MLA Works Cited Documentation

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MLA Works Cited Documentation

Efforts have been made to update the information which follows to comply with the
MLA
Handbook
, Sixth Edition; however, the chart is simply a representative sampling of information
from the
MLA Handbook
. Students are advised
to consult the
MLA Handbook

for any situation not
presented below or in the event of questions.


When creating your Works Cited Page, remember to:


Begin the Works Cited on a new page, but number consecutively (i.e., if the last page
of your essay is page

3, the Works Cited is page 4)



Alphabetize each entry by first letter



Underline titles of books, magazines, films, etc. (Do NOT italicize.)



Put quotation marks around the titles of poems, short stories, and articles



Indent the 2
nd
, 3
rd
, and all subsequent lines of each citation


Double
-
space all entries...the examples which follow are single
-
spaced only to
save space on this handout


Correct citation


Type of citation


Gorman, Elizabeth.
Prairie Women.

New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Book (One author)


Caper, Charles and Lawrence T. Teamos.
How to Camp
.
Philadelphia:Doubleday, 1986.

Book (Two or more
authors)


Ellis, Doris, et.al
.
History of Japan.

New York: Harcourt, Brace and World,
Inc., 1989.

Book (More than three
authors)


Vanderkirk, Pamela, ed.
Ten Short Plays
. Los Angeles: Nowell Book Co.,
1982.

Book (One editor)


Lockhard, David J. and Charles Heimler, eds.
The Oregon Trail.

New York:
Bonanza Books, 1992.

Book (Two editors)


Carlson, David, et.al., eds.
Encyclopedia of Animal Life
. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co., 1985.

Book (Three or more
editors)


Allende, Isabel. "Toad's Mouth." Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden.
A Hammock
beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America
. Ed. Thomas
Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83
-
88.

Book (Single work from
an anthology)


Douglass, Frederick.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American
Slave
, Written by Himself. Boston,
1845. 30 Jan. 1997
<gopher://gopher..vt.edu:10010/02/73/1>.

Entire Online Book

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment."

Twice
-
Told Tales
. Ed.
George Parsons Lathrop. Boston: Houghton, 1883. 16 May 2002
<
http://209.11.144.65/eldritchpress/nh/dhe.html>.

Keats, John. "Ode on a Grecian Urn."
Poetical Works
. 1884.
Bartleby.com:Great Books Online.

Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. 2002.


5
May 2003 <http://www.columbia.edu/126/41.htm>.


Story from Book Online




Poem fro
m Book Online
(Part of Scholarly
Project)


Roberts, Sheila. "A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith."
World
Literature Written in English
. 24(1984): 232
-
38. Rpt. in
Twentieth
Century Literature Criticism
. Ed. Dennis Poupard
. Vol. 25. Detroit:
Gale, 1988. 399
-
402.

Gale Literary Criticism
(previously published
scholarly article in a
collection)

Doctorow, E.L. Introduction.
Sister Carrie
. By Theodore Dreiser. New York:
Bantam, 1985. v
-
xi.


Introduction,
Preface,


Foreword,
or


Afterword


Stowe, Harriet Beecher. "Sojourner Truth, the Libyan Sibyl." 1863.
The Heath
Anthology of American Literature
. Ed. Paul Lauter et al. Vol. 1.
Lexington,KY: Heath, 1994. 2425
-
33
.


One volume of
multivolume work



Updike, John. "No Brakes." Rev. of Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street, by
Richard Lingeman. New Yorker 4 Feb. 2002:77
-
80.

A Review

Maps ‘n’ Facts
. Computer Software. Broderbund Software, 1995.

Computer Software


Dunn, Samuel. "Re: Any Ideas for My Country Project." E
-
mail to Tom Jones.
29 Feb. 2000.

E
-
mail

**


Barnridge, Thomas H. "Baseball."
World Book Encyclopedia.

1991.

Encyclopedia (Signed
article)
*


"Egypt."
The New Encyclopedia Britannica.

1995.

