Behaviour in a Work Team

almondpitterpatterAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Agents to Simulate Social Human
Behaviour in a Work Team

Barcelona, February 2003.

Arantza Aldea

aaldea@etse.urv.es

S
PAIN

Research Activities


Applications of AI to industry


Multi
-
Agent Systems


Ontology
-
Based Search & Information
Extraction


Model
-
Based Reasoning



Multi
-
Agent Systems


Information Society


AgentCities


Simulation of work teams


Agents to simulate social behaviour



Introduction
:

Team

Configuration





The

Model
:



General

Architecture



Internal

Architecture

of

the

Agents
.



Tasks

Representation



Organisation

Level







The

Prototype




Future

Work




Conclusions

Introduction



In

any

complex

project

that

requires

several

people

working

together,

the

configuration

of

the

best

possible

team

within

the

working

constraints,

is

a

difficult

task

(Biegler

et

al
.

1997
)
.





Intelligent

Multi
-
Agent

Systems

can

be

used

to

simulate

the

human

behaviour
:




Emotions

and

Personality



Sociability



Groups

Organisation




Case

Study
:

s
election

of

people

to

integrate

a

team

in

charge

of

the

conceptual

design

of

a

chemical

process
.

Brief Description

Working team
selection
Group behaviour
simulation
Best team
selection
Add
/
delete
individuals
Working
team
cases
Finish
?
Project
Manager
Design problem
new working team
Proposed working team
working team
no
yes
Simulation of societies
The Model: General Architecture

The Team Simulation Process.




Social

Status



Cognition

Perception

Behaviour

Actor

Basic Architecture of PECS Agents.
(Urban 2000)

Sensor



Emotion



Physics

The Model: Agents Architecture




Social

Status



Cognition

Perception

Behaviour

Actor

PECS Modified Architecture.



Emotion /
Personality

The Model: Agents Architecture

Cognition.



Project

Manager



Chemical

Engineer



Technician



Assistant



Creativity




Experience

Social Status.



Introverted

/

Extroverted



P
refers

to

work

in

team

/

Prefers

to

work

alone

Sociologists,

psychologists
.

Internal Parameters of the Agents

}

Emotion / Personality.



Desire

}

Frijda

1986



Interest



Disgust



Anxiety

}

Johnson
-
Laird

1992




Stress



Amiable



Expressive



Analytical



Driver

S
.

Schubert,

Leadership

Connections

Inc
.

1997

}


Izard 1991

}

Personality Trends

Amiable
.


Priority
:

Relationships

Speciality
:

Support
;

“We’re

all

in

this

together

so

let’s

work

as

a

team”

Expressive
.


Priority
:

Relationships

Speciality:
Sociali
s
ing; “Let me tell what happened to me...”

Analytical
.


Priority
:

The

task

Speciality
:

Processes
;

systems
;

“Can

you

provide

documentation

for

your

claims?”

Driver
.


Priority
:

The

task

Speciality:
Being in control; “I want it done right and I want it done now.”

BEGIN

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

TASK 4

TASK 5

TASK 6

TASK 7

TASK 8

...

TASK N

END



Number

of

Participants




Duration




Sequence




Difficulty

of

the

Task




Type

of

Task



Deadline




Priority




Cost




Quality

The Model: Tasks Representation

Differents

organisation

types

will

be

tested
:

Sin Jerarquías
Centralizada
Arbol
Tree Hierarchy

Centralised Hierarchy

Without Hierarchies

The Model: Organisation Level

The Model: Agent Behaviour

2
2
2
)
(
2
1
)
(
s
m
x
e
s
x
f




m

s

The

agent

behaviour

emerges

by

evaluating

values

of

its

internal

properties
,

randomly

modified

around

the

initial

values

of

each

of

the

properties
.

Normal

distribution

with

mean

m

(internal

value

of

the

agent,

e
.
g
.

stress,

interest,

etc
.
)

and

standard

deviation

s


These

random

variations

are

due

to

the

non
-
deterministic

nature

of

human

behaviour

Three Dimensions to Evaluate a Team:



Number

of

Members
.






Agents

with

Different

Characteristics
.






Type

of

Organisations
.

The Model: Team Evaluation

Configuration Component



Team

Configuration





Tasks

Configuration

Simulation Component



Selection of Weight Agent Internal Parameters




Number of Simulations

Results Component



Show

Team

Behaviour




Graphical

Statistics

(future

work)

The Prototype: Main Components

The Prototype: User Interfaces

Tasks

Configuration

Selection of Weight Agent
Internal Parameters

Use of JADE 2.5

The Prototype: Initial Results

Team Members



1

Project

Manager




3

Engineers




3

Technicians




3

Assistants

Example Configuration:

Project



12

Different

tasks

Number of simulations



100

Organisation



Centralised

Hierarchy

The Prototype: Initial Results



A
gents

with

high

stress

and

in

charge

of

a

specialised

task

were

the

agents

with

more

failures




Decreasing

the

stress

parameter

and

executing

the

same

number

of

simulations,

the

number

of

failures

also

decreased




Agents

with

an

amiable

personality

and

working

in

a

task

by

themselves

had

more

failures

than

successes




The

most

successful

agents

contains

a

high

experience

and

analytical

personality
.




T
he

creativity

parameter

only

increases

the

number

of

successes

when

the

agent

is

in

charge

of

specialised

tasks
.

We observe that:



W
e

are

evaluating

Fuzzy

Logic

to

improve

the

agents

behaviour
.





More

studies

at

organisation

level
:

social

characteristics,

co
-
ordination,

re
-
organisation,

etc
.




Implementation

of

other

types

of

team

co
-
ordination
:

tree

hierarchical

organisation
,

and

no

hierarchy




Validate

the

experimental

results

by

comparing

them

with

human

teams




Unexpected

events
:

how

external

factors

affect

the

team

behaviour

Future Work

Things to do...

At the end ...

Conclusions


Emotions, Personality,

Stress




Different Organisation


Types

Social


Characteristics

Simulation

Process

...

help

the

project

manager

to

select

the

most

suitable

team

members

for

a

specific

project
.