IDS Technology in Society
390 Answer Bank
Some of the worksheets will have “open ended” question that you will need to write in your personal
experience. So when you find one of these answer banks that do not have enough answers you need to
one or more of your own answers instead of picking one from these lists.
nt developments in techonology.
Dilemmas and controversies surroundi
ng technological advancements.
Technically speaking we
are pushing towards a paperless society. We perform many activities online
or electronically, however, we still use printers to read e
mails and to have a physical hard copy for
al viewpoints regarding the effective utilization and management of technology and
project stability of our t
raditional social institutions.
At some point throughout history al
l those were new technologies.
Escherichia coli (E.coli)
A protein that fights viral dis
eases and some forms of cancer.
combinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid
E. Flavr Savr Tomato
Set of instructions for making an orgranism.
Human insulin, HGH, Bovine growth hormone, and chymosin.
J. Mapping human DNA.
Late 1910s, to refer to the production of materials like acetone.
genes outside their species.
M. Human insulin.
Three additional genes that increase
the synthesis of beta
The use of bacteria that eats away
at unwanted iron and minerals.
“An exact genetic copy. It is an individu
al grown from a single somatic cell of its parent. Colnes are
lly identical to their parent.”
“The manipulation of biological organisms to make pro
ducts benefiting human beings.”
Treatment of disease by changing someone’s DNA.
Diagnosis and treatment of dise
ase. Purification of proteins.
Transplanting animal cells, tissues, and organs into a human being.
To have D
olly produce drugs in her milk.
Mostly opposed to GM foods.
Genetically altered livestock
that produces drugs.
mail allows message to be sent nearly instantaneously and with a measure of privacy that is not
always available with other modes of communication and unlike a telephone conversation
conducted orally an e
mail recipient can respond at their own pace and an e
mail can be saved and
a program designed to alter the way a computer operates and functions without the knowledge of
the use of wireless voice and data tec
hnologies between a car and somewhere else.
developed by the US Defense Department's (DOD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the
1970s dedicated to defense projects
a private corporate network
of social interaction with my peers and that there's less separation between “work” and “home
my family would tend to interrupt my workday, the lack of supervision that employers will
have of regulating the way their employees are
using their time
is a lower cost alternative to a WAN which utilizes ISPs for service rather than using dial
databases of individuals who shouldn't be given credit, auto insurance, etc... due to legal problems in
it is a nonprofit consortium of U.S. universities, industries, and government agencies that are
developing new ways of using the Internet.
when a company allows customers and other users to have limited access to its intranet
ystem used in desktop systems that are connected to a network that utilize digital video
Marketing, prototyping, and training, design vehicles, train firefighters, pilots, licensed drivers, police
officers, outline vehicles,
and even in areas of academia such as teaching about the human anatomy
using telecommunications technology to transport work to employees who therefore avoid the daily
commute to a distant job site
a large network that allows the
exchange of massive data that was originally sponsored by the US
Department of Defense
computer mediated communication
are files placed on a user's computer when they visit a particular website that keep track of
information such as logins or passwords. A
is a software program on a website that
record the actions users t
ake when they are on a website.
visual communication using computer technology including: Software, video cameras, microphones,
and tv monitors for interactive group communication
hardware and software that is put between a private intranet and the Internet to police informat
coming and going through it
or purchase of goods and services using the Internet
LAN refers to local area network and refers to a network of computers that allows them to
communicate and exchange data in a specific geographic area while WAN refers to wireless
etwork that allows the same interactions to take place over a large geographic area
a program that moves from computer to computer automatically, replicating itself as it goes.
intelligent software agents
o separate the light from the telescope.
D. 22,300 miles
Allowed the cockpit to have four display
s with new flat panel displays.
Six hundered thousdand light years, 2 billion light years, 14 billion light years
sed to balance spacecrafts and can be adjusted by technical and digital technology
Rocket bodies, nose cones, an
d other parts from spacecrafts.
egins to lose muscle tone and grows weak, the heart slows down considerable, blood vessels do not
function as proficiently, bones are weaken, and back and leg muscles began to atrophy because of
US, early 1970s, late 1970s
O. Telstar I
How living organisms adapt to conditions of weightlessness
and then readapt to life on Earth.
where troops were at all times.
o explore Jupiter
he technique used by NASA to slow down a spacecraft in the atmosphere of a planet
Nausea accompanied by vomiting
ct earth studies, Accelerate unmanned missions, resumed manned missions to the moon,
conduct manned mission to Mars.
human heart, pancreas, kidneys, limbs, blood vessels, and hip joints.
and Mid 1960s
Employing endoscopic device
s, laser beams, or shock waves, robotics
Health Maitenance Organizations (HMO’S)
Urology, Pulmonary medicine, and gastroenterology
Artificial joint replacements
heart valves, Brain p
kidney stones inside the body.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
red Provider Organization (PPO)
Embryo transfer is another reproduction
isting technology that has become available to couples
who are unable to conceive a child on their own. This technology may be employed for women who
cannot produce eggs, but can carry a fetus to term. The couple pays a fee to a fertile woman
agrees to be inseminated with the man’s sperm. It is critical for this egg donor to be matched with the
woman, in terms of their ovulation cycles.
Procedure using sound waves directed into the abdomen of the pregnant woman. “Pulse Echo
sonography gives the image.
optic technology enabling the doctor to study the fetus inside the uterus.
N. Ancient Egypt
O. It is one of three standard medical inventions for coronary artery disease; can sometimes replace
coronary bypass surgery to open clogged arteries.
est for high cholesterol levels,
uterized Axial Tomography (CAT),
Use of endoscopic Instruments
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
A formal written declaration by a competent adult stating a wish or expectation that if he or she
becomes mentally or physically ill that th
ere is no prospect of recovery, and procedures designated to
olong life should be withheld.
When an infertile woman and man enter into a contractual agreement with another woman.
The surrogate agrees to artificially inseminated with
the father sperm. After carrying the resulting
fetus to term, the surrogate mother is expected to return the child to the original couple. In this case
the baby has the genetic characteristics of the father and the surrogate mother.
Another variation of surrogate motherhood arises when the female partner is not infertile, but
incapable of carrying a fetus to term. In this case, an egg from the woman is fertilized with a man
sperm in vitro, and the resulting embryo is i
mplanted in the surrogate mother uterus.
T. The natural death act in California in the mid 1970s.
A long, thin needle attached to a syringe is inserted through the lower wall of the pregnant woman’s
abdomen. The amniotic fl
uid, which contains some live body cells shed by the fetus, is withdrawn.
A young couple has eggs fertilized and cooled to
321 degrees Fahrenheit, by doing this they are
preserving the fertilized eggs to be used at another time.
New Science in the field of medicine combining knowledge of a person’s genome with what is being
done in the pharmaceutical industry, the notion that one drug is fits all people is being supplemented
by theories suggesting we can manufacture d
rugs more accurately suited to a person’s genetic
Lean manufacturers see themselves in partnerships with their suppliers, and they generally cultivate
relationships with suppliers to ensure quality. Agile manufacturers focus on the customer
d meeting the customer’s needs.
a dominant application software structure being used by manufacturing managers
most widely accepted automatic ide
ntification technology used to control and
It indicates that a company meets international quality standards.
total quality management
used for planning
future purchase orders and manufacturing lots according to what is required to
complete a maste
r production schedule
1) laser modeling systems, 2) solid ground curing, 3) fused deposition modeling, 4) fast casting, 5)
laminated object manu
CE contrasts with the traditional linear approach, in which marketing experts conceptualize the
product, design engineers design the prototype, and the manufacturing and purchasing departments
make all the decisions regarding th
on process and parts suppliers.
a manufacturing philosophy attempting to eliminate waste throughout the system, including
at both ends of production and all machinery and man
power not adding value directly to
Lower energy bills, Reduction in the duplication of data entry
Fewer discrepancies in the data
Less scrap and
used in place of job orders and routing sheets
and emphasizes small lot sizes
Companies today, in their quests to be lean and agile, are specializing as never before. As
specialization increases there is more depen
dence on external supplies or the outsourcing of an
increased percent of manufactured components. Since other companies are now supplying critical
components, a manufacturer becomes dependent on these external suppliers for the overall qualit
of the product. Part of supply chain management includes the certification of suppliers who then are
considered part of the product team.
The acquisition of technology by certain nations and then other nations that lag behind
Aerospace, computers, office machinery, electronics
A formal channel for the transfer of technology tied to a legal agreement between parties. The
purchaser of the license normally pays royaltie
s to the party or parties who have ownership of the
technology in demand
A foreign owned and operated assembly plant, most often along the U.S.
Mexico border, that
imports components into Mexico, assembles them into products ra
nging from TV’s to auto parts, and
exports finished products
Its political position during the Cold War was to remain independent.
First the Soviet Union and then in the 1960’s China relied more on Japan and Western Europe
refers to when a nation has no interest or does not accept an imported technology
When the recipient nation is slow in replicating and developing their own counterpart of a technology
1. What is being transferred
2. Who is technology donor,
3. Who is technology recipient
4. Type of technology transfer channel.
The US felt that selling technology to communist countries was actually in opposition to keeping the
USA the leader not just of tech
nology but, even of the free world since it would be akin to
empowering the enemy
energy & defense supplies
A trend especially apparent in university research laboratories in which there is a convergence
between basic and applied resear
ch, such that commercial opportunities emerge
Involve extensive contact between government reps., tours of industrial plants, and the
establishment of domestic training and educational programs
Appropriate technology refers to technology tha
t involves and meets the needs of the local
community that it will be used in without adversely affecting the local population
transfer investments and in sales or licensing of technology
An astute capacity to carefully disassemble an impact
ed device, examine it, and eventually copy it
Technology donor constructs a fully operation production plant for recipient nation. Easy to initiate
It is primary channel for transfer of technology. You have oversea subsi
diaries to reduce distribution
costs; they can avoid high labor costs and import duties.
Development of a technology product or process in one setting then is transferred for use in
“Straw bales, rammed e
“An approach to agriculture promoting sustainability and linking ecology, socioeconomics, and culture
to the design of agricultural systems.”
Technical, Cultural, a
can lead to increase air pollution inside the structure.”
“An initiative that emerged from the scientific field studying how people from a particular culture use
n intermediate level of technology development, as opposed to one
too sophisticated or complex
for the probl
em in question. A.T. is also an attitude regarding an overreliance on high technology. It
refers to technology that fits the cultural situation for which it is proposed without causin
problem than it solves.
g the needs of a community without sacrificing the environment. It
aims to balance development and environmental protection by creating new developments that are
centered more in the towns and cities, include alternative transit options, and
have mixed use
Farm profitability, improvement of the environment, and increased quality of life for farmers and
“Managing environmental issues through app
ropriate business strat
In the Mojave Desert, by SCE.
attempts to use ecologically sound, non
pesticide methods t
o reduce and manage pests. D
attempt to eliminate all pests; rather it manages them to keep pests at an acceptable level. Although
me farmers use pesticides with this
the goal is to use pesticides targeting a specific pest
instead of generic pesticides that commo
nly kill a range of fests. F
using this method
on biological controls, such as
using other insects th
at feed on the unwanted pests.”
“Sources of energy that are always available because, in reality, they cannot run out, and they can
“a building constructed in a way that minimizes wastes and includes recycl
ed, renewable, and reused
resources to the maximum extent possible. Construction of green buildings include: energy
efficiency, renewable resources, water conservation, and waste minimization.”
“Wave power, ocean thermal energy conversion,
and tidal power.”
“An issue implying that all technologies are available to and used by all socioeconomic segments in a
“Energy supplied from the organic materials.”
have the unique property of being able to turn sunlight directly into electric
“The movement of middle and upper class people living in the suburbs into town, where they
typically purchase or rent space in what are called
Biomass, Hydropower, Geothermal, Wind, Ocean, PV Cells, and Thermal Solar Power.
It is a serious environmental problem in Canada, Scandinavia, Japan, and Northeastern United Stat
Superfund, and was enacted to provide cleanup at sites where hazardous wastes had been
abandoned or previous hazardous waste disposal procedures had already contaminated the
the soil is thin in tropical forests and when the
trees are removed the soil can wash away.
severe changes in global weather patterns, loss of cultural and biotic diversity, and desertification of
the forest lands.
forests in humid, semiarid, and arid regions of the world. Forests ranging fro
m moist (or closed)
tropical forests to dry (or open) woodlands are generally included.
It is energy from the Sun heating the Earth’s surface. The surface then radiates the heat back in to
space, but some of the heat is trapped in
our atmosphere and warms the planet.
It is the accidental or deliberate release of a contained substance into the natural ecosystem (air,
land, or water).
“Pollutant Standards Index (PSI).”
71 percent water with only 3 percent of it as fre
as ice and snow at the two poles.
Air Quality Index (AQI).
A term used to describe an information
based perspective supporting the need for harmony between
industrial objectives and environmental goals.
It is a serious environmental problem resulting from the presence of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
in the atmosphere. When these compounds react with moisture they form dilute sulfuric and nitric
acids, which are then carried back to Earth
it must include an environmental impact analysis.
the open ocean outside territorial sea limits of a country, the extraterrestrial space surrounding Earth,
and the continent of Antarctica.
carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, asb
estos, and passive tobacco smoke.
water removed from the soil by evaporation from leaf and plant surfaces.
Plastics, Phosphorus Oxychloride
Insecticides, Sodium Cyanide
Dyes and pigments
Operation Desert Storm &
Nuclear, biological, and chemical
They contain thousands of bomblets called bomb live units
Disruption of military information, as well as to the disruption of information in our homeland.
A weapon using poisonous, asphyxiat
ing, or other gases affecting humans when they are either
inhales or absorbed through the skin
Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum, Versinia pestis, Variola major, Francisella tularensis, Viral
Border skirmishes, internal battles, police work, civil uprisings, and regional conflicts
Strategy which weapons are aimed at the military forces of opponent at strategic or nuclear forces
Fluