Essential Computer Concepts

amountdollElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

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A
computer
is an electronic device
that:


A
ccepts
information and instructions
from a
user


M
anipulates

the information
according to the
instructions


Displays

the
information in some
way


Stores

the
information for retrieval
later.

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Personal
Computers

(PCs)


Desktop
computers


Laptops
-
they are portable


Handheld
computers
-
example?
Smartphone


Mainframe

computers


Supercomputers

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4

See page ECC 4
-
5

Tablet PC: Apple’s IPad2

Pictures of Computers

Supercomputer


Desktop


Portable (laptops, notebooks)

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Desktop by HP

Laptop by HP


Size
-
Sits on your desk


Speed
-
Example
-
2.6
GHz

AMD
a
thlon

dual
-
core processor


Cost
-
$300 to $3500


6


Laptops
-
Laptops come in many brands that
use Windows software such as Dell, Acer,
Toshiba, IBM. Brands that use Apple
software are
MacBooks
.


Notebooks
-
similar to laptops but usually
smaller, lighter. Example: Dell “
Netbook
”.
Very small.

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PDAs

(Personal Data Assistant)
-
Example
-
Blackberry
-
holds calendar,
names and addresses, can access the
internet


Cell phones
-
Iphone
, the Droid
(
Googles

answer to the
Iphone
)


Size
-
can hold in your hand


Cost
-
$100
-
$2500


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Example
-
the computers running MSTC, the
computers

running the hospital, the computers
running your local bank.


Cost
:

Several hundred thousand dollars to a
million dollars

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Size
-
Huge


Speed
-
Fastest on
the planet



Cost
-
$ Millions


Example
-
Cray
Research in
Chippewa Falls WI

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Seymour Cray standing
next to the core unit of the
Cray
-
1 computer, circa
1974, Chippewa Falls, WI.


Photograph
courtesy of
the Charles Babbage
Institute, University of
Minnesota,
Minneapolis


Cray Timeline


About Cray's latest
Supercomputer....The
Jaguar

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Include
computer hardware and software


Hardware


the physical stuff
-
the case, the guts
inside


Software

refers to the
instructions, the programs

that

the
computer needs to perform a specific
task



Specifications
-
The
technical details about each
component

(See pg 2 of textbook for an
example)

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The
motherboard

is the
main electronic
component of the
computer



The
microprocessor
-
the
“brain”

of a computer
,
also called CPU
(transistors on a chip,
speed
)
-
Examples
-

Intel
,
AMD



Cards

are removable
circuit
boards
-
Example
-

video cards, sound
cards

Good
pics

on
pg

ECC 8
-
9.


Input
-
instructions you put in.



How?


With a
keyboard


With a
mouse


With a
scanner


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Output
-
the results.


How do you see the results?


With a
monitor


With a
printer

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Monitor


Laser
-
fastest, most expensive, highest
quality


Inkjet
-
sprays ink on paper


Dot matrix
-
punches dots, lowest
quality

17


Computers understand only code. (0s and 1s; On
or Off). They don’t understand English.


The code they understand uses binary digits,
called bits. The code is called ASCII code.


8

bits
= 1
byte

= 1 character

1 thousand bytes = 1KB (
kilobyte
)

1 million bytes = 1 MB (
megabyte
)

1 billion bytes = 1 GB (
gigabyte
)

1 trillion bytes = 1 TB (
terabyte
)

Main point
:

Computers use and store A LOT of info!


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RAM
-
Random Access Memory


Temporary


Lost when the computer is turned off (unless you save
your work)




ROM
-
Read
O
nly Memory


Permanent


Tells the computer how to “boot”.

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Hard drive
-
usually your “C:” drive. Here at
school you will be storing your work on the “H”
drive and/or your
flash drive.


CDs and DVDs
-
2 things you should NEVER do!


1) Scratch or 2) Expose to high temps


DVD

can store 4.7 GB
-
more than enough
capacity for a full
-
length feature film.
Blu
-
ray

can store more than 5 times more (25 GB per
layer).


Flash drives
-
“jump drive”
-
from 32
MB
-
16 GB


A computer
file

-
a collection
of stored
data:


An
executable file
-
instructions
that tell a
computer how to perform a specific task


A
data file
-
created
by a
user
-
you will be
creating data files in Microsoft Office
(Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access).


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SYSTEM SOFTWARE

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE


Windows 7


Windows XP


Windows Vista


Safari, Lion (Apple
Systems)


Microsoft Word


Microsoft
Powerpoint


Microsoft Excel


Microsoft Access


Gaming Software

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System
software
-

manages the
fundamental operations of your
computer.
Also called an operating system.


Examples
-


Windows XP


Windows 7


Lion (Apple)


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To get here, click on the folder icon in the bottom left corner of your desktop.
Then click “Computer.”


Application software
-
enables
you to
write
letters, make spreadsheets, create databases,
create presentations, create games etc.


Examples of application software are Microsoft
Word, Excel,
Powerpoint
, Access and many
others.


Example of gaming software
-

Blizzard
Entertainment

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Data communications
-
the
transmission of text,
numeric, voice, or video data from one
computer to
another or from a computer to a
peripheral (keyboards, printers
etc
).


4 things are needed
for data communications:


Sender


Channel
-
telephone cable, coaxial cable, optical fibers


Protocol
-
rules for accurate transfer handled by a
driver


Receiver

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Data bus
-
The
path
connecting
the
microprocessor, RAM, and
peripherals

and
back again


The data bus needs
ports
:



USB port (Universal Serial Bus)
-
where flash
drives, cameras, your IPOD connects



Ethernet port
-
where the internet connects

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A
network

connects one computer to other
computers. Example
-
LAN

(local area network)

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C
ommunicating
over a
long
distance using a
phone line or some other data
line. To do this you
need:


A

modem

either outside your computer or inside on the
motherboard.


The modem converts a computer signal (called a digital
signal) to a telephone signal (called an analog signal) and
back again on the other end.


A

phone line
(through the phone company) or a
dedicated subscriber line (
DSL
) like through the cable
company. The DSL will transmit faster than a telephone
line.


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The
Internet

is the largest network in the
world. It offers:


Electronic
mail
(email)


World Wide
Web
(www)
-
lots and lots AND
LOTS of information and products


Info and products are on
web pages


A collection of web pages is a
web site
.

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Security
-
steps
a computer owner takes to
prevent unauthorized use of or damage to
the
computer.


Viruses
-

harmful programs. Also called
malware
.


Antivirus
software
-
searches files for
viruses and disinfects them.



Firewall
-

like
a locked door

on your
computer which prevents other computers
on the internet from accessing yours without
your permission.

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Storing data, applications, and resources on
servers which you access over the Internet
rather than on a users’ computer.


Access only what you need, when you need it.


Examples: Google Docs, Microsoft Web Apps,
Windows Live
Skydrive
. Companies can also
have “the Cloud” do automatic back
-
ups of
their data.

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Space on Windows Live servers which you
access over the Internet.


You can store up to 25 GB of files there


You can store them in public or private folders
or in folders that you make available to only
certain people


Need a Windows Live ID to use it (free).


See
pg

ECC 32 for screen display.


Here is what
Skydrive

looks like:
https://login.live.com


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All photos are courtesy of Course Technology
at
Cengage

Learning unless credit is otherwise
given.


YouTube clip of “Mouse” courtesy of YouTube.

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