Biotechnology Student Notes Biotechnology Defined Biotechnology ...

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Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Biotechnology
Student Notes

Biotechnology Defined

Biotechno
logy can be broadly defined as _____________________________________

___________________________________________________________________.

As such, biotechnology has been practiced by human society since the beginning of recorded
history in such activities as
_______________
,
______________________________
,
or breeding
_______________

or
_______________
.

DNA

All living organisms are composed

of
________

that contain a substance called
_______

(deoxyribonucleic acid) in the
__________________
.

The structure of DNA molecules contains information that is used by cells as a "recipe" for
the organism; that is, the characteristics of any living th
ing essentially are determined by
the information in
_______
.

The "words" for the DNA recipe, called
________
, are derived from a 4
-
letter alphabet
(
___, ___, ___, ___
) and usually contain between
________

and
________

letters. The
entire recipe, called th
e
__________
, may contain between 4 million (simple bacteria) and

____________

(human) letters or more.

Using Biotechnology to Modify Plants and Animals

Combining
_______

from different existing organisms (plants, animals, insects, bacteria,
etc.) results in modified organisms with a
_______________________________

from
the parents. The sharing of DNA information takes place naturally through sexual
reproduction and has be
en exploited in plant and animal breeding programs for many years.

However, sexual reproduction can occur only between individuals of the
_______________
.

What's new since 1972 is that scientists have been able to
__________
______________

_______
________

for many desirable traits and transfer only those genes, usually carried
on a plasmid or virus, into another organism.

This process is called
_____________________

and the transfer of DNA is accomplished
using either direct injection or the Agrobacterium,

electroporation, or particle gun
transformation techniques. It provides a method to
________________

______________________

(plant, animal, insect, bacterial, etc.).

Virtually any desirable trait found in nature can, in principle, be
____________

into an
y
chosen organism. An organism modified by genetic engineering is called
________
_______
.

Products of Genetic Engineering

Specific applications of genetic engineering are abundant an
d increasing rapidly in number.
Genetic engineering is being used in the production of
____________________
,
___________
______
, and the development of
_____
__
______
____

and
____________
.

2


Pharmaceuticals

Human drugs such as
__________

for diabetics,
____________________

for individuals
wi
th pituitary dwarfism, and tissue plasminogen activator for heart attack victims, as well
as
_______________

like the growth hormones, bovine or porcine somatotropin, are being
produced by the fermentation of
_____________________

that have received the
ap
propriate human, cow, or pig gene.

Human insulin produced by
__________
.
In 1982,
Humulin

became the first recombinant
drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration

Gene Therapy

The first clinical gene therapy is underway to correct an
_____________
_____
_______

called ADA in children.
_______________________

are removed,
______________
___

in bone marrow cells is supplemented with a
_________________________
, and the
repaired cells are then
____________
to the patient's body.

Transgenic Plants

Transge
nic plants that are more
_______________________
,
____________________

_____
_____

or viral pests, or express modified versions of fruit or flowers have been
grown and tested in outdoor test plots since
_______
. The genes for these traits have
been
________
__________________________________________________
,
__________
, or
__________

by genetic engineering techniques.

Transgenic Animals

Presently, most transgenic animals are
_____________________________________

_______________________________________________
_______
. Several companies
have designed and are testing transgenic mammals that produce important pharmaceuticals
in the animal's milk. Products such as
__________, _________________
, and tissue
plasminogen activator that are currently produced by ferment
ation of
________________

may soon be obtained by milking transgenic cows, sheep, or goats.

Genetically Engineered
Fruits and Vegetables

There is stiff competition among companies to bring genetically engineered
_________

and
____________

to market. One government official estimates that there are almost
_______
projects under way to develop genetically engineered plants. These include

the
following and many others
___________________________________________
.

The Structure of DNA

The cha
racteristics of
_______________________
, including humans, are
essentially determined by information contained within
________

that they
inherit from their parents. The molecular structure of DNA can be imagined
as a zipper with each tooth represented by one of four letters
(
____________
) and with opposite teeth forming one of two pairs, either
______

or
______.

The traits of a h
uman being are the result of
information contained in the
_______________
.

3


DNA Cloning

Cloning
is the production of
__
___________________________________________

through some asexual means.
Asexual reproduction

is a form of reproduction in which an

_____
______________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Plant Cloning

An _________________________________________________________________

____________________

of the parent plant.

Nature

has been cloning organisms for billions of years. For example, when a strawberry
plant sends out a
__________

(a form of modified stem), a new plant
_________

where
the runner takes root. That new plant is a clone. Similar cloning occurs in
______
__,

__________,

and
__________
.

Bacterial Cloning

Members of a bacterial colony on a petri dish are clones because
__________________

_________________________________.
This technology has been around since the
1970s, and it has become a common practice
in molecular biology labs today. Scientists
st
udying a particular gene often
use
bacterial plasmids to generate
multiple copies of the
same gene.

Why Clone Bacteria?