Encyclopedia (Unsigned
article)

*


Ito, Philip J. "Papaya," World Book Encyclopedia, 1998 ed
.
The World Book
Multimedia Encyclopedia,

CD
-
ROM version of
The World Book
Encyc
lopedia
.


Encyclopedia (CD
-
ROM)

*


"Egypt."
Encyclopedia Britannica Online
. Vers. 97.1.1. Mar. 1997.
Encyclopedia Britannica. 29 Feb. 2000 <http://www.search.eb.com/>.

Encyclopedia (Internet)

*


The Empire Strikes Back.

Dir. George Lucas. Perf. Mark Hamill, Harrison
Ford, Carrie Fisher. Twentieth Century Fox, 1980.

Film


United States Office of Management and Budget.
Budget of the United States
Government, Fiscal Year 1999.

Washington: GPO, 1999.

Government Publication


Whitehurst, Daniel, former mayor of Fresno. Personal interview. 5 Mar. 1999.

Interview (Personal)


Lin, Michael. "Compressing Online Graphics." Online posting. 27 April
1999.


MacWeb. 29 Feb. 2000
<http://www.graphica.com/digitizing/intor.html>.

Listserv Posting


Cannon, Angie. "Just Saying No to Tests."
U.S. News & World Report.

Oct.
1999: 34.

Magazine


Youakim, Sami. "Work
-
Related Asthma."

American Family Physician

64 (2001):
1839
-
52.
Health Reference Center
. InfoTrac. Stoneman Douglas High
School Library, Parkland, FL. 12 Jan. 2002 <http://www.galegroup.com>.

Magazine, Online News
Subscription Service
(Stoneman Douglas
Media Center)


Levy, Steven. "Great Minds, Great Ideas."
Newsweek
. 27 May 2002. 20 May 2003
<http://www,msnbc.com.news.754336.asp>.

Online Magazine
(Magazine web site)


Barrow, Matthew. "Skipping School? Plan On Walking."
Sacramento Bee.

13
Oct. 1999, California final ed.: A1+.

Newspaper Article,
(Signed)


"Gorilla attacks Martian."
National Enquirer

16 Mar. 1999: A
-
14.

Newspaper Article,
(Unsigned)


Bradley, Donald. "Is There a Right Way?"
Kansas City Star.

23 May 1999: 2
-
4. SIRS Researcher. Stoneman Douglas High School Lib., Parkland,
FL. 29 Feb. 2000 <http://sks.sirs.com>.

Newspaper Article,
Online News
Subscription Service
(SIRS)


(
Stoneman
Dougla
s Media Center)

"Charles Frazier."
Contemporary Authors Online
. 2001. Gale Group Databases.
Stoneman Douglas High School Lib., Parkland, FL. 29 April 2001
<http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.

Gale Literary Criticism
Online
--

Unsigned

(
Stoneman

Douglas Media Center)

McCarron, Bill. "Images of War and Peace: Parallelism and Antithesis in the
Beginning and Ending of Cold Mountain."
The Mississippi Quarterly.

52.2 (1999): 273.
Literature Resource Center
. Gale Group Databases.
Stoneman Douglas High
School Lib., Parkland, FL. 25 April 2001
<http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com>.

Gale Literary Criticism
Online
--
Signed

(
Stoneman
Douglas Media Center)

Matier, Phillip. "Taking Carts From Homeless Is a Bad Idea, Jordan Warns."
San Francisco Chronicle.

11 Oct. 1999: 29 Feb. 2000
<http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/

chronicle/archive/1999/10/11/MN57119.DTL>

Newspaper Article
(Newspaper Website)


Your health
. New York: Modern Woman, 1996.

Pamphlet


"Karma Chameleon."
Northern Exposure
. CBS. KCRA, Sacramento. 29 Feb.
2000.

Television or Radio
(Live)


Smith, Greg. "Rhesus Monkeys in the Zoo." No date. Online image. Monkey
Picture Gallery. 3 May 2003. <http://monkeys.online.org/rhesus.jpg>.

Published Online
Photograph

"Perfect Prom."
Parkland, FL. Personal photograph taken by Barbie Dahl. 8
May 2004.

