lecture 6 - cognition outline

almondpitterpatterAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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COGNITION:
THOUGHT

Concept Formation


Concepts
:



Concept Formation
:

Concept Formation


Classification
:




“fuzzy concepts”

Concept Formation and
Stereotyping


Our natural tendency to form
concepts and categorize leads to
stereotyping




Only solution is to educate

Problem Solving


Problem solving



Confronting and resolving
situations that require insight or
determination of some unknown
elements

How do we solve new Problems?


Learning Theory




Gestalt Theory




Information
-
Processing Theory


Figure 7.2 Stages in Problem Solving

Approaches to Problem Solving


Algorithm


Strategy involving applying a set of
rules until the problem is solved.



Guarantees a correct solution.



Impractical due to lack of rules in
most situations and time demands.


Approaches to Problem
Solving


Heuristic


Strategy that involves the use of
flexible guidelines (rules of thumb)



Does not guarantee a correct
solution



Efficient



Barriers to Problem Solving


Functional Fixedness






Mental Set


Creative Problem Solving


Creativity
:


generating ideas that are original, novel,
and appropriate.



Original responses
:



Novel responses



Appropriate responses

Ways of Thinking

Convergent Thinking





Example:


Ways of thinking


Divergent thinking





Example:


Reasoning
& Decision
Making

REASONING


Reasoning

=


purposeful process



Allows us to:



-

Formal vs. informal



REASONING

Formal





Informal


LOGIC

Logic
:



Tools



Deductive Reasoning


Inductive Reasoning


DECISION MAKING


Decision making
:




Trivial or complex

Uncertainty: Estimating
Probabilities


Decisions can be based on
:

(a) formal logic


(b) hypothesis, testing


(c) an educated guess


Educated Guess
:

Educated Guess


Problems with
Estimating Probabilities



Because of their mood or
lack of attention, people
may act irrationally, ignore
key data, and make bad
decisions



Barriers to Good Decision Making

Gambler’s Fallacy:




The belief that an
event is more likely
to occur if it has
not recently
occurred



Barriers to Good Decision Making

Belief in small numbers


Decision based on a
small number of
observations




Barriers to Good Decision Making

Availability heuristic


Judging the probability
of an event based on
how easy it is to think of
examples of it

Barriers to Good Decision Making

Overconfidence



Being so committed to
one’s own ideas that
one is often more
confident than correct

Barriers to Good Decision Making

Confirmation bias


People cling to
beliefs despite
contradictory
evidence


Barriers to Good Decision Making

Fallacy of Composition:



Belief that what is true
of the parts is also true
of the whole

ARTIFICIAL

INTELLIGENCE

Artificial Intelligence
-

definition


Artificial intelligence



a field that
draws on concepts from both
cognitive psychology and computer
science to develop artificial systems
that display some aspects of human
-
like intelligence

Limitations of AI


Well
-
defined and ill
-
defined problems




Lack of common sense




Lack of creativity

Neural Networks


Various bits of information are
stored in different parts of the brain



A
convergence zone

Neural Networks:

Hierarchical Network Model


Assumes a hierarchy in which a particular word
is stored under the higher order category that
subsumes it, which in turn is stored under a yet
higher category



EXAMPLE:


Neural Networks:

Parallel distributed processing


parallel distributed processing

(PDP)


PDP involves many operations
taking place at the same time
in various parts of the brain