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Michael W. Pennington, Ph.D.




(856) 905
-
432
7
cell

(502)
-
266
-
8787
work

mpennipep@aol.com

(e
-
mail)

mpennington@pepnet.com

(email work)

Education


1984


B.S.


Chemistry



University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill


1988


Ph.D.


Biochemistry and Molecular Biology









University of Florida, Gainesville


Honors and Awards


1985
-
1988

NIH Predoctoral Fellowship

1988


University of Florida Medical Guild Competition

1992


Winter Brain Research Lecturer

1992


22nd European Peptide Symposium Lecturer

1994


Editor of

Methods in Molecular Biology Series

Vol
. 35

and
36

1995


14th American Peptide Symposium Lecturer

1996


Four year funding for NIH R01 Research Grant on Peptidomimetics

1996


24th European Peptide
Symposium Lecturer

1998
-
2001

Editorial Board of Biosys Methods Finder

1999

Editorial Board of
Letters in Peptide Science

2000

Editorial Board of

Current Peptide and Protein Letters

2001

Lecturer 17
th

American peptide Symposium

2002

Lecturer at IST and Venoms to Drugs
Symposia

2004



A
dv
isory Board for Natural Peptides to Drugs

Conference

2005


Editorial Board for Int. Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics

2006



Nominating Committee for American Peptide Society

2011


Keynote Lecturer Venoms to Drugs Symposium



Pro
fessional Memberships


American Chemical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York
Academy of Science, American Peptide Society

(charter member)




Scientific Advisory Board Membership


Airmid Inc.:

developer of peptide drugs targeting autoimmune diseases (2001
-
present)


Intrinsic Lifesciences Inc.:

developer of assays for hepcidin and iron metabolic diseases (2007
-
present)


Ceptor Corp:

developer of peptide Calpain inhibitors for Muscular Dystrophy
(now defunct)


Adlyfe Inc.:

developer of diagnostic assays for amyloid
-
associated diseases. (2008
-
present)


Callisto Pharmaceuticals:

developer of peptide treatments for chronic constipation (2007
-
present)


Kineta Bio:

advancing ShK
-
186 licensed from Airmid into clinical development. CMC
and
formulation
c
onsultant. (2009
-
present)



Professional Experience


Chief Technology Officer

Peptides International Dec. 2010 to present


Oversee entire peptide production and QC syst
em. Implement new technologies
and state
-
of
-
the
-
art manufacturing methods to compete in mainstream international
market. Innovate new product development to position Peptides International as a
go
-
to provider for complex peptides for program moving into P
hase I trials.



Senior Consultant

Pennipeptide Consulting Services 2006 to Present

http://www.pennipeptide.com


Activities include professional consulting on peptide
-
based drug design, peptide synthesis,
peptide conjugation, peptide folding (disulfide bon
ds), pegylation and manufacturing,
purification and scale
-
up into cGMP manufacturing.


Head of Drug and Business Development, Americas

Toxinomics Foundation, Geneva Switzerland, October 2010
-
present

http://www.toxinomics.org


Responsible for leading
business development and CMC activities for venom
-
derived peptide
toxins identified by the Foundation into clinical development programs. (part
-
time status)


President and COO

Bachem Bios
cience Inc. July 2000 to August 2010

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania


Corporate Operating responsibilities include P&L analysis, managing all operations activities
including production, research and development, customer service, sales and marketing as well
as annual forecast and budgeting and strategic planning for co
rporat
e growth. Accomplished a
n

18% increase in profits for eight

successive yea
rs
.
Managed workforce of 35

employees and
executive committee of four Group Directors for each of the key departments. Member of
Bachem Forshungausschuss (International Research Comm
ittee).


Group Director
-
Research and Development
-

December 1992 to June 2000.

Bachem Bioscience Incorporated

Peptide Chemistry and Molecular Biology

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania


Production/Development
Managed research/production related projects

for peptide chemistry

(solid
-
phase and classical)
,
organic chemistry and biotechnology groups. Directed peptide chemist
ry laboratory consisting of
t
welve

scientists and molecular biology group consisting of two scientists. Selection of new
products and de
velopment of processes for cost
-
effective production. Established production
deadlines and developed scale
-
up strategies for all amounts
o
f peptide products (10 mg to 250

g
scale). Implemented Fmoc
-
combination strategy approach of classical and solid
-
phase

synthesis
for large scale peptide synthesis at BBI. Designed new laboratories for peptide chemistry and
organic chemistry in new state of the art facility in King of Prussia, Pa. Consulted with
customers in design and process development of the appropriat
e structures for their needs either
peptide or peptidomimetic.
Recently implemented native chemical ligation techniques extending
our synthesis capabilities to include smaller proteins up to 120 residues in length.



