Honors Biology Final Exam Topics
Ch. 12: DNA Technology
What are the benefits and challenges to genetic engineering?
Benefits: healthier people, cures for illnesses, gene therapy
Challenges: increased population, expensive, possible increase in mutations.
How is the DNA of an organism, such as a bacterium, changed by scientists?
Introduce new genes into the plasmid of an organism
Place new plasmid into the bacteria.
What is a plasmid, and what role does it play in DNA modification?
Small ring of “extra” DN
A, not part of the chromosomes
Insert new genes into the plasmid and then put the plasmid into the bacteria.
What are the base pairs of DNA and RNA? How do they match up?
DNA: A&T, C&G
RNA: A&U, C&G
What are the risks and benefits of Genetically Modified p
lants and foods?
Pros: resistant to insects, able to grow in harsh conditions, increased nutritional value
Cons: new allergies, harmful to the environment, expensive
Chapter 13: Evolution
What does the term “evolution” mean?
The process of one species givi
ng rise to another or the change in an organism over
What evidence do scientists have to prove evolution?
Fossils, Darwin’s studies, genetic change, comparative anatomy
Who is called the “father of evolution”
What is the role of
genetics in evolution?
Use to trace common ancestors
Determine the closeness of species
Genetic mutations can give rise to new organisms.
Genetic variation allows for survival of the “fittest” of a breed or organism.
Explain the usefulness of each of the f
ollowing in studying evolution
fossil record, comparative
Fossil record: change over time of an organism, where like organisms lived, how long
ago an organism lived, other organisms alive at the same time
Comparative anatomy: bone struct
ure can indicate a common ancestor, also, you can
determine if the use of an appendage is the same for all species.
Genetics: shows how closely related organisms are based on DNA
What is the difference between natural selection and evolution?
tion is a mechanism of evolution
it allows on organism to survive and
reproduce with more success than another.
How does genetic mutation influence evolution?
A mutation is a change in genes is passed on. It can help the species survive longer, or if
rmful cause the species to die out.
What is the difference between micro and macro evolution?
Microevolution: Evolution of one species over a long time (sometimes unnoticed for
Macroevolution: Drastic change in numerous species, ex: mass
Can acquired features be passed on to offspring, why or why not?
No, they are not genetic
Chapter 18/19: Ecology
What are the trophic levels?
Levels on the food chain (producer, consumers)
Given a list of organisms, create a food chain and trop
Ex: plants, insects, bird, cat…
Given a food chain or trophic pyramid, identify producers, primary, secondary and tertiary
Identify examples of the native and non native plants from our wetlands ecosystem
maple, red pine
, box elder, rubus
, wild mustard, garlic mustard,
Create an example food chain of our wetlands ecosystem
Given a partial chain, pick the missing organisms. Or pu
t given organisms in order of
blanks on a food chain.
Explain how organisms can be used to determine the health of a river or wetland ecosystem.
Given a list of organisms and they type of water they are normally found in, determine
the quality of the wate
Explain why non native plants threaten native prairie and wetland ecosystems.
They are unstoppable in their growth and take the land that native species could