Cognitive psychology

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Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

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Cognitive psychology



The origins of cognitive thinking such as computational theory of mind can be traced back as early as


Descartes

in the 17th century.




It having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s


following the "
cognitive revolution
" initiated by
Noam

Chomsky
's 1959 critique of behaviorism and

empiricism more generally.




It had its foundations in the

Gestalt psychology
,
Wolfgang Köhler
, and
Kurt Koffka
, and in the work of


Jean Piaget
, who provided a theory of stages/phases that describe children's cognitive development


(
http://en.wikipedia.org
)



The early
behavioural psychologists

treated the

human mind

as a
'black box'
,

being concerned only


with

the relationship between

the

input

to the system (the
stimulus
) and the

output

from the system


(the
response
).None of the processes that occurred between the stimulus and the response were considered


to be the legitimate concern of psychology, since they could not be directly observed.



Dissatisfaction with this

strict view, together with an

increasing realisation that
internal higher
-
order


mental processes are an important part of psychology
, has since led to the development

of
cognitive psychology
. This is concerned with
what

actually happens
within

the mind/brain system


when we

think
,

reason
,
remember
,

develop language skills
, etc, as well as with

how we process


information
received from the

outside world
.
A mental processes which

mediate between stimulus


and response
.


(www2.rgu.ac.uk/ How Students Learn )

Cognitive psychology



Cognitive theory

contends that solutions to problems take the form of
algorithms

rules that are not

necessarily understood but promise a solution, or
heuristics

rules that are understood but that do not

always guarantee solutions.




The school of thought arising from this approach is known as

cognitivism

.





Cognitive psychology

is currently having an increasing

influence on educational thinking
, especially

through the burgeoning field of
artificial intelligence

.


(www2.rgu.ac.uk/ How Students Learn )



Ulric Neisser

coined the term '
cognitive psychology
' in his book published in
1967


(Cognitive Psychology, wherein Neisser provides a definition of cognitive psychology characterizing
people


as
dynamic information
-
processing systems

whose mental operations might be described in


computational terms.



Also emphasising that it is a point of view which postulates

the mind

as
having a certain conceptual


structure
.

Cognitive psychology



Neisser's definition

of
cognition

:

...the term "
cognition
" refers to
all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced,


elaborated, stored, recovered, and used
. It is concerned with these processes even when

they operate


in the absence of relevant stimulation
, as in
images

and

hallucinations
... it is apparent that cognition


is
involved in

everything a human being might possibly do
; that
every psychological phenomenon


is a cognitive

phenomenon
.



Cognitive psychology

is radically different from previous psychological approaches in two key ways.



-

It

accepts

the use of the
scientific method
, and generally

rejects

introspection

as a valid


method of investigation, unlike symbol
-
driven approaches such as
Freudian

psychology.



-
It
explicitly

acknowledges the existence of internal mental states (such as
belief
,
desire

and


motivation
) unlike
behaviorist

psychology.

(http://en.wikipedia.org)



John Bruer :

A true understanding of
how the brain handles

learning tasks

will only be reached with the
help of


cognitive psychologists
.


Cognitive psychology

is the
critical bridge between brain science and education.


Cognitive psychology

Relative words and phrases:



Information Processing


Image schemas and Conceptual metaphors


Memory(short
-
term memory, long
-
term memory)


Remembering

Problem solving
*

Decision Making
**

Language

Nature of the learning process


Reinforcement


Repetition

Educational Thinking

Mathematical Thinking

Collaborative Learning

Situated learning

Embodied cognition

Cognitive Science
***

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive psychology

*Problem solving:


Is an

integral part of everyday life

and also is

an

important aspect of human cognition.


How

we

learn from experience

of problem solving and

how our learning transfers



(or often fails to transfer)

from one situation to another.


How

we

generate a useful representation of a problem

as a starting point
.


The focus on the
practical transfer of learning through problem solving

will also make it of

relevance


to educationalists

and business psychologists.

http://www.cognitivepsychologyarena.com

**

Decision Making

:

The last part of problem solving,

evaluating

and
choosing
, is usually called decision making.

http://dieoff.org

***Cognitive science:

differs from cognitive psychology in that algorithms that are intended to

simulate


human behavior are

implemented

or
implementable on a computer
.

Cognitive psychology

Influential cognitive psychologists:


Alan Baddeley

-

Albert Bandura

-

Frederic Bartlett

-

Elizabeth Bates


Donald Broadbent

(Has a book “
Perception and Communication”

in 1958 and has worked on


information processing

model of cognition+the human brain's processing of math, reading and other


specific learning tasks.)



Jerome Bruner

( Bruner's ideas are based on
categorization
. "To perceive is to categorize,

to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize.

" Bruner maintains people interpret the world in terms of its similarities and differences.)



Gordon H. Bower

-

Fergus Craik

-

Noam Chomsky

( worked on language)

-


Antonio Damasio

Hermann Ebbinghaus

-

William Estes

-

Michael Gazzaniga

-


Keith Holyoak

Daniel Kahneman

-

Nancy Kanwisher

-

Eric Lenneberg

-

Elizabeth Loftus

Brian MacWhinney

-

James McClelland

-



Cognitive psychology

Influential cognitive psychologists:




George Armitage Miller

(developer of
WordNet
-

Applied to language as the primary mental knowledge


representation system, cognitive psychology has exploited tree and network mental models. Its singular


contribution


to AI and psychology in general is the notion of a
semantic network
)


Ulrich Neisser

-

Allen Newell

-

Allan Paivio

-

Seymour Papert


Jean Piaget

(provided a theory of stages/phases that describe children's cognitive development)


Steven Pinker

-

Michael Posner

-

Henry L. Roediger III

-

Eleanor Rosch

-

David Rumelhart


-

Eleanor Saffran

-

Daniel Schacter

-

Roger Shepard

-

Herbert Simon

-

Elizabeth Spelke


-
George Sperling

-

Robert Sternberg

-

Saul Sternberg

-

Larry Squire

-

Endel Tulving


-

Anne Treisman

-

Amos Tversky

-

Lev Vygotsky


Cognitive psychology



E
-
Books



1
-
Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches.

2
-

Cognitive Psychology and Instruction

3
-

Representation, Vision and Visualization: Cognitive

4
-

Situated Learning and Education

5
-

Mathematical Idea Analysis: What Embodied Cognitive Science Can Say about the Human


Nature of Mathematics
.

ELHAM BAKHTIARYMANESH
-

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