Research Projects:


Acted as a co
-
prin
cipal investigator in obtaining an NIH R01 grant to continue our ShK toxin
peptidomimeti
c project. Project (NIH NS
-
48252) is currently funded from 2005
-
2009
. Project
involves determination of the active potassium channel binding surface of the toxin using
analogs synthesized by solid
-
phase methods followed by rational drug design to produce a
peptidomimetic compound derived from this data. Project continued through
grants from
National Multiple Sclerosis Society from 2001

2004

and NIH 1996
-
2004
.


A. Investi
gation of structure
-
function relationships of neurotoxins to ion channel receptors.
Projects include: ShK
-
toxin and Charybdotoxin
-

Potassium Channel, Conantokin G
-

NMDA
receptor, Omega
-
conotoxin
-

Calcium Channel, and ShN and Anthopleurin A
-

Sodium Channe
l.


B. Enzyme assay and inhibitor development. Fluorescent and chromogenic peptide substrates
and non
-
hydrolyzable inhibitors for therapeutically important proteases are prepared and tested
in assa
ys developed with recombinantly
-
derived proteases
(prepared in house) including: HIV
protease, human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) protease, hepatitis
-
C NS
-
3 protease and interleukin
converting enzyme (ICE) and Kaposi's Sarcoma
-
Herpes Simplex protease (KHSV
-
Pr).



Group Leader
,
November 1989 to November 1992

Bachem Bioscience Incorporated

Peptide Chemistry/Analytical Services

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Directed the peptide production laboratory consisting of four scientists. Developed synthetic
strategies for scale levels from 0.1 mmol to 10 mmol of final pro
duct. Identified and synthesized
novel peptides for commercial sale. Synthetic accomplishments include synthesis of HIV
protease, pTH 1
-
84, amylin, as well as numerous multiple disulfide containing peptides such as
echistatin (4),

-
agatoxin IVA (4), TGF
-


(3), anthopleurin A (3), charybdotoxin (3),
iberiotoxin (3), IGF
-
II (3), defensin (3) and the endothelin series (2). Acted as primary consultant
for all peptide related problems. Performed all QC/QA of peptide products.


Established folding and purificat
ion procedures for recombinant lymphokines including
angiogenin, EGF, hu Il
-
4, G
-
CSF, Il
-
8, NAP
-
2 and TNF

. Refolded and established affinity
purification scheme for rec HIV 1 and 2 proteases which have been successfully crystallized in
several laboratorie
s.




Senior Scientist
,
1988
-
1989

Schering
-
Plough Corporation

Biochemistry/Biotechnology

Bloomfield, New Jersey


Established the peptide synthesis laboratory in the Biotechnology group. Developed programs
for the synthesis of peptides correspond
ing to important structural regions of lymphokines and
their receptors. Initiated a preliminary program to develop
conformationally
-
restricted peptides
as potential drug entities. Lastly, in collaboration with the Virology Dept. an HIV prote
ase assay
was
developed
for screening the Schering
-
Plough compound library.



Graduate Student
,
1984
-
1988

University of Florida

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Dr. Ben M. Dunn)

Gainesville, Florida


Identified and characterized the binding site for the

type II sea anemone neurotoxins.
Synthesized the native toxin and several monosubstituted analogs in an effort to elucidate the
structure
-
activity relationships of this toxin to its receptor. Studies involved chemical, physical
and pharmacological charac
terization of each peptide. Synthesized radio
-
iodinated toxin
derivative for ELISA and radioreceptor displacement assays.



Research Assistant, 1982
-
1984

University of North Carolina

Department of Chemistry (Dr. Richard Hiskey)

Chapel Hill, North Carolina


Purified bovine prothrombin from natural sources. Isolated and purified the activation fragments
generated by treatment of prothrombin with a snake venom protease by conventional LC
methods. Characterized the purified fragments by PAGE, amino acid compos
ition and RPHPLC.