Personal Photograph

Adams, Cindy. "Critical Eye for the Fantasy Guy." 4 January 2004. Online
PowerPoint. Studyguide.org. 7 March 2004

<www.studyguide.org/fantasy.htm>.

Power Point Online

Civil War Diary
. Videotape. New World Entertainment, 1990.

Videotape


Springsteen, Bruce. "Dancing in the Dark." Born in the USA. Columbia, 1984.
Music video. Dr. Brian De Palma. VH1. 10 May 2002.

Music Video

"Cabinet Nominations," Chapter 20.
Powers of the President.
Laser videodisk.
Pioneer Communications of America, Inc. American Broadcasting
Companies, Inc., 1995.

Video Laserdisc


"Castles in Medieval Times."
yourchildlearn.com
. 2000. Owl and Mouse
Educational Software. 9 March 2003
<
http://www.yourchildlearns.com/castle_history.htm>.

Web Page that is part of
a larger web site

Schrock, Kathleen.
Kathy Schrock’s Guide for Educators
. 1 June 1995. 29
Feb. 2000 <http://discoveryschool.com/schrockguide/htm/>.



Dawe, James.
Jane Austen Pa
ge
. 15 Sept. 1998. 5 May 2001
<http://hyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/~dawe/austen.html>.

Note: If no title for the page is provided, write Home page (do not underline
and do not use quotation marks).

Web page (Personal or
Professional)


The Cinderella Project
. Ed. Michael N. Salda. Vers. 1.1.Dec. 1997. De
Grummond Children's Lit. Research Collection, U of Southern
Mississippi.9 March 2003 <http://www
-
dept.usm/edu/~engdept/cinderella/cinderella.html>.

Web page (Scholarly
online projects)


"Langston Hughes
Poetry Circles." February 2003. National Council of Teachers of
English. 10 March 2003 <http://www.ncte.org/special/LangstonHughes/>.

Web page (Professional
Organizations
)


*
While you may wish to consult a general reference source like a comprehensive
encyclopedia


for background information,


avoid using and citing such resources in documented
literary papers. More specialized sources are preferred.


**
The following resources are NOT credible and should never be used or cited in a documented
literary paper: SparkNotes
©
, Cliff's
©

Notes, PinkMonkey Notes
©,
and similar sources. Be very
cautious in your use of resources from the Internet. Essays by middle sc
hool and high school
students should certainly not be deemed reliable. Similarly, comments on books which are
randomly submitted by readers lack credibility.




PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS

(Including a Few Notes on Citation of Electronic Sources)


General Rules for Parenthetical Citations:


USING AUTHOR NAME

The author of a source is always mentioned either in your text or in the parenthetical
citation
--
unless

no author is provided. (See
"
Special Cases
"

below for information
regarding those situations.)

Author's name mentioned in text


Use the author's name in a sing
le sentence to introduce the material. Then, cite the
page number(s) in parentheses.

Example


Pope was clear to point out that, although many of his ideas were idealistic,
Rousseau held ambivalent feelings toward women (138).

Author's name not mentioned
in text


When you do not include the author's name in the text, place the author's last name in
the parenthetical citation before the page number(s). There is no punctuation between
the author's name and the page number(s).

Example


During World War I, Br
itish and American women could, for the first time, earn first
-
class pay for first
-
class work (Gilbert 236
-
7).

More than one work by the same author(s)


If you use more than one work from a single author, when you refer to either of the
sources, give the author's last name, an abbreviated title of the work, and the relevant
page number(s). A comma separates the author's last name and the title; however,
th
ere is no punctuation between the title and the page number(s).

Example


When calculating the number of homeless animals in the United States, the author
comically stated that "Maybe man would not overrun the planet, but his pet poodles
and Siamese cats m
ight" (Westin,
Pethood
6). She then further stated that there are
50 million homeless animals in the country (Westin, "Planning" 10).

Note:

If you mention the author's last name in the sentence, you do not need to include
the author's last name in parenth
eses.

Two authors with the same last name


If you use sources by authors with the same last name, always include the author's first
and last name in the sentence or in the parenthetical citation.