The microorganism
___________________________

has a long history of use in the
biotechno
logy industry and is still the microorganism of choice for most gene cloning
experiments. Although
E. coli

is known to the general population for the infectious nature of
one particular strain (0157:H7) few people are aware of how
______________________

E.

coli

is to genetic research.

1. Genetic Simplicity

Bacteria make useful tools for genetic research because of their
relatively
_______________________

compared to eukaryotes.
E. coli

cells only have
about
_______________

whereas the human genome project has determined that humans
contain approximately
_______________
. Also, bacteria, including
E. coli
, live their entire
lifetime in a
_______________
, with no second allele to mask the effects of mutations
during protein en
gineering experiments.

2. Growth Rate

Bacteria typically grow much
____________

than more complex
organisms.
E. coli

grows rapidly at a rate of
____________________________________

under typical growth conditions. This allows for preparation cultures overn
ight and genetic
experimental results in mere
_______

instead of several days, months or years. Faster
growth also means
___________________________

when cultures are used in scaled up
fermentation processes.

3. Safety

E. coli

is naturally found in the
___
__________________________________

________________

where it helps provide
_______________
(vitamins K and B12) to its
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host. There are many different strains of
E. coli

that may produce toxins or cause varying
levels of infection if ingested or allowed to
invade other parts of the body. Despite the bad
reputation of one particularly toxic strain (O157:H7),
E. coli

are generally relatively
innocuous if handled with reasonable hygiene.

Twins

Human identical twins are
__________
; the original
________________
__

separate to
become
_____________________
. Twins genetic makeup
________

100 percent
identical, but it is highly similar, all because their fertilized egg once split in half and
developed as two zygotes instead of one. One person became two.

Artificial Twinning

Artificial embryo twinning uses the same approach, but it occurs in a
_______________

instead of in the mother'
s body. This is accomplished
____________________________

__________________________
_______________________
,

and then allowi
ng each
cell to divide and develop on its own. The resulting embryos are placed into a
__________

mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. Again, since all the
___________

came from the same
___________
, they are
________________________
.

Soma
tic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)

Somatic Cell:
any cell in the body other then

the reproductive cells, sperm, and eggs which
are
____________________
. The other cells in the body all have
______________________

of chromosomes and the germ cells only conta
in
______

set.

Nuclear: The nucleus is

the
__________________________
, it is what

contains all the
_____________

that the cell needs to form an organism. The Information that it

held in
the nucleus

comes from DNA. The DNA is what make every different in t
heir own ways.

Transfer: It is moving an object from one place to another. The process starts with taking
the Somatic cell from an
________________

and transfer the
___________

from the
cell to an
____________

that has the
______________________
. Then aft
er some
chemicals are added to the egg

a
__________________________________

and it will
be

injected into a surrogate mother and carried

for nine months until it is ready

for birth.


SCNT
-

The technique that produces
________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Dolly

(July 5, 1996
-

February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first
______________________

____________________________________________________________________
.

Gene Cloning

Gene cloning is the
_______________________________________

by the use of a
self
-
replicating
genetic material.

Unlike reproductive cloning, which replicates an
____________
______________
, gene
cloning duplicates only
__________________________

of an organism's DNA.

5


Benefits

Gene cloning is used in
_________________________

laboratories across the world and
has enhanced our knowledge of
_________________________

and diseases.

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA (
_______
) molecules are
__________________

that result from the
use of laboratory methods (molecular cloning) to bring together
___________________

from multiple sources,
__________________________________________________

_________________________________________________.

Recombinant DNA is possible because
______________________________________

_________________________
; they differ only in the sequence of nucleotides with
in
that identical overall structure.

Applications of
Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA technology has extensive applications in developing
_______
_________
.

The first drug created using recombinant DNA was
__________________________
.

This tech
nology is possible because the genetic code is
_______________
. DNA functions
in the same way, whether in a human cell or a bacterial cell.

Recombinant DNA

(rDNA)
contains DNA from
_________________________________
.

Mitochondria DNA sequences in modern living populations can
______________________

__________________________________________________.

DNA Fingerprinting

Like the fingerprints that came

into use
by det
ectives and police labs during
the 1
930s,
each person
has a ____________________________
. Unlike a

conventional fingerprint
that
occurs
only on the
_______________
and can be
________________________
, a
DNA
fingerpri
nt is the ___________________________, __________
, and
__________________________
. It
________
_______________________

by any
known treatment. Consequently, DNA fingerprinting is rapidly becoming the
________________
____

for identifying and distinguishing among individual human beings.

Uses of DNA Fingerprints

______________________________________
_______

____________________________________________
_

________________________________
_____________

_______________________________
______________


Biotechnology Products

The use of technology to alter the genomes of viruses, bacteria, and other cells for medical
or industrial purposes is called
________________________________
.

Organisms that have had a foreign gene inserted into them are called
___
_____________
.

TRANSfe
rred GENE = TRANS GENIC

6


DNA technology is changing the
_________________

industry and
______________.