Teaching Experience


Adjunct Faculty
-

Department of Chemistry, Villanova University
-


January 1996 to Present


Instructed graduate courses in peptide chemistry and organic chemistry. Synthetic methods,
strategies, analytical methods, assay development and design are among the topics covered.
Also, practical aspects of organic synthesis using solid
-
phase principles
included for the most up
-
to
-
date course. An emphasis was placed on pharmaceutical development and application to
current therapeutic targets.


Graduate Assistant
-

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

University of Florida
, Gainesville
1985
-
198
6


Served as head teaching assistant for undergraduate (1985) and medical student (1986)
biochemistry courses. Responsible for primary lectures, review sessions, examination
preparation and grading.



Applications


Peptide/Protein Experience:


-
Versatility

in solid
-
phase peptide synthesis using Boc and Fmoc chemistries. Developed
synthetic strategies for commercial production of synthetic peptides from 0.025 mmol to 100
mmol of product.


-
Experience with all aspects of solid
-
phase chemistry including
combinatorial and organic
methods.

-
Skilled in the isolation and characterization of the synthetic products by all current technologies
including HPLC, CE, MS (FAB, MALDI, ESI) and N
-
terminal and C
-
terminal sequencing.


-
Versatility in chemical modificat
ion, assay development and conjugation of peptides for
immunochemical studies.


-
Extensive experience in the preparation of cyclic peptides, phosphopeptides as well

as peptides
containing reduced
peptide bond surrogates.


-
Extensive experience in SAR an
d peptide design.


-
Classical solution experience including preparation of novel amino acid derivatives and
fragment condensation methods.


-

Extensive experience folding multiple disulfide containing peptides.


-
Skilled in biophysical methods such as m
ass spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular
dichroism spectropolarimetry, kinetic methods and electrophysiological methods.


-
Skilled in the folding and purification of
synthetic and
recombinant proteins.




Publications


1. Dunn, B.M
., Jimenez, M., Weidner, J.,
Pennington, M.
, Carter, M., and Parten, B. (1987)
Kinetic Analysis of Aspartyl Proteases Utilizing New Synthetic Substrates and Reversed Phase
HPLC. in "Proteins: Structure and Function." (J. L'Italien, Ed.) Plenum Press, New Y
ork, pp
683
-
688.


2.
Pennington, M.W.
, Kem, W.R. and Dunn, B.M. (1988) Purification, Sequence Determination
and Chemical Synthesis of the Major Neurotoxin in the Sea Anemone
Stichodactyla helianthus
.
in "Macromolecular Sequencing and Synthesis: Selective M
ethods and Applications." (D.
Schlessinger, Ed.) Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, pp 243
-
250.


3.
Pennington, M.W.
, Kem, W.R. and Dunn, B.M. (1988) Structure
-
Function Studies in the
Anemone
Stichodactyla helianthus

Neurotoxin I: Synthesis of Native Toxin and G
lu
8
-
Gln
Analog. in "Peptides: Chemistry and Biology." (G. Marshall, Ed.) Escom, Leiden, Netherlands,
pp 264
-
266.


4. Kem, W.R., Parten, B.,
Pennington, M.W.
, Price, D.A. and Dunn, B.M. (1989) Isolation,
Characterization and Amino Acid Sequence of a Polypep
tide Neurotoxin Occurring in the Sea
Anemone
Stichodactyla helianthus
.

Biochemistry
28
, 3483
-
3489.


5. Kem, W.R.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Dunn, B.M. (1990) Sea Anemone Polypeptide Toxins
Affecting the Sodium Channel: Initial Structure
-
Activity Investigations. in "Marine Toxins:
Origins, Structure and Pharmacology." (S. Hall and G. Strichartz, Eds.) ACS Books,
Washington, D.C. pp 279
-
289
.


6.
Pennington, M.W.
, Kem, W.R., Norton, R.S. and Dunn, B.M. (1990) Chemical Synthesis of
a Neurotoxin from the Sea Anemone
Stichodactyla helianthus
.
Int. J. Peptide Protein Res.

36
,
335
-
343.


7.
Pennington, M.W.
, Kem, W.R. and Dunn, B.M. (1990) Synthesis and Biological Activity of
Six Monosubstituted Analogs of a Sea Anemone Polypeptide Neurotoxin.
Peptide Research.
3
,
228
-
232.


8.
Pennington, M.W.
, Festin, S.M. and Maccecchini, M.L. (1991) Comparison of Folding
Procedures on Synthetic Omega Conotoxin. in, "Peptides 1990."
(D. Andreu and E. Giralt, Eds.)
Escom, Leiden, Netherlands, pp 164
-
166.


9.
Pennington, M.W.
, Festin, S.M., Dick, F., Maccecchini, M.L. and Scarborough, P.E. (1991)
HIV Protease, Chromogenic Sub
strate and Inhibitor. in "Peptides 1990."
(D. Andreu and E.
Giralt, Eds.) Escom, Leiden, Netherlands, pp 787
-
789.


10.
Pennington, M.W.
, Festin, S.M., Maccecchini, M.L. and Kem, W.R. (1992) Synthesis and
Characterization of a Disulfide Isomer of Omega Cono
toxin GVIA.
Toxicon

30
, 755
-
764.


11. Skolnick, P., Boje, K., Miller, R.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Maccecchini, M.L. (1992)
Conantokin G: Noncompetitive Inhibition of Polyamine Responses at the NMDA Receptor
Complex.

J. Neurochem.

59
, 1516
-
1521.


12
.
Pennington, M.W.
, Byrnes, M.E., Khaytin, I., Zaydenberg, I., Chandler, P. and Skolnick, P.
(1993) Structure
-
Activity Studies on the NMDA Receptor Antagonist, Conantokin
-
G. in
"Peptides 1992."
(C.H. Schneider and A.N. Eberle, Eds.) Escom, Leiden, Netherla
nds, pp 121
-
122.


13.
Pennington, M.W.
, Zaydenberg, I., Byrnes, M.E., de Chastonay, J., Malcolm, B.A.,
Swietnicki, W., Farmerie, W.G., Scarborough, P.E. and Dunn, B.M. (1993) A Strategy for
Characterizing New Viral Proteases: Applied to HIV PR and HAV 3C
PR. in "Peptides 1992."
(C.H. Scheidner and A.N. Eberle, Eds.) Escom, Leiden, Netherlands, pp 936
-
937.


14. Chandler, P.,
Pennington, M.W.
, Maccecchini, M.L., Nashed, N. and Skolnick, P. (1993)
Polyamine
-
like Actions of Peptides Derived from Conantokin
-
G,
an NMDA Antagonist.
J. Biol.
Chem
.
268
, 17173
-
17178.


15. Pallaghy, P.K., Duggan, B.M.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Norton, R.S. (1993) Three
Dimensional Structure in Solution of the Calcium Channel Blocker Omega
-
Conotoxin GVIA.

J.
Mol. Biol.
234
, 405
-
420.


16.
P
ennington, M.W.
, Zaydenberg, I., Byrnes, M.E., Norton, R.S. and Kem, W.R. (1994)
Synthesis of the Cardiac Inotropic Polypeptide Anthopleurin
-
A.

Int. J. Peptide Protein Res
.,
43
,
463
-
470.


17.
Pennington, M.W.

and Thornberry, N. (1994) Synthesis of a Fluoro
genic Interleukin
Converting Enzyme Substrate Based on Resonance Energy Transfer.

Peptide Research
,
7
, 72
-
76.


18. Skolnick, P., Zhou, L.M., Chandler, P., Nashed, N.T.,
Pennington, M.

and Maccecchini,
M.L. (1994) Conantokin
-
G and Its Analogs: Novel Probes
of the NMDA Receptor Associated
Polyamine Site. in "
Direct and Allosteric Control of Glutamate Receptors
." (Palfreyman, M.,
Reynolds, I. and Skolnick, P., eds.) CRC Publishing Co., N.Y., 155
-
165.


19.
Pennington, M.W.

(1994) Solid
-
Phase Synthesis of Phosphorylated Tyrosine Peptides By
Phosphite Triester Phosphorylation. in "
Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.

35
: Peptide
Synthesis Protocols
." (
M.W. Pennington

and B.M. Dunn, Eds.) Humana Press, Clifton, N.J., pp
195
-
200.


20.
Pennington, M.W.

(1994) Site
-
Specific Chemical Modification Procedures. in "
Methods in
Molecular Biology Vol.

35
: Peptide Synthesis Protocols
." (
M.W. Pennington

and B.M. Dunn,
Eds.) Humana Press, Clifton, N.J., pp 171
-
186.



