Capstone Design --- Robotics

albanianboneyardAI and Robotics

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 6 days ago)

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City College of New York

1

John (Jizhong) Xiao

Department of Electrical Engineering

City College of New York

jxiao@ccny.cuny.edu

Historical Development of Robotics

Capstone Design
---

Robotics

City College of New York

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Outline

What is a Robot?


Why use Robots?


Robot History


Robot Applications

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What is a robot?


Definition:
(no precise definition yet)


Webster’s Dictionary


An automatic device that performs functions
ordinarily ascribed to human beings

w
ashing
machine = robot?


Robotics Institute of American


A robot (industrial robot) is a
reprogrammable
,
multifunctional
manipulator

designed to move
materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices,
through variable programmed motions for the
performance of a variety of tasks.

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What is a robot?


Hollywood’s
imagination


R2
-
D2

Star Wars

3PO

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What is a robot?


By general agreement, a robot is:


A programmable machine that imitates the actions or
appearance of an intelligent creature

usually a human.



To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:


1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings

2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do
something physical

such as move or manipulate objects

3) Re
-
programmable: can do different things

4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings


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Types of Robots


Robot Manipulators


Mobile Manipulators

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Types of Robots

Humanoid

Legged robots

Underwater robots

Wheeled mobile robots

Aerial Robots



Locomotion

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Mobile Robot Examples

Hilare II

http://www.laas.fr/~matthieu/robots/

Sojourner Rover

NASA and JPL, Mars exploration

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Autonomous Robot Examples

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Why Use Robots?


Application in 4D environments


Dangerous


Dirty


Dull


Difficult


4A tasks


Automation


Augmentation


Assistance


Autonomous


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Pre
-
History of Robots


Automata: a machine or control mechanism
designed to follow automatically a
predetermined sequence of operations or
respond to encoded instructions


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Automata


Europe

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Automata


Asia

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Robot History


1961


George C. Devol obtains the first U.S. robot patent, No.
2,998,237.


Joe Engelberger formed Unimation and was the first to
market robots


First production version Unimate industrial robot is installed in a
die
-
casting machine



1962


Unimation, Inc. was formed, (Unimation stood for "Universal
Automation")


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Robot History


The patent and industrial robot

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Robot History


What an industrial robot must have?












1968


Unimation takes its first multi
-
robot order from
General Motors.


1966
-
1972


"Shakey," the first intelligent mobile robot system
was built at Stanford Research Institute, California.


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Robot History


Shakey
(Stanford Research
Institute)


the first mobile robot to be
operated using AI
techniques


S
imple tasks to solve:


To recognize an object
using vision


Find its way to the object


Perform some action on the
object (for example, to push
it over)

http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/book98/fig.ch2/p027.html

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Shakey



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Robot History


1969


Robot vision, for mobile robot guidance, is
demonstrated at the Stanford Research
Institute.


Unimate robots assemble Chevrolet Vega
automobile bodies for General Motors.


1970


General Motors becomes the first company to
use machine vision in an industrial application
The Consight system is installed at a foundry
in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada.

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The Stanford Cart


1973
-
1979


Stanford Cart


Equipped with stereo
vision.


Take pictures from
several different
angles


The computer gauged
the distance between
the cart and obstacles
in its path

Hans Moravec

http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/users/hpm
/

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The Stanford Cart

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Robot History


1978


The first PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for
Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation for
General Motors.


1981


IBM enters the robotics field with its 7535 and 7565
Manufacturing Systems.


1983


Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought Unimation,
Inc., which became part of its factory automation
enterprise. Westinghouse later sold Unimation to
Staubli of Switzerland.

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Industrial Robot
---

PUMA

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Installed Industrial Robots

Japan take the lead, why?



Shortage of labor, high labor cost

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How are they used?


Industrial robots


70% welding and painting


20% pick and place


10% others


Research focus on


Manipulator control


End
-
effector design


Compliance device


Dexterity robot hand


Visual and force feedback


Flexible automation


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Robot Arm Dexterity

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Robotics: a much bigger industry


Robot Manipulators


Assembly, automation


Field robots


Military applications


Space exploration


Service robots


Cleaning robots


Medical robots


Entertainment robots

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Field Robots

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Field Robots

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Service robots

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Service Robot Example

iRobot Inc

Roomba video presenting ……

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The early stage of AI

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The start of AI

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Autonomous and Intelligence

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The Honda Humanoid (1997)

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Humanoid

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Robot Applications


Manufacture Industry


Assembling


Automation


Biotechnology


Micro/Nano manipulation


Sample Handling


Automated Analysis

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Robot Applications



Military Applications

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Military Applications



DARPA Programs:

(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

Tactical Mobile Robotics

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Robot Applications



Fire Fighting, Search and Rescue

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Robot Applications

NASA/DARPA Robonaut project: a humanoid
robot that can function as an astronaut
equivalent for spacewalks. Human operators
on earth can control the robot’s movements
from distance. Website:
http://vesuvius.jsc.nasa.gov/er_er/html/robona
ut/robonaut.html



Space Robotics:

Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and
Opportunity
---

twin robot geologists,

landed on Mars: Jan 3, and Jan 24,
2004, and still alive, on Aug. 31!

Website:
http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/overview
/

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Robot Applications



Robots for Assistive Technology

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Robot Applications



Entertainment Industry

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Robot Applications



Entertainment Robots

Sony
-
Qrio

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Personal Robot?


Just as the personal computer is used for automated
information management even in households, robots can be
used to execute domestic tasks.


Manipulation of bits of information (PC)


Manipulation of physical objects (PR)


http://www.personalrobots.com

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Previous Projects

Video Presenting ……


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Architecture of Robotic Systems


Mechanical Structure


Kinematics model


Dynamics model


Actuators: Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Artificial Muscle


Computation and controllers


Sensors


Communications


User interface


Power conversion unit

Environmental

sensors

Motion

planner

Controller

Mechanical

Structure

Configuration

sensor

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Summary


Robotics
--
interdisciplinary research


Mechanical design


Computer science and engineering


Electrical engineering


Cognitive psychology, perception and neuroscience



Research open problems


Manipulation, Locomotion


Control, Navigation


Human
-
Robot Interaction


Learning & Adaptation (AI)


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Thank you, enjoy the design!