (MAC) layer protocol is required. A medium access control (MAC)
protocol moderates access to the shared medium by defining rules that allow devices to
communicate with each other in an orderly and efficient manner. Different medium access
control (MAC) protocols have been devised for different type of architectures, applications and
media, but MAC Protocols for conventional cellular networks and ad hoc n
etworks cannot be
used directly for MCNs. In this paper, we have presented an overview of multihop cellular
technology and propose a MAC protocol for multihop cellular networks. The analysis of MAC
layer protocol performance of multihop cellular network is

done in time division duplex mode.
The results show that multihop cellular networks using the proposed MAC protocol perform
better than conventional cellular networks.









3rd Generation Partnership Project, Technical Specification Group Radio Access
Network,
“Opportunity Driven Multiple Access,”3G Technical Report 25.924, Version 1.0.0, Dec.
1999


OPPORTUNITY DRIVEN MULTIPLE ACCESS


Opportunity Driven Multiple Access is a mechanism for maximizing the potential for effective
communication. This is achi
eved by distributing intelligence within communicating nodes and
providing multiple communication paths between them. The intelligent nodes measure and
evaluate their communications options and adapt to exploit the optimum opportunity. Mobile
telecommunica
tions has reached a critical point in it's evolution. Existing frequency allocations
are becoming congested yet there are predictions that 60% of the population will one day own
mobile telephones. Coupled to this is the explosion in multi
-
media services su
pported on IP
networks, which will raise user expectations of communication and increase demands for
bandwidth. If for a given data throughput the transmitted power of a mobile is significantly
reduced then there is a potential solution to the capacity pro
blem, but this implies an
improvement in the signal to noise ratio. The ratio is affected by a wide range of parameters
including radio frequency and path. Fixing these parameters immediately prior to transmission
may be considered as equivalent to selecti
ng an operating point along a multi
-
dimensional
vector.


SYSTEM ANALYSIS:


EXISTING SYSTEM:


Existing

incentive mechanisms is questionable because they impose

significant overhead. First,
the fair charging policy is to

charge both the source and destinati
on nodes when both of

them
benefit from the communication. To securely implement

this charging policy, two signatures are
usually

required per message (one from the source node and the

other from the destination node).

Integrated cellular and
ad hoc
relayi
ng systems

is new wireless system archit
ecture based on the
integration
of cellular and modern
ad hoc
relaying technologies. It

addresses the congestion
problem

due to unbalanced traffic in a
cellular system and provides int
eroperability for
heterogeneous
networks can ef
ficiently balance traffic loads
between cells by using
ad hoc
relaying stations
(ARS) to relay traffic
from one cell to another dynamical
ly. This not only
increases the
system’s capacity cost effectively
, but also reduces transmission
power
for mobile
hosts and e
xtends system coverage.



PROPOSED SYSTEM:


We propose FESCIM, a Fair, Efficient, and

Secure Cooperation Incentive Mechanism, to
stimulate the

node cooperation in MCN. In order to efficiently and

securely charge the source
and desti
nation nodes, the

lightweight hashing operations are used in the ACK packets

to reduce
the number of public
-
key
-
cryptography operations.

The destination node generates a hash chain
and

signs its root, and acknowledges message reception by

releasing a hash
value from the hash
chain. In this way, the

destination node generates a signature per group of

messages instead of
generating a signature per message.


ROUTE DISCOVERY PHASE:

In order to establish an end
-
to
-
end route, the source node

broadcasts the Route
Request Packet
(RREQ) containing the

identities of the source (IDS) and the destination (IDD)

nodes.


DATA GENERATION AND RELAY PHASE:

The source node attaches its certificate to the first data

packet to enable the intermediate and
destination nodes to

ver
ify its signatures. Before relaying a data packet, each

intermediate node
verifies the attached signature to ensure

the message’s integrity and authenticity and to verified.


ACK GENERATION AND RELAY PHASE:

Acknowledge receiving the message generating a si
gnature per ACK

packet, one signature is
generated per Z ACKs. Payment

non repudiation and non manipulation are achievable because

the hash function destination node creates a new hash chain and

authenticates it by signing all the
used hash chains’ roots.


We analysis

and simulations have demonstrated that our incentive

mechanism can secure the
payment and significantly reduce

the overhead of storing, submitting, and processing the

checks.
In addition, replacing the destination node’s signatures

with the ha
shing operations can charge
the source and

destination nodes
.