21.
Pennington, M.W.

(1994) Solid
-
Phase Synthesis of Peptides Containing the CH
2
NH
-
Reduced Bond Surrogate. in "
Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.

35
: Peptide Synthesis
Protocols
." (
M.W. Pennington

and B.M. Dunn, Eds.) Humana Press, Clifton, N.J., pp 241
-
248.


22.
P
ennington, M.W.

(1994) HF Cleavage and Deprotection Procedures for Peptides
Synthesized Using a Boc/Bzl Strategy. in "
Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.

35
: Peptide
Synthesis Protocols
." (
M.W. Pennington

and B.M. Dunn, Eds.) Humana Press, Clifton, N.J., pp
41
-
62.


23.
Pennington, M.W.

and Byrnes, M.E. (1994) Procedures to Improve Difficult Couplings. in
"
Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.

35
: Peptide Synthesis Protocols
." (
M.W. Pennington


and
B.M. Dunn, Eds.) Humana Press, Clifton, N.J., pp 1
-
16.


24. Dunn,
B.M. and
Pennington, M.W.
, Eds. (1994) "
Methods in Molecular Biology Vol.

36
:
Peptide Analysis Protocols
." Humana Press, Clifton, N.J.


25.
Pennington, M.W.

and Byrnes, M.E. (1995) Methionine Sulfoxide Reduction Mediated by
TiCl
4
: Application to Peptides C
ontaining Disulfide Bonds and Tryptophan. in "Peptides 1994,
Proceedings of the 23rd E.P.S." Maia, H., Ed., Escom, Leiden, Netherlands, pp 218
-
219.


26.
Pennington, M.W.

and Baur, P. (1995) A Facile Method to Prepare C
-
terminal
Fluorescently Labelled Pepti
des by an Fmoc Strategy.

Letters in Peptide Sci.
1
, 143
-
148.



27.
Pennington, M.W.
, Byrnes, M.E., Zaydenberg, I., Khaytin, I. Krafte, D., Hill, R., Mahnir,
V., Volberg, W.A., Gorczyca, W., and Kem, W.R. (1995) Chemical Synthesis and
Characterization of Sh
K toxin: A Potent Potassium Channel Inhibitor from a Sea Anemone.
Int.
J. Peptide Protein Res
.,
46
, 354
-
358.


28. Holskin, B.P., Bukhatiyarova, M., Dunn, B.M., Baur, P., de Chastonay, J. and
Pennington,
M.W.

(1995) A Continuous Fluorescence
-
based Assay of

Human Cytomegalovirus Protease
Using a Peptide Substrate.
Anal. Biochemistry
,
227
, 148
-
155 .


29.
Pennington, M.W.

and Byrnes, M.E. (1995) Evaluation of TiCl
4

Mediated Reduction of
Methionine Sulfoxide in Peptides with Oxidizable or Reducible Residues.
P
eptide Research

8
,
39
-
43.


30. Byrnes, M.E., Mahnir, V., Kem, W.R. and
Pennington, M.W.
,
(1995) Synthesis and
Characterization of Dendrotoxin: a Potent Potassium Channel Inhibitor.

Protein Peptide Lett.

1
,
239
-
245.


31
.

Pohl, J., Hubalek, F., Byrnes, M.E.
, Nielsen, K.R., Woods, A. and
Pennington, M.W
. (1995)
Assignment of the Three Disulfide Bonds in ShK toxin: A Potent Potassium Channel Inhibitor
from the Sea Anemone
Stichodactyla

helianthus
.

Lett. in Peptide Sci.
,
1
, 291
-
297.


32. Dyke, T.R., Duggan, B.M
.,
Pennington, M.W.
, Byrnes, M.E., Kem, W.R. and Norton, R.S.
(1996) Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Analogues of the Potassium Channel
Blocker Charybdotoxin.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
,
1292
, 31
-
36.


33.
Pennington, M.W
., Kem, W.R., Mahnir, V.M., Byrnes, M.E., Zaydenberg, I., Khaytin, I.,
Krafte, D.S. and Hill, R. (1996) Identification of Essential Residues in the Potassium Channel
Inhibitor ShK toxin: Analysis of Monosubstituted Analogs. In "Peptides: Chemistry, Structu
re
and Biology." (Kaumaya, P.T. and Hodges, R.S. Eds.) Mayflower Scientific Ltd. Kingswinford,
U.K., pp. 192
-
194.


