Robot Control - MGNet

albanianboneyardAI and Robotics

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 11 days ago)

134 views

By

Chun
-
Lung Lim

Jay Hatcher

Clay Harris

Definition of a Robot



Definition of a Robot

According to The Robot
Institute of America (1979) :

"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator
designed to move materials, parts, tools, or
specialized devices through various programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."


According to the Webster dictionary:

"An automatic device that performs functions
normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the
form of a human (Webster, 1993)."


A Brief History of Robotics


Robotics' history is tied
to so many other
technological advances
that today seem so
trivial, we don't even
think of them as robots.


How did a remote
-
controlled boat lead to
autonomous metal
puppies?

Nikola Tesla


Croatian
-
American
scientist Nikola Tesla.


Invented many things,
including the alternating
current system.


Remote
-
controlled,
submersible boat was
acting on radio signals.

Slaves of steel


The first person to use the
word robot was a
playwright,
Czechoslovakian writer
Karel Capek first used the
word robot in his satirical
play, R.U.R. (Rossum's
Universal Robots).

Cover page of the first edition


Wartime inventions


World War II was a big
catalyst in the development
of two important robot
components: artificial sensing
and autonomous control.


The U.S. military created
auto
-
control systems for mine
detectors that would sit in
front of a tank as it crossed
enemy lines


The Germans developed
guided robotic bombs that
were capable of correcting
their trajectory.

German robot bomb found in France

Calculators and computers


John Atanassoff built the
world's first digital computer.


In 1946 the University of
Pennsylvania completed the
ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator And
Calculator), a massive
machine made up of
thousands of vacuum tubes.
But these devices could only
handle numbers.



The UNIVAC I (Universal
Automatic Computer) would
be the first device to deal
with letters.


ENIAC computer


A robot in every pot


The invention of the
transistor in 1948 increased
the rate of electronic growth
and the possibilities seemed
endless.


The creation of silicon
microchips reinforced that
growth.


The seven
-
foot robot could
smoke and play the piano.

Elecktro the smoking robot

Industrial
-
strength arms


1961 General Motors
installed the applied
telecherics system on their
assembly line. The one
-
armed robot unloaded die
casts, cooled components
and delivered them to a trim
press.


In 1978 the PUMA
(Programmable Universal
Machine for Assembly) was
introduced and quickly
became the standard for
commercial telecherics.


PUMA industrial robot


Early personal robots

RB5X

Hero 1


Arms in space

The Canadarm
--

Canada's Hand in the
Sky (NASA)

From breadboard to on
-
board: small
components were assembled and tested
innumerable times before the final
product was mated to the shuttle in 1981
(NASA)


Surgical tools


In 1985 Dr. Yik San Kwoh
invented the robot
-
software
interface used in the first
robot
-
aided surgery, a stereo
tactic procedure.


The surgery involves a
small probe that travels into
the skull.


A CT scanner is used to
give a 3D picture of the
brain, so that the robot can
plot the best path to the
tumor.

Dr. Yik San Kwoh with surgical robot


The Honda Humanoid

Hazardous duties


Dante II aids in the
dangerous recovery of
volcanic gases and
samples.


These robotic arms with
wheels saved countless
lives defusing bombs
and investigating
nuclear accident sites.

Telecheric robot inspects
suspicious package


Solar
-
powered insects


Mark Tilden's BEAM robots
look and act like big bugs.


Tilden builds simple robots
out of discrete components
and shies away from the
integrated circuits most
other robots use for
intelligence.


Started in the early 1990s,
the idea was to create
inexpensive, solar
-
powered
robots ideal for dangerous
missions such as landmine
detection.



A range of rovers


Sojourner, semi
-
autonomous robot platforms
to be launched into Mars in
1996.


The problem was, it could
only travel short distances.


In 2004, twin robot rovers
caught the public's
imagination again, sending
back amazing images in
journeys of kilometers, not
meters.


Mars rover

Entertaining pets


In the late '90s there was a
return to consumer
-
oriented
robots.


One of the real robotic
wonders of the late '90s was
AIBO the robotic dog, made
by Sony Corp.


By using sensor array,
AIBO can autonomously
navigate a room and play
ball.

AIBO takes a spill

Siggraph 2005


Los Angeles


Quasi can make responses
based on guest input and can
recognize speech patterns,
track faces, detect
proximity, dispense candy
and even perform a karaoke
duet.


