(Gaetan) Economy and political prospects - HelhaPHL2010-06 - home

ahemhootBiotechnology

Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

323 views


Study area: Biotechnology

Basic project(2BTL)

project management and communicative skills

Final

interim report

11 October 2010


15 November 2010

Nanotechnology in food







Ferhat Ince

Adeline Mairesse

Jonathan Sirault

Gäetan Tordeurs

Julien Toussaint

Sanne Van Beek

Daria Van Eechaute

2BTL

Project leader: Evelyne Wirix

Project supervisor: Kris Moors

Ingrid Geirnaert

Julie Schmitz

2010
-
2011

Inhoudstabel

1.

Intro

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

2

2.

Techniques in laboratories (Adeline and Jonathan)

................................
................................
........

3

3.

Applications for farmers (Gaetan)

................................
................................
................................
...

3

4.

Economy and political prospects (Julien)

................................
................................
........................

3

5.

Which techniques exist? (Daria)

................................
................................
................................
......

4

Techniques used in agricultural production

................................
................................
........................

4

Techniques used in f
ood processing and functional food

................................
................................
...

4

Techniques used in food packaging and dist
ribution

................................
................................
..........

5

6.

What are the applications? (Sanne)

................................
................................
................................

5

7.

Pro’s and contra’s? (Ferhat)

................................
................................
................................
............

5


Pro’s

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

5

Contra’s

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

5

8.

What will the future bring? (sanne)

................................
................................
................................

6

9.

Sources:

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

7

10.

Tasks and task

partitioning

................................
................................
................................
..........

8

11.

Phasing (planning)

................................
................................
................................
.......................

8


1.

Intro


The definition of nanotechnology is based on the prefix “nano” which comes from the Greek word
meaning “dwarf”. In more technical terms, the prefix “nano” refers to a reduction factor, a nanometer
(nm) is the same as 10
-
9

or one billionth of a meter. For comparison, a hair is 100 micrometers thick or
100 000 nm, a bacteria is 1 micrometer long or 1000 nm and 10 water molecules are put together 1
nm. The nanometer is in other words the scale for molecules.

The word nanosca
le is generally used when referring to materials with the size of 0.1 to 100
nanometers. It’s on this scale that nanoscientist and nanotechnologists study and manipulate
materials and processes which will have a great impact on the future.

Nanotechnology
is the investigation for phenomena and handling/process of materials at atomic,
molecular and macromolecular scale. Nanotechnology stands for designing, assembling en applying
of structures, instruments and systems by controlling the form and size on nanom
eter scale to create
materials and devices with new or vastly different properties.


Without knowing people have been using nano

materials or products made with nanotechnology
processes for many years already. An example is colored glass you can find in churches, the source
of this color is the refraction which depends of the size of the metal parts that come from the metal
salts i
n the glass. The difference with the products and applications today is the systematic manner in
which these properties are studied, controlled and exploited. There has been a change from
accidental use to deliberate and focused application.

The starting
point of nanotechnology is generally said to be the lecture ‘Plenty of room at the bottom’
of Richard Feynmann in 1959. But it was in 1905 that Albert Einstein already calculated that the
diameter of a sugar molecule had to be approximately 1 nm.


Nanotech
nology gives us the possibility to develop materials, systems or products with revolutionary
new physical, chemical and biological properties.

Because nanotechnology is interdisciplinary it’s called an enabling technology and can be used in a
wide variety

of sectors like electronics, medicine, cosmetics, chemistry and in the food industry.
(Peter
Raeymakers et al. 3
-
47)


The use of nanotechnology in the agriculture and food sector is relatively recent
compared with their
use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals but it’s got great potential. It can be used in sectors like
agricultural production, food processing and functional food and food packaging and distribution.

How about food that can adjust its
color, flavor or nutrient content to accommodate each person’s
taste or health needs. Or packaging that can sense when food contents are spoiling and alert
consumers.
(Tiju Joseph and Mark Morrison 4
-
11)


Nanotechnology can work from the top down which means reducing

the size of the smallest structures to the nanoscale e.g. photonics applications in

nano
-
electronics and nano
-
engineering. The bottom up nanotechnology means manipulating
individual at
oms and molecules into nanostructures mainly by self assembly. This technique is mostly
used in chemistry and molecular materials.

Even though nanotechnology in food may have good prospects, it still provokes negative reactions
from the public. This paper
will also handle the politics around, the prospects, the ethical question and
economical possibilities of nanotechnology in food.
(Peter Raeymakers et al. 3
-
47)

2.

T
echniques in laboratories (Adeline and Jonathan
)


3.

Applications for farmers (Gaetan)


4.

Economy and politi
cal prospects (Julien)


Nanotechnology development is already inevitable. The expected positive impacts of nanotechnology
range from a technological revolution in the manufacturing process, new employment skills and the
emergence of new industries, to a
variety of economic opportunities.

Today to comprehend the phenomenon of nanotechnology’s economy, it is also necessary to
understand how it affects the social and the environmental dimensions. With every new science and
technology it’s important to provid
e and inform the scientific community and reduce the risk of
misunderstanding either the benefits or the negative impacts (like GMOs

genetic manipulated
organisms
). In fact stakeholders could be reluct
ant to invest in industries
that apply

nanotechnology i
f
the future of this technique is uncertain. So governments should introduce survey
s

in every private
company to find a framework. Actually almost every research leads to conclusive results.

However the “nanofear” effect is based much more on ignorance tha
n on reality. For the people who
don’t exactly know what nanotechnology means it all seems like science fiction and this lack of
information will have an impact on the public opinion.

Another problem of nanotechnology at industrial scale are the high cost
s. In fact a line of production

made with nanotechnology is more expensive than the conventional product. Even if it has got
potential to reduce cost
s

after a long period it’s an important start investment. So it’s understandable
that industries are not ke
en on the idea of long study before launching a new Nano product.

The impact of nanotechnologies

on em
ployments will

on one side

reduce job
generation because the
investments will go to new equipment instead of new competence. This will a
ffect welfare and
undermines social relations
. O
n another side

it will create

new skills for new workers.
R
espondents
foresee that nanotechnology will enable faster development of new and efficient products, create jobs
for highly qualified professionals, increase competiti
on between companies in different sector
s
, require
higher levels of initial investment
s

and

permit the development of more
productive processes

among
other impacts
.

It is also important to find standardized technical procedures to ensure safety with
nanomanipulation.
Therefore nanoproduction is certainly one of the major challenges to be overcome.

Regulatory
agencies and NGO
s

(
non
-
governmental organizations
)

have a important role

to play. The government

should increase expenditure on research prevent
ion and control, while NGOs should dedicate
themselves
to gather

relevant information and increasing public awareness. This is why a new
regulatory framework is urgent.

In the future nanotechnology will spread i
n our common lives, so we must

be vigilant and prevent
multinational
power to

avoid the

risk of misusing the expected potential

of nanotechnology. Money
can
’t prevail human health.

5.

Which techniques exist? (Daria)

Techniques used in agricultural production

Agricultural production is de
fined as the processes to produce materials (food, fuel and raw materials
for other industries) from plant cultivation and raising domesticated animals.

The application of nanotechnology developments in agricultural production can be divided in 5 areas:



sensors and diagnostic devices

Used to monitor environmental conditions, plant and animal health. Examples are uni
-
molecular sensors, bio
-
arrays and solid
-
state sensors.

• disease and pest control

Including the use of novel delivery systems for pesticides
, and limiting the environmental
impact of agrochemicals. The most used carrier (delivery systems) are nano
-
emulsions for
disease and pest control in plants and
liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and nanoshells

are
most common used in applications for controlling pests in domesticated animals.

• water and nutrient control

Including the use of novel delivery systems, and filtration and remediation systems to ensure
access to clean water. Mostly used are Nano
-
clay
s they are highly absorbent and capable of
slow release of chemicals present in fertilizers.

• genetic engineering of plants and livestock to improve productivity

Recently mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been used to introduce novel DNA.

• agriculture

as a means to produce nanomaterials

Either harvesting natural nanomaterials from, generally, waste material, or using plants and
microbes to manufacture nanomaterials.

For example, electrospinning can be used to produce
cellulose nanofibres out of traditi
onally harvested materials.


Techniques used in f
ood processing and functional food


Food processing describes the processes and equipment involved in turning agricultural products into
consumer products, and the mechanisms in place to ensure quality contr
ol. The many
nanotechnological applications in food processing and functional food can be divided in three sectors:



quality control

Detecting chemical contaminants by using unimolecular

sensors, sensor arrays, and solid
-
state systems. Detecting biological contaminants by using electronic biosensors, based on
protein conjugated nanowires, and carbon nanotubes. Measuring quality with electronic noses
and tongues can improve by using nanopa
rticulates.



Processing technology

Development of equipment coatings to prevent the generation of biofilms and increase
durability (methods for applying coatings are gas phase synthesis, sol
-
gel processes, electro
spray and electro spinning and self
-
assembl
y). Filtration is important to minimize and recycle
as much of this waste
-
water as possible. Nanofiltration mostly use ceramic and polymer
layers.



functional food

Nano
-
emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles are examples of nanostructured delivery
systems.

Food Structure or ‘Mouth Feel’ depends of the ingredients and can effectively be
replaced by nanostructured components made from natural and synthetic polymers such as
water
-
in
-
oil nano
-
emulsions.


Techniques used in food packaging and distribution

Food
packaging and distribution is defined as materials used to package fresh and processed foods,
and the procedures and systems in place to monitor supply chains and authenticate items.

The use of nanotechnology applications in food processing and functional
food can be divided in 4
sectors:



Barrier Packaging

The main packaging material is plastic, addition of coatings or inclusion of nanoparticulates
(mostly nanoclays) within the polymer can make it more impermeable to gases.



Antimicrobial and Antimycotic Pac
kaging

Most activities to combat this, have centred around nanoparticulates of silver and zinc oxide.




Biodegradable Packaging

This is a combination of biopolymers (such as cellulose) and nanoclay particles. Other
nanomaterials

can also be used including metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanofibres and
nanotubes.



Active and Smart Packaging

Smart packaging responds to its environment either to regulate an external effect or to
produce a visual readout of a change. Examples are pa
ckages that: regulate the internal
packaging environment, composites that can perform self
-
healing, have sensor technologies
(Oxygen sensors, Stress and temperature sensors, Biosensors) and have RFID (Radio
Frequency Identification) tags and tracking.


6.

Wha
t are the applications? (Sanne)


7.

Pro’s and contra’s? (Ferhat)

Pro’s

Nanotechnology makes it possible to enhance flavour and texture of foods. It can also reduce fat
content. Next to all these possibilities, nanotechnology can be used to make packaging tha
t keeps the
product inside fresher for longer.

Nutritionally
-
enhanced or functional foods will be available for more people. If we could synthesize
these foods in big quantities, maybe we could deliver food to poor countries with famine.

If we can assembly meat by using nanotechnology, we can stop slaughtering animals. This results in a
smaller need of farmland to produce meat.

Contra’s

Adding nanoparticles to food is not without any risks: nanoparticles can overcome barriers like
epithel
ium cells in the intestines and enter the blood stream. Little is known about how nanoparticles
are absorbed by, distributed around and excreted from the body. There is too little research on the
safety of nanoparticles in the human body to exclude negativ
e consequences.

By using the bottom
-
up technique nanoparticles can accumulate with self
-
assembly in food so that the
concentration becomes too high. These concentrations are still so small that these accidents could go
unchecked.

Another problem is the la
ck of a clear definition for nanotechnology: there are also natural
nanoparticles in food e.g. droplets of fat in milk.


8.

What will the future bring? (sanne)

9.

Sources:


Sites:

http://www.nanoforum.org/dateien/temp/nanotechnology%20in%20agriculture%20and%20food.pdf

http://www.azonano.com/news.asp?newsID=2044


article:

Nanotechnology

and its applications in the
food

sector

Nesli Sozer
a

and Jozef L. Kokini
a
,

a
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 211B Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Available online 8 January 2009.



Which techniques exist?


Sites:

http://www.observatorynano.eu/project/filesystem/files/Full%20Report%20Nanotechnology%20in%20
Agrifood%20May%202009.pdf




Economy and
Political prospects

Sites:

http://www.businesschemistry.org/article/?article=112





Pro’s and contra’s

Sites:

http://powerelectronics.com/mag/power_nanotechnology_healthy_wealthy/

http://www.destinyman.com/articles/show_article.aspx?article_id=4ba259da
-
a60d
-
466f
-
abce
-
9c2e7e5bd140

http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/chen/nanotechnology.html



10.