Example


Children will learn to write if they are given th
e freedom to choose their own
subjects, Allison Faye argues, citing the city school council study of the early 1970s
(42
-
51); however, Robert Faye believes that children will learn how to write
regardless of their school subjects (102
-
115).

Two or three a
uthors in a single source


If a source is written by two or three authors, place all of the authors' last names in the
single sentence or in the parenthetical citation.

Example


Richards, Jones, and Moore maintain that college students who actively partic
ipate
in extracurricular activities achieve greater academic excellence because they learn
how to manage their time more effectively (185).

or


The authors maintain that college students who actively participate in extracurricular
activities achieve great
er academic excellence because they learn how to manage
their time more effectively (Richards, Jones, and Moore 185).

Four or more authors in a single source


If a source is written by four or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by
"et

al." (Latin for "and others") either in the single sentence or in the parenthetical
citation. You can also name all of the authors in the single sentence or in the
parenthetical citation.

Example


Chazon et al. argued that ethnic groups are culturally ba
sed social organizations in
which members have multiple identities (105
-
6).

or


The authors argued that ethnic groups are culturally based social organizations in
which members have multiple identities (Chazon, Riley, Jacobs, and Rutherford 105
-
6).

MULTIVOLUME WORKS


Citing an entire volume of a multivolume work


When using an
entire
volume in a multivolume work, it is not necessary to include the
page number(s). Give the author's last name and then the volume number, including the
abbreviation "vol." A comma separates the author's last name and the volume number.

Example


Between 176
2 and 1796, the economy of imperial Russia experienced profound
changes under Empress Catherine II (Spielvolgel, vol. 3).

Using part of one volume of a multivolume work


When using
part

of one volume of a multivolume work, name the author in the single
se
ntence or in the parenthetical citation. Place the volume number first and then the
page number(s) with a colon and one space between them.

Example

According to Flint, Japanese women of the Tokugawa period had key roles and
functions in the home (5: 139)
.

Classic works available in several editions
:

If you use an edition of a classic prose work, poem, or play, you need to give more
information than just a page reference because readers might be using other editions.

For
prose works
:

1. If you are basi
cally using writing about 1 or 2 prose sources, include a
footnote, which clearly provides information as to the edition that you are using following
the first citation.

Example:

Iago suggests that Othello

"
Strangle her in her bed, / even the bed
she hath

contaminated
"

(
Othello.

4.1.203
-
204).
[1]


2. If you are using several prose sources, give information about parts, sections,
or chapters in addition to page
number(s) in an edition. (You can use standard
abbreviations, such as "pt." [part], "sec." [section], and "ch." [chapter].) Use a semicolon
to separate the page number(s) from the other information.

Example:



When the reader first encounters the character Raskolnikov in
Crime and
Punishment
,
Dostoevsky presents the reader with a man contemplating a
devilish act but terrified of meeting his talkative landlady on the stairs (1;
pt. 1, ch. 1).

For
ver
se plays
, supply only the act, scene, and line number(s) (either with Arabic or
Roman numerals) separated by periods.

Example




As William Shakespeare's play,
Othello
,
begins, Iago lets loose his
wicked passion on Brabantino
: "Look to your house, your daughter, and
your bags!" (I. i. 85).



or



As William Shakespeare's play,
Othello
,

begins, Iago lets loose his
wicked passion on Brabantino: "Look to your house, your daughter, and
your bags!" (1. 1. 85).


Verse quotations of more than three lines in length need to begin on a new line. Indent
each line one inch (two tabs) from the left margin and double space between the lines.
Do not add quotation marks unless they appear in the original text. The parenth
etical
citation, located at the end of the verse quotation and after the end punctuation, will
include the author's last name and the line numbers (unless previously mentioned in
text).

Example

Othello again displays his calm and control when he speaks t
o the political
authorities and to Desdemona's father in act one scene two:

Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors,

My very noble and approved good masters,

That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,

It is most true; true I have married her. (7
8
-
81)




Note:
this quotation is from a classic work that has been identified in text
through the title character, the act and scene numbers have been identified in
the text, and only the line numbers need to appear in the parenthetical
citation.


Since t
he quotation is over three lines long, the parenthetical citation
appears after the end punctuation.

Note:

Be sure to copy the verse
exactly

as it appears in the text.



For

poetry:

See Rules for Citing Poetry Below




SPECIAL CASES
:

No author identified in a source


If you use a source that does not supply an author's name, substitute, by using the title
or an abbreviated title, for the author's name in the sentence or in the parenthetical
citation. In the citation, do

not forget to include the page number(s) unless the source is
one page or less in length. Be sure to italicize the title if the source is a book, and if the
source is an article, place quotation marks around the title.

Example


Goddess religions are thou
ght to have originated somewhere between 25,000 and
7,000 BCE
(
When God Was a Woman
).

Indirect quotations


If you are citing an author who was quoted by another author, include both names. First,
give the name of the author whose words you are citing,
followed by "qtd. in." Then,
give the name of the author of the source you used. If you include the author whose
words you are quoting in your text, you do not need to include the author's name again
in your citation.

Example



In last month's issue of
Ro
lling Stone
,

Lenny Cravitz admitted that Jimmy Hendrix
was an "extraordinary man" (qtd. in Riverwell 220).

Note:
Whenever you can, try to take material from the original source and not from a
secondhand one. Your credibility as a writer could suffer if yo
u depend too heavily on
secondhand sources.



Citing more than one work in single parenthetical reference

If you need to acknowledge two or more works in a single reference, cite each source
as you normally would, but use semicolons to separate the refere
nce.

Example

Several critics have noted that Butler is unique in being a female African American writer
who has excelled in the science fiction genre (Crossley xii; Salvaggio).

Rules for Citing Poetry:

1. The name of a poem is always enclosed in double qu
otations
--

not underlined and
not in italics.

2. When quoting or paraphrasing from a poem, always capitalize whatever is capitalized
in the original.

3. Be certain to identify the name of the poet in your text or in parentheses following the
quotation.


This is particularly important if you are writing about more than one poem.


Also, be
certain to give the line reference in parenthesis following your quotation. Once you have
established that the numbers designate lines, it is only necessary to use number
s (and the
poet
'
s name) in subsequent citations.

Example:

"For the Anniversary of My Death" begins with the suggestion that after death
the soul starts a journey through time "Like the beam of a lightless star" (Merwin, line
5).


The poem ends with Merwin
's affirmation of concrete experience, behind which lies
the mystery of existence:




As today writing after three days of rain

Hearing the wren sing and the falling cease

And bowing not knowing to what. (11
-
13)

Note
: In the 2
nd

quotation Merwin
'
s

name was omitted because it was part of the text
and only the actual numbers of the lines were included
--

not the word
"line" or "lines"
.

4. When directly quoting only one line of poetry, the line should be worked into the text.




Gerard Manley Hopkin
s presents his view of life best in a single line: "The
world is charged with the grandeur of God" (line 7).


Note
: Name of poet is omitted from parenthesis because it is specified in the
text.

If you quote two to three lines of poetry, separate each line with a slash (with space
before and after the slash) and enclose the entire quotation in quotation marks.

Example:

Reflecting on the "incident" in Baltimore, Cullen concludes,
"Of all the thing
s
that happened there / That's all that I remember" (lines 11
-
12).

Note
: Name of poet is omitted from parenthesis because it is specified in the text.

Quotations of more than three lines should begin on a new line.


Unless the quotation
involves
unusual
spacing, indent each line one inch (or ten spaces on a typewriter)
from the left margin and double
-
space
between lines,
adding no quotation marks that
do not appear in the original.


A parenthetical reference for a verse quotation set off
from the text fol
lows the last line of the quotation.



Example:

Elizabeth Bishop's "In the Waiting Room" is rich in evocative detail:


It was winter.


It got dark


early.


The waiting room



was full of grown
-
up people,




arctics and
overcoats,



lamps and magazines. (lines 6
-
10)

5. Put punctuation
--
except commas or periods that come at the end of the quotation
--
in
where it is in the original. Use double quotation marks around what you quote. Also, cite
the line numbers or numbers in parentheses after the quotation. Be sure you put

any
end punctuation after the parentheses after the quotation.

EXCEPTION
: If you quote more than three lines of poetry or if you quote
something in prose that takes up more than four typed lines of your paper, no
quotation marks are necessary because whe
n you set the lines off from your
paper by indenting (i.e., a "double" indent
--
both left and right margins are
indented), you make clear that the passage is a quotation. Also, the parenthetical
citation goes
after

the end punctuation.


6. If you need to l
eave a few words out of a line of poetry you are quoting, make sure
you indicate that you have done so by using an ellipsis mark


--

3 periods with a space
before each and a space after the last


( . . . ).

Use a row of evenly spaced
periods to indi
cate that one or
more lines of poetry
have been omitted from a
quotation
.


Example:

Earth has not

anything to show more fair ...



Dull would he be of soul who could pass by



A sight so touching in its majesty




..........
.............................................................



Ne'er saw I, nor felt, a calm so deep!

Electronic Citations:


Definitely consult my plagiarism handout!

Also check out:
http://www.thewritesource.com/mla.htm


In
-
Text (Parenthetical) Citations


Because Internet sources typically have no page or paragraph numbers, and Web sites
in particular are often anonymous, people are often confused about how to refer to
these sources w
ithin their papers. The answer is to cite the author's name whenever
possible and use the source's title otherwise (or a shortened version of the title). If no
page or paragraph number is provided in the document (NOT on your printer), leave
that portion o
f the citation blank. Keep in mind that the primary purpose of an in
-
text
citation is simply to point readers to the correct entry on the Works Cited Page.


Example

Despite the many challenges she has faced on the Internet, the author still enjoys
the "ma
gic" of the MOO (Dibbell).

If the electronic document does not have an author, use identifying words from the title.

Example


Each of the teletubbies has his/her own language acquisition level, and, because of
this, a child can identify and progress to t
he next language level when the child feels
comfortable ("The Inside Story").

Note:

Do not cite page numbers from printouts because pagination may vary in different
printouts.

REMINDERS


_


Make parenthetical citations brief and accurate.

_


To avoid long parenthetical citations, place reference information, such as the
author's name, in your sentence.

_


Place a citation as close to the relevant material as possible without disrupting
the sentence.

_


Use one citation at the end of

a long section of material that comes from one
source and the same page(s)
--
do not cite at the end of each sentence in this
case.

_


Parenthetical citations always go
outside

of a quotation and always
before

a
punctuation mark, such as a period.


EXCE
PTIONS
:

1.


If a quotation of over three lines, double indent the quotation, use
no quotation marks, and place the parenthetical citation
after

the
punctuation mark. Do
not

include a period after the parenthetical
citation.


2.

If a quotation ends with a questio
n mark (?) or an exclamation point
(!), include the given punctuation followed by a closing quotation, then
insert your parenthetical citation, and insert a period after your
parenthetical citation.

_


Place the parenthetical citations in your essay as
your write. Do not wait until the essay is
finished.









[1]


All references to
Othello

in this essay are to the Penguin Pelican
Edition.


Shakespeare, William.
Othello
. Ed. Alfred Harbab. Middlesex, England: Penguin, 1970.







Excerpted and adapted from:

Adams, Cindy


"Re: Supplement to MLA Documentation."


E
-
mail to Michelle Garbis. 7

March
2004.

Chico High School Library Examples of MLA Style Citations of Electronic Sources
. Librarian Peter
Milbury. 3 Dec. 1999. 5 June 2000


<http://dewey.chs.chico.k12.ca.us/mla
-
examples.pdf>.

Devoe, Kristina. "MLA Parenthetical Documentation."
Literacy Education Online.

14 February
2000. The Write Place. 19 Feb. 2001 <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/mlaparen.html>.

Electronic Sources: MLA Style
. 21 Feb. 2000. The writesource.com.


19 Feb. 2001
<
http://www.thewritesource.com/mla.htm
>.

Gibaldi, Joseph.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Paper
s. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
. Purdue University Writing Lab. 2000. 29 Feb.
2000
<http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html>
.