Softwares includes Alias
Maya, BAT and so on.


Quasi
-

Carnegie Mellon
University

Android

My beloved….

Repliee Q2

Hawk Digital System

Robot Project: Prototype Robot
Exhibition 2005


Network robotics, RT middleware

(9 projects)


Robot with advanced auditory capabilities for human
interaction


Companion robot that follows individuals by multimodal
interaction


Multitask robot system that utilizes intelligent information
infrastructure


Hyperrobot that serves people by integrating single
-
task
domestic robots


Errand robot


Seven
-
degree
-
of
-
freedom double
-
arm unit and double
-
arm
mobile robot


Superdistribution and combination robot system utilizing
wireless links


Content
-
oriented robot that uses robot content


Environmental robot

Experiential robots (7 projects)



Robot that decorates ceramic tableware and
drinkware


Portrait
-
drawing robot


Partner robot with artificial tongue


Future science encyclopedia and multifingered haptic
interface robot


Mutual telexistence robot that utilizes retroreflective
projection


Robot for encountering the microscopic world


Cyberassist meister robot


Outdoor skilled
-
work robots


(7 projects)


Boarding robot for roaming natural landscapes


Ubiquitous robot


Caddy robot


Search and contaminant recovery robot for
response to nuclear, biological, and chemical
terrorism


Manually controlled heavy
-
duty robot to assist
rescue operations


Robot that searches through rubble


Special
-
environment robots

(9 projects)


Robot that evaluates duct interiors by impact
-
elastic waves


Pacemaker robot for marathons


Golden Shachihoko robot


Autonomous snow
-
plowing robot to support life in snowy
regions


Super
-
high
-
speed batting robot that can hit fastballs of up to
160 kph


Amphibious snake
-
type robot


Acrobatic airship robot


Data gathering double
-
kite
-
type robot, humanoid robot for a
comfortable lifestyle


High
-
performance flying robot


Medical and welfare robots

(10 projects)


Emergency rescue robot


Superdetail human body robot for medical skills training


Three
-
dimensional visual perception and display apparatus for
office, home, and medical robots, and microhand for medical
and surgical use


Remote microsurgery robot


Six
-
degrees
-
of
-
freedom robot for rehabilitation of upper limbs
including wrists


Handicap
-
assistive barrier
-
free robot interface system with
high learning ability


Semiautonomous robot system for self
-
care by disabled people


Wearable robot for musclular support: Muscle suit for upper
limbs


Power augmentation robot


Robot suit to assist human movement


Partner robots (8 projects)


Canine robot as a mobile platform that exhibits high
physical capabilities outdoors in urgent situations


Android that interacts with people and nature


Cooperative framework for heterogeneous robots


Physical communication robot to cheer up children


Robot for scenario research that is capable of
authoring


Next
-
generation communication robot


Communicating heterogeneous robots


Dance partner robot


Performance robots (6 projects)


Six
-
legged walking robot that uses
reinforcement learning (autonomous
development of motion control)


Self
-
configurable modular robot


Artistic robot


Limb mechanism robot


Three
-
leg wheeled type robot


Crawling and jumping soft robot


Humanoid robots (7 projects)


Humanoid probe robot


Interaction middleware for humanoid robots


Software that generates impact motions for the HRP
-
2 robot


Animatronic humanoid robot


Musculoskeletal humanoid robot with a large
-
degree
-
of
-
freedom flexible spine


Humanoid robot for research on dynamic motion


Bipedal humanoid robot as a simulator of human
motion


References:


http://www.robotics.utexas.edu/rrg/learn_more/history/


http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/


http://www.thelightningguy.com/tesla.htm


http://capek.misto.cz/obrazky/divadlo/theater.html


http://www.mlc
-
engineering.com/rb5x01.htm


http://www.honda.co.jp/robot/movie/


http://www.cooltoolawards.com/hardware/Humanoid.htm


http://www.tomshardware.com/site/videos/index.html


http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka
-
u.ac.jp/development/Humanoid/ReplieeQ2/ReplieeQ2_eng.htm


http://www.motionanalysis.com/applications/movement/sports/hawks
ystem.html


http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/robot/robot_project_02.html


Paper : Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human
Motion