34. Kem, W.R.,
Pennington, M.W.
, Krafte, D.S. and Hill, R. (1996) Sea Anemone Toxins
Affecting Sodium Channels: Are the Similarities Greater
than the Differences? In "
Eliat
Symposium on Marine Pharmacology
(P. Lazarovici, Ed.) Alaken, Inc., Ft. Collins. 98
-
119.


35.

Pennington, M.W
., Mahnir, V.M., Krafte, D.S., Zaydenberg, I., Byrnes, M.E., Khaytin, I.
Crowley, K. and Kem, W.R. (1996) Identific
ation of Three Separate Binding Sites on ShK toxin
A Potent Inhhibitor of Voltage Dependent Potassium Channels in Human T
-
Lymphocytes and
Rat Brain.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

219
, 696
-
701.


36. Kem, W.R., Williams, R., Golam, S., and

Pennington, M.W.

(1996) S
econdary Structure
Analysis of
ShK Toxin.,

Lett. in Peptide Sci.,

3
, 69
-
72.



37. Tudor, J.E., Pallaghy, P.K.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Norton, R.S. (1996) Solution Structure
of ShK toxin, a Novel Potassium Channel Inhibitor from a Sea Anemone.
Natur
e Structural
Biology

3
, 317
-
320.


38. Nielsen, K.R. and
Pennington, M.W.

(1996) Mass Spectral Analysis of Peptides Containing
Nitrobenzyl Moieties.
Lett. in Peptide Sci.
,
2
, 301
-
305.


39.
Pennington, M.W
., Mahnir, V.M., Khaytin, I., Zaydenberg, I., Byrnes
, M.E. and Kem, W.R.
(1996) An Essential Binding Surface for ShK Toxin Interaction with Rat Brain Potassium
Channels.
Biochemistry,

35
, 16407
-
16411.


40.
Pennington, M.W.
, Kem, W.R. and Karlsson, E. (1997) Sea Anemone Potassium Channel
Toxins. in Guidebook

to Protein Toxins and Their Use in Cell Biology. (Montecucco, C. and
Rappuoli, R., Eds.) Oxford University Press., 159
-
161.


41. Fields, G.B. and
Pennington, M.W.

(1997) Design of Selective Fluorogenic Substrates for
Members of the Matrix Metalloprotein
ase Family. In

Innovation and Perspectives in Solid
-
Phase Synthesis: Biological and Biomedical Applications (Collected Papers from the Fourth
International Symposium, Oxford, UK)
, (R. Epton, Ed.), Mayflower Scientific Ltd.,
Kingswinford, UK, 285
-
290
.


42.

Unal, A., Pray, T.R., Lagunoff, M.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Craik, C.S. (1997) the Protease
and Assembly Protein of Kaposi's Sarcoma
-
Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8).
J.
Virol.
,

71
, 7030
-
7038.


43. Zhang, L.,
Pennington, M.W.
, Baur, P., Byrnes,
M.E., de Chastonay, J. and Dunn, B.M.
(1997) Lack of Cross
-
Resistance among Mutants HIV
-
I Proteases toward Methylene
-
amino
Replacements of Junction B Peptides.
Peptide and Protein Lett.

4
, 225
-
236.


44.
Pennington, M.W.
, Mahnir, V.M., Baur, P.
, McVaugh, C.T., Behm, D. And Kem, W.R.
(1997) the Effect of Truncation on ShK Toxin: Elimination of the Amino
-
Carboxyl Terminal (3
-
35) Disulfide Linkage Stabilizing the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Segments.
Protein Peptide
Lett.
,
4
, 237
-
242.


45.

Penningto
n, M.W
., Zaydenberg, I., Khaytin, I., Tudor, J.E., Norton, R.S., Mahnir, V.M. and
Kem, W.R. (1998) Structure
-
Activity Relationships of ShK toxin: a Potent Inhibitor of Voltage
-
Activated Potassium Channels. In Peptides 1996, Proceedings of the 24th European

Peptide
Symposium. (Ramage, R. ed), Mayflower Scientific Ltd., Kingswinford, UK, 127
-
130.


46. Tudor, J. E.,
Pennington, M.W.

and Norton, R.S. (1998) Ionization Behavior and Solution
Properties of the Potassium Channel Blocker ShK Toxin.

Eur. J. Biochem.
,

251
, 133
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