SBI 3UO LESSON PLANS Unit 4: Diversity of Living Things (17 ...

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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SBI 3UO LESSON PLANS


Unit 4:

Diversity of Living Things (17 hours)

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of living organisms through applying
the concepts of phylogeny and taxonomy to
the kingdoms of life.

Techniques of sampling and
classification will be used to illustrate the fundamental principles of taxonomy.

Students will relate
common characteristics and diversity in life to the importance of maintaining biodiversity within
natural ecosystems.



Ontario Curriculum

objectives:

U=understanding concepts
(U1
-
U5)

D=developing skills (D1
-
D3)

R=relating science (R1
-
R2)

Text: Biology 11

Addison
-
Wesley








Lesson One

Summary
:
(U1)

-
describe diversity of life

-
define terms in classification

-
view video on Kingdoms


Homework
:

-
read p. 372
-
373

-
do p.376, #1
-
4


DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS


All organisms must carry out the following
life functions:



















-
obtain food



















-
growth



















-
exchange gases



















-
dispose of wastes



















-
reproduction


All organisms must cope with environmental changes in:




















-
sunl
ight




















-
precipitation




















-
temperature




















-
food supply




















-
predators




















-
competitors


Adaptations are changes in an organism's structural/behavioural traits

Adaptations help or
ganisms survive of environmental changes

eg. structural changes include webbed feet to help swimming


eg. behavioural changes include migration, hibernation, social structure


CLASSIFICATION

Phylogeny
:

-
grouping of organisms based on relatedness



Taxonom
y
:

-
naming organisms and assigning groups


View video on Kingdoms, completing chart

(there are six kingdoms found in nature)



Lesson Two

Summary
:
(U2)

-
describe dichotomous key

-
list six


kingdoms

-
classify samples of animals


Homework
:

-
read p.377
-
379

-
do p.383, #1, 2, 6


TAXONOMY


Taxonomy

names/classifies organisms based on similar structure


Taxon
:

-
groups classified by taxonomy

Taxa are organized from the largest groups down to the smallest, most specific groups

Kingdom
: largest most general
grouping of organisms

Phylum
:

Class
:

Order
:

Family
:

Genus
: grouping of very similar organisms but unable to reproduce fertile offspring

Species
: able to reproduce and make fertile offspring (many exceptions exist)





Carolus Linneaus devised binomial

nomenclature which names all organisms by genus and
species


Phylogeny

groups organisms based on relatedness, looking at structures, DNA, developmental
similarities


Do dichotomous key assignment


BIOLOGICAL KINGDOMS

Kingdom

description

Archaebacteria

-
live in extreme salt, acid, low oxygen

-
single celled prokaryotes

Eubacteria

-
true bacteria

-
live in less extreme conditions

-
single celled prokaryotes

Protista

-
eukaryotes, mostly single celled

-
some have chloroplasts

Fungi

-
eukaryotes with cell wall
(not cellulose)

-
no photosynthesis

Animalia

-
multicellular heterotrophic organisms with no cell walls

-
eukaryotes

Plantae

-
multicellular autotrophic (photosynthesis) organisms with
cellulose cell walls

-
eukaryotes


Work on classifying animal samples by
phylum and class (use chapter 17 of "Biological Science")


Lesson Three

Summary
:
(U2,D2)

-
describe

eubacteria

-
do lab on bacterial classification

Homework
:

-
read p.

390
-
392

-
do p. 399, #2



KINGDOM
EUBACTERIA

Eubacteria
:

-
prokaryotes


-
single celled


-
no organelles or nucleus


-
single chromosome


-
reproduce by binary fission


Label bacteria diagram, showing
-
genetic material (DNA,RNA)






















































-
cytoplasm (dissolves material)






















































-
cell walls (protective layer)






















































-
cell membrane (controls movement in and out)






















































-
flagellum (not always present, used for motio
n)


Classification
:


Gram Stain

can be used to classify bacteria:


Gram negative bacteria
:

-
have a slime capsule outside the cell wall which provides additional

protection

-
this capsule prevents the bacteria from taking in stain

-
generally more

dangerous b
acteria


Gram positive
:

