# EE381 - Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Electronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

123 views

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

EE 381 Electrical Engineering Lab
-
II

2003

04; Semester II

amountdoll_1ba0a1d8
-
f3ec
-
411e
-
ab32
-
372f6cb109d7.doc

1

of
2

Experiment #4

Study of Chopper Amplifier

Goal

Design and testing of a chopper amplifier used to amplify low
-
level signals.

Introduction

Several sensor outputs are DC signals in the microvolt to millivolt range. The DC amplifiers using opamps also have th
e
input offset in the same range. At DC frequency, the drift of the amplifier also affects the measurement. One of the
techniques used to achieve high precision dc gains with ac
-
coupled amplifiers is called chopper stabilization. In this
technique, the inp
ut DC signal is modulated by a square wave, and an ac
-
coupled amplifier is used to amplify it. Further, it
is synchronously demodulated and passed through a low pass filter to recover the amplified DC signal (Figure 1). Since the
amplifier is ac
-
coupled, t
he input offset voltage does not appear at its output.

Figure 1: Principle of chopper amplifier

The Fourier representation of the chopping signal of unit amplitude,
is given by the following equation:

If
is the input signal to be measured, the Fourier representation of the modulated signal can be written as:

The modulation process translates the input signal to the odd harmonic freque
ncies of the chopping signal. The modulated
signal is now amplified by an ac
-
coupled amplifier of gain A, and further demodulated back to the base band by the
chopping signal. The output after demodulation can be represented by the following equation:

The output signal is recovered by passing the demodulated signal through a low pass filter which rejects all harmonic
contents.

The following figure (Figure 2) shows the entire process in frequency domain. The input signal is band
limited to
. The
chopper frequency

is chosen such that
. The ac
-
coupled amplifier has a lower cut off frequency of

and
the low pass filter cut off

frequency is
.

Figure 2: Principle of chopper amplifier in frequency domain

Multiplication of the input signal by a square wave is equivalent to switching the signal on and off. Therefore, a pair of
s
witches, as shown in the following figure (Figure 3), can be used to realize the modulator and the demodulator. The two
switches are driven by complementary control signals S and S'. The following circuit (Figure 4) consisting of two
transistors can be use
d to generate the control signals.

Low
Pass
Filter

Output

Amp

Chopping Signal

t

v

10mV

t

v

10mV

0

t

v

0.5V

-
0.5V

t

v

0.
5V

t

v

0.23V

t

v

0

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

EE 381 Electrical Engineering Lab
-
II

2003

04; Semester II

amountdoll_1ba0a1d8
-
f3ec
-
411e
-
ab32
-
372f6cb109d7.doc

2

of
2

C1

C2

R1

R2

R4

R3

R5

-

+

+

-

Figure 3: Pair of switches used as modulator and demodulator

Figure 4: Control signal generator

Pre
-
laboratory exercise

Design the control signal generator circuit shown in Figure 3 meeting the fol
lowing specifications.

The outputs S and S' are complement of each other.

The range of high (V
oH
) and low (V
oL
) levels are: 4V < V
oH

< 5V and
-
5V < V
oL

<
-
4V.

Choose the resistance values such that the transistors operate in either saturation or in cut o
ff modes.

Simulate the circuit using PSPICE and
compare the simulated bias points with the design values
.

Study the effect of driving the transistors too deep into saturation on the output of the circuit.

You will be using switching transistors 2N2369 in t
he laboratory to build this circuit. However, if you cannot find a
model for this transistor, use the model of 2N2222 transistor for the simulation.

Design an ac
-
coupled amplifier using the following schematic and meeting the following specifications:

Gai
n of the amplifier for the chopped signal is 100.

Explain the criteria for the choice of R1, C1, R2 and C2.

Using PSPICE simulate the
frequency response

of the
amplifier.

Plot the simulated output

of the amplifier for a square
wave input of frequency 1k
Hz and having voltage levels
of 0V and 10mV.

Design a first order low pass filter to extract only the base
band signal at the output of the demodulator. Explain the
criteria used to choose the values of resistor and capacitor.

Set up the entire scheme of c
hopper amplifier on PSPICE.
Use voltage controlled switch models for realizing the
modulators if you cannot find a model for CD4066.

For an input signal set to 10mV DC,
note down the signals

at the output of (a) modulator, (b) Amp1, (c) Amp2, (d)
demodula
tor and (e) low pass filter.

Plot the gain of the chopper amplifier

as a function of the input voltage (Vi) for
-
50mV < Vi < 50mV.

Feed a low frequency low
-
level sinusoidal input to the chopper amplifier (say 20Hz at 60mV pp) and
observe and
sketch the o
utput
.

Familiarize yourself with the specifications and pin outs of transistor 2N2369, CMOS analog switch CD4066, and
operational amplifier ua741.

Laboratory Work

Set up a potential divider network to obtain voltages in the range of
-
50mV to +50mV. Use +
5V and
-
5V power supply and
10k pot to vary the voltage.

Set up a direct
-
coupled non
-
inverting amplifier using ua741 to give a DC gain of 100.
Plot the gain

of the amplifier as a
function of input voltage over the range of
-
50mV to +50mV. Take sufficient n
umber of points to demonstrate the effect of
DC offset as the input signal level approaches very small values. Do not use any offset nulling techniques to remove the
DC offset.

Set up the control signal generator (Figure 2) and verify the functionality of
the circuit.
Plot the waveforms at both S and
S'
.

Set up the complete chopper amplifier circuit and for an input signal set to 10mV DC (which is set by the potential divider
network), note down the signals at the
output of (a) modulator, (b) Amp1, (c) Amp2
, (d) demodulator and (e) low pass
filter
.

Plot the gain of the chopper amplifier

as a function of the input voltage (Vi) for
-
50mV < Vi < 50mV.

Feed a low frequency low
-
level sinusoidal input to the chopper amplifier (say 10Hz at 60mV pp) and
observe and

sketch
the output
.

S

S'

S1

S2

Input

Output

1kHz

R1

Rb1

Rb2

Rc2

Rc1

+5V

-
5V

S

S'

Amp1

Amp2