Tasks and task partitioning


Blackboard
-
responsible: Ferhat Ince

Epos
-
responsib
le: Daria Van Eechaute

Agenda
-
responsible: The moderator of that week

lay out: Ferhat Ince

Presentation: Daria Van Eechaute and Julien Toussaint

Communication between students: everybody

WIKI
-
responsible: Sanne Van Beek

Look up information about



Techniques in laboratories: Adeline Mairesse and Jonathan Sirault



Applications for farmers: Gäetan Tordeurs



Economy and political prospects: Julien Toussaint



Intro: What is nanotechnology: a short history: everybody



Which techniques exist?: Daria Van Eecha
ute



What are the applications?: Sanne Van Beek



Pro’s and contra’s?: Ferhat Ince



What will the future bring?: Sanne Van Beek


In the task division we changed the agenda
-
responsible to the moderator of that week because this is
a more logical choice than alw
ays let the same person make the agenda.

11.

Phasing (planning)


Week



1

20/09


First meeting of the PHL and HEHLA students

Write a motivation

everybody

2

27/09


Division of the tasks

Rewrite the motivation

Start with the work plan

Together during the
meeting (30/09)

3

04/10


Finish the work plan

Division of the subjects

Searching information about “What is
nanotechnology?”

Together during the meeting


Everybody individual

4

11/10


Monday 11
th

of October: Hand in the final
work plan

Searching
information about “What is
nanotechnology?”

Write the introduction

Check the work plan

Daria on EPOS


Everybody individual


Together during the meeting (14/10)

5

18/10


Search information about:



Techniques in laboratories



Applications for farmers



Econom
y and political prospects



Which techniques exist?



What are the applications?



What is the ethical point of view?




Adeline and Jonathan



Gaetan



Julien



Daria



Sanne



Ferhat



Pro’s and contra’s?



What will the future bring?

Discuss what we found of each subject



Ferhat



Sanne

Together during the meeting (21/10)

6

25/10


Discuss what we will put in our preliminary
interim report

Continue to work on the individual topics

Search for an english article

Together during the meeting (28/10)


See list above

Everybody

7

08/11


Hand in the preliminary interim report

Start working on the summary

Discuss the individual progress so far

Continue to work on the individual topics

Change topics to:



Techniques in laboratories



Applications for farmers



Economy and political
prospects



Which techniques exist?



What are the applications?



Pro’s and contra’s?



What will the future bring?


Daria on EPOS

Together during the meeting (?)






Adeline and Jonathan



Gaetan



Julien



Daria



Sanne



Ferhat



Sanne


8

15/11


Monday 15
th

of November: Hand in the final
interim report

Check the interim report

Check the summary

Daria on EPOS


Together during the meeting (18/11)


9

22/11


Check the reference list so far

Continue to work on the individual topics


Together during the meeting (
25/11)

See list above

10

29/11


Finish the individual topics

Finish the summary

Finish the reference list

Discuss the end result

Discuss what we will put in our preliminary
end report

See list above

Together during the meeting (02/12)


11

06/12


Friday 3
th

of December: Hand in the
preliminary end report

Discuss how the presentation will look like

Prepare questions for the other group with the
same subject

Daria on EPOS


Together during the meeting (09/12)


12

13/12


Hand in the final end report

Make the

presentation

Daria on EPOS

Together during the meeting (16/12)


13

20/12


Present the article in a presentation

Discussion with the jury

Daria and Julien

Everybody (23/12)


In the planning we changed the individual subject a little bit compared with the

work plan so there’s
no difference anymore between the chapters “pro’s and contra’s” and the” ethical point of view”.
This is because it seemed that they could easily be combined.


Reference List


Peter Raeymakers, et al.
Nano Nu
.
Ed. Peter Raeymakers. Brussel: Robby Berloznik, directeur viWTA,
Vlaams Parlement, 1011 Brussel, 2007, 3
-
47.

Tiju Joseph and Mark Morrison.
Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food.

Tiju Joseph and Mark
Morrison. Nanoforum.org European Nanotechnology Gateway, 2006.