Biotechnology Products f
rom Bacteria


Recombinant DNA technology means to
______________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

A vaccine is a
__________________________________________________

(usually a
bacterium or virus) that is used
___________________________________________
.
When a person is inoculated, the
vaccine stimulates the immune system to develop lasting
defenses against the pathogen.

Transgenic bacteria

can also help
__________
. For example, bacteria that live in plants
have genes spliced in that let them
____________________________
; this protects
the
roots of the plants, too.

Bacteria can be genetically engineered to
_____________________________________
,
for instance, transgenic bacteria have been produced which have the ability to
_________

after an oil spill

Industry has found that bacteria can

he used as
_______________

to prevent airborne
chemicals from being vented into the air. They can also
________________________

before it is burned and help clean up
_________

dumps. Furthermore, these bacteria were
given “
__________
” genes that caused th
em to
_________________

when the job is
accomplished.

Biotechnology from Plants

Plants can also be genetically engineered to make cotton, corn, soybeans, and potatoes
_________________________

because their cells now produce an
_______________
.
Plants are
also being engineered to produce
_________________________
,
______________________
, and antibodies, in their seeds.

One type of antibody made by corn can deliver a substance that
____________________
.

Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

Scientists concerned with feeding the growing human population are using DNA technology
to make
_____________________________________________

for use in agriculture.
A GM organism (Or GMO) is one

that has
_____________________________________

_____________________

rather than by traditional breeding methods. (The new gene
may or may not be from another species.)

Genetic engineering is
________________________

traditional plant
-
breeding programs.

F
or example, the majority of the American
______________

and
_____________

crops
are genetically modified. Many of these GM plants have received
_________________
_____________
that make the plants resistant to
_____________

or
______________
.
Farmers can m
ore easily grow these crops with far less tillage and reduced
_________________________________________.

Biotechnology Products From Animals

Agricultural researchers are also making
______________________
. To do this,
scientists first remove
_____________
____

from a female and fertilize them
_
_______
.
7


They then inject a
__________________________

directly into the
_____
______

of
the fertilized
_________
. Some of the cells integrate the foreign DNA into their genomes.
The engineered
_____________

are then
_____________________

in a surrogate
mother. If an embryo develops successfully, the result is a
_____________
_____________
, containing a gene from a third “parent” that may even be of another
species.

The procedure has been used to produce
______________
, cows, pigs,
__________
, and sheep.

Genetically engineered fishes are now being kept in ponds that
offer no escape to the wild because there is much concern that
____________________
__________________________
.

Transgenic animals also have been engineered

to be
______________________


__________________
” that produce otherwise rare biological substance for
_________________
. Recently, researchers have engineered transgenic
___________

that express large amounts of the foreign product in their eggs. This su
ccess suggests that
transgenic chickens may emerge as relatively
________________

pharmaceutical facto
-
ries in the near future.

Gene “
_________________
” is the use of transgenic farm animals to produce
_________

___________________________________________.

There are plans to produce drugs for the treatment of
_____________________
,
_________
, blood diseases, and other disorders.

An anti
-
clotting medicine is currently being produced by a
________________________
.

Xenotransplantation

Scientists have begun the process of genetically engineering animals to serve as
________

____________________________________________________________________.

We now have the ability to transplant
__________
,
__________
,
__________
, pancreas,
lung, and ot
her organs. Unfortunately, however, there are not enough human donors to go
around.

Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?

As soon as scientists realized the power of DNA technology, they began to worry about
potential dangers. Early co
ncerns focused on the possibility that recombinant DNA
technology might create new
_________________
.

What might happen, for instance, it
cancer cell genes were transferred into bacteria or viruses?

To guard against such rogue
___________
, scientists dev
eloped a
__________________

______________

that were adopted as formal government regulations in the United
States and some other countries. One safety measure is a set of
____________________

_____________

designed to protect researchers from infection b
y engineered microbes
and to prevent the microbes from
__________________________________________
.
In addition, strains of microorganisms to be used in recombinant DNA experiments are
_________________________

to ensure that they cannot survive outside the

laboratory.
Finally, certain obviously dangerous experiments have been banned.

8


Today, most public concern about possible hazards centers not on recombinant microbes but
on
___________________________

(GM) crop plants.

Advocates of a cautious approach fe
ar that some crops carrying genes from other species
might cause
_________________

in humans or create
________________

that are
hazardous to the environment. In the United States, all projects are evaluated for potential
risks by regulatory agencies such
as the Food and Drug Administration, Environmental
Protection Agency, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Agriculture.

The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project was a massive effort to put all of the
___________________

chromosomes into the
____________________
. This was just finished in 2003.

Project goals were to identify all the
________________________________________

and determine the sequences of the
_________________________________________
.

This allows scientis
ts to detect some
________________________

and tailor a
treatment plan to the individual.

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy gives a patient a
_____________________________________________
.
Perhaps it will be possible also to use gene therapy to cure hemophilia,
diabetes, Parkinson
disease, or AIDS.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease


DNA technology is being used increasingly in
___________________________
.

It is used to determine
__________________________________________________
.