-
bacteria take in stain as they lack the slime capsule layer


Do classification lab


Bacteria can be classified by
shape

and
arrangement
:

Shape
:

spherical
-

coccus


rod










-

bacillus


spiral





-

spirillum

Arrangement
:

pairs









-
diplo

clumps





-
staphylo


chains






-
strepto

examples
:

pair of spheres




-
diplococcus

clump of spheres
-
staphylococcus


chain of spheres

-
streptococcus


Spirillum

are always found on their own




Lesson Four

Summary
:
(U3)

-
view video
on bacteria

-
complete classification lab

Homework
:

-
read p. 393

-
do p.399, #1



BACTERIA VIDEO

Discuss bacteria video


Complete classification lab




Lesson Five

Summary
:
(U3)

-
describe bacterial life styles, niches

-
describe bacterial disease

-
do “harmful bacteria” microviewer activity

Homework
:

-
read p.

393
-
399

-
do p.399, #5


KINGDOM
EUBACTERIA

(continued)

Bacterial can be classified according to their different “
Life Styles
":

aerobes
:

-
need oxygen to live


facultative Anaerobes
:

-
can live
with or without oxygen


obligate Anaerobes
:

-
cannot live in oxygen


Niches

(role in environment) can also be used to classify bacteria:

Heterotrophs
:

-
must obtain food from other organisms


eg.
Parasites
: live on a host, harming it (eg. Salmonella)








Saprobes
: do not hurt or help host (eg. Decompose waste)








Mutualism
: help the host (eg. E. coli in intestines)


(symbiants: organisms that live with another organsim/host)


Autotrophs
:

-
make own food


eg.

Photosynthetic
: use sunlight to make food






Chemosynthetic
: use inorganic chemicals for food (eg. Sulphur)


BACTERIAL ILLNESS

Parasitic bacteria (heterotrophs) can make you ill by attacking body cells

or making toxin/poison


Koch’s postulates
:

-
the following postulates are used to determine if
one bacteria causes one disease

1. take blood from an organism with an illness


2. grow bacteria from this blood on an agar plate in colonies


3. put bacteria into another healthy organism…this organism should get the same disease


4. take blood from this
ill organism, and find the same bacteria in its blood


METHODS OF KILLING BACTERIA

antiseptics
:

-
antibacterial chemical


antibiotics
:

-
poison bacteria with chemical made by other bacteria or fungi (eg. Penicillin)


human defenses
:


-
skin


-
mucus, cilia t
rap and move bacteria out


-
lymphocytes (white blood cells): T
-
cells attack invaders (phagocytosis)






















































B
-
cells make antibodies


Do harmful bacteria microviewer activity





Lesson Six

Summary
:
(R1)

-
collect bacteria from school

-
do “doctor” activity


Homework
:

-
do p.399, #6



BACTERIA ACTIVITIES

-
collect bacteria from various parts of the school on agar plates


-
do “playing” activity



Lesson Seven

Summary
:
(U3)

-
describe bacterial reproduction

-
describe
archaebacteria

-
classify bacteria on agar plates

Homework
:

-
read p.

396

-
do

p. 399, #7


BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION

Binary fission
:

-
one cell spits into two equal sized cells
-
occurs every 15/20 minutes


-
one bacterial cell can produce up to 20 000
000 000 cells a day


-
of these, around 2000 will be mutants

-
mutation produces most diversity in bacteria


Conjugation
:

-
one bacteria produces a cytoplasmic bridge (pilli) to another bacteria, allowing DNA transfer

-
conjucagation results in more variety i
n the bacteria



KINGDOM
ARCHAEBACTERIA

Archaebacteria

are the oldest organisms and belong to a separate kingdom from
eubacteria

structure
:

-
cell wall and cell membrane, but the structure is different from
eubacteria

-
half of the genes found in archaebacte
ria are different than those in
eubacteria

lifestyles
:


anaerobic methanogens
:

-
release methane in swamps, marshes, herbivore guts


halophiles
:

-
found in areas with high salt content


thermophiles
:

-
found in very hot climates


Classify bacteria on agar
plates (lab)



Lesson Eight

Summary
:
(U3,D2)

-
describe viruses

Homework
:

-
read p.

400
-
404

-
do p.405, #1,2,4



VIRUSES/PHAGE

Viruses/phage are not considered a kingdom because they do not possess all the characteristics
of life

structure
:

-
protein coat
with nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) inside

-
need a host to metabolize and reproduce


lifestyles
:

Lytic
:


-
virus protein coat sticks to


host, injects DNA, RNA


-
virus uses host to make more viruses


-
“lytic enzymes” are produced, destroying the cell (“lyse”) an
d releasing viruses


-
this cycle


works quickly


Lysogenic
:


-
virus protein coat sticks to host, injects DNA


-
DNA joins host DNA


a) DNA of virus is replicated with every cell division


b) When conditions change, the virus uses the host to make more virus
es


-
“lytic enzymes” are produced, lysing the cell to release viruses


-
this cycle allows the virus to remain dormant for a period of time


Genetic material may change:

-
DNA viruses

-
RNA viruses (always lytic, no DNA)

-
retroviruses turn RNA into DNA (eg.
HIV)


-
do virus classification lab




Lesson Nine

Summary
:
(D1)

-
describe vaccines

-
complete

virus classification/HIV labs

Homework
:

-
read p.

404
-
405

-
do p.405, #5


VACCINES

-
vaccines are injections used to fight virus and bacterial infections

-
injections are made of virus or bacteria that are harmless

-
these vaccines should build up immunity (antibodies, white blood cells) against similar harmful
virus/bacteria


eg.
-
take a harmful bacteria, disable it with poison







-
inject disabled
bacteria as a vaccine against harmful bacteria


eg.
-
take harmless virus and move gene for surface recognition into virus DNA







-
remove DNA that would

cause virus to destroy host







-
harmless virus builds up defenses against harmful virus.


-
do “HIV
” lab, with worksheet


-
complete virus classification from last day





Lesson Ten

Summary
:
(U2,D2,R1)

-
describe genetic engineering

-
describe

protista

-
do
protista

classification lab



Homework
:

-
read p. 406, 420
-
426

-
do p. 427, #1
-
3


-
describe
genetic engineering using p. 406, Fig. 12.19


KINGDOM
PROTISTA

Kingdom
Protista

consists of all eukaryotic (have nucleus, organelles) unicellular species


There are three main types of protists:


Animal
-
like Protists

(Protozoans):

-
eat material from
surroundings…heterotrophs


a)
Zooflagellates

(Mastigophora)
-
use flagella for movement, eg. Trypanosomes


b)
Amoebas

(Sarcodina)
-
use pseudopods for phagocytosis, move with cytoplasmic streaming


c)
Ciliates

(Ciliata)
-
use small hair
-
like cilia to move, oral
groove to eat, two nuclei, eg.
Paramecium


d)
Sporozoa

(Sporozoans)
-
no locomotion, parasites, form spores, eg. Malaria parasites
Plasmodium


Fungus
-
like Protists
:

-
one cell with many nuclei, move by cytoplasmic streaming
, chitin cell walls, heterotrophs

-
f
orms fruiting body like mushroom to spread spores during life cycle, eg. Slime molds



Plant
-
like Protists
:

-
carry out photosynthesis…autotrophs


a)
Euglenoids

(Euglenophyta)
-
use flagella for movement, photosynthetic in light, heterotrophs in
dark


b)
Diatoms

(Chrysophyta…algae)
-
yellow, brown in silica shell, not mobile


c)
Dinoflagellates

(Pyrrophyta…algae)
-

red, two flagella, photosynthetic in light, heterotrophs in
dark


d)
Green Algae

(Chlorophyta)
-

green, two flagella, can be single celled or in co
lonies (eg. Volvox)


Work on
Protista

lab





Lesson Eleven

Summary
:
(U4,D1)

-
complete dichotomous key for Protists

-
work on digestion diagram


Homework
:

-
do p.427,
#4
-
6




KINGDOM
PROTISTA
(continued)

-
groups of two students should prepare a dichotomous key to classify
Protista

using old biology
texts



Lesson Twelve

Summary
:
(U1)

-
use Protist dichotomous key

-
view Protist video

Homework
:

-
do

p.427, #7
-
9

KINGDOM
PROTISTA
(continued)



-
use dichotomous keys to classify
Protista

on microviewers


-
answer text questions on
Protista



-
view video on Kingdom
Protista

(with worksheet)



-
extra work on phyla



Lesson Thirteen

Summary
:
(U4,U5,D2,R2)

-
describe kingdom
fungi

-
do fungi worksheet

Homework
:

-
read p.427
-
433

-
do p.433, #1
-
4


KINGDOM
FUNGI


Kingdom
Fungi

are eukaryotic celled multicellular organisms

Characteristics
:

1)


Heterotrophic eukaryotes

(no chlorophyll)

-
most fill niches as saprobes (eat waste) or
parasites

-
not mobile

-
have a cell wall that does not contain cellulose, uses chitin instead

2)
Body is called “Thallus”


-
this body is made of hyphae: threads that absorb water, minerals


-
mycelium is a group of hyphae


3)
Most reproduce both sexually and

asexually


There are four main types of
fungi


Caselike Fungi

(Zygomycota):


Asexual:

-
spores (1n) grow into hyphae (1n) in good conditions


-
Hyphe grow spore cases, and release spores


Sexual:

+ and


hyphae join to make a large case (zygospore, 2n)

-
M
eiosis occurs in the case to make spores (1n) which are

released to make hyphae


eg. Bread mold (rhyzopus)



Saclike Fungi

(Ascomycota):


Asexual:
\

-
cell buds to make two cells (1n)


Sexual:

+ and


cell join to make zygote (2n)

-
meiosis occurs in a ascus

(sac) which has 8 spores (1n)


-
spores are released to form cells (1n)


eg. Yeast, mildew, blue and green mold



Clublike fungi

(Basidiomycota):


Spores (1n) form hyphae (1n)


+ and


hyphae join to make one cell with 2 nuclei (dikaryote) (1n)


-
hyphae jo
in to make clublike structure (1n)


-
in gills of fungi, nuclei fuse (2n) and meiosis occurs to make spores (1n)


eg. Mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs



Imperfect Fungi
:


-
no distinct sexual cycles


eg. Athletes foot, ringworm


Work on fungi questions






Lesson Fourteen

Summary
:
(U3)

-
view video “Kingdom Fungi”

Homework
:




KINGDOM
FUNGI
(continued)

-
view “Kingdom Fungi” video



Lesson Fifteen

Summary
:
(U4,U5,D2,D3,R2)

-
describe kingdom

animalia

-
prepare, classify, draw wet mount animal cell

Homework
:

-
read p. 452
-
476

-
do p.476, #1
-
6


KINGDOM

ANIMALIA

All animals have the following
characteristics
:

-
heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes

-
lack cell walls

-
contain nerve and muscle tissue not found in other kingdoms

-
reproduce sexually usually, with the

diploid stage being dominant


-
use "Biological Science" text to classify different phyla of animals and give examples


-
do formal drawing of animal cell from wet mount slide of pond water





Lesson Sixteen

Summary
:
(U4,U5,D1,D2,D3,R2)

-
describe

kingdom

Plantae

-
collect plant samples, complete plant classification

Homework
:

-
read p.

434
-
444

-
do p.444, #1
-
4


KINGDOM
PLANTAE

All plants have the following
characteristics
:

-
autotrophic multicellular eukaryotes


-
have cellulose cell walls


-
develop embryo
during development, one generation haploid, one diploid


4 Types of Plants

-
mosses: no vascular tissue or seeds


-
ferns: vascular, no seeds


-
gymnosperm: cone bearing plants, seeds, vascular





-
angiosperm: flowering plants, seeds, vascular

-
use

"Biological Science" text to classify different phyla of plants and give examples


-
collect plant samples from surroundings area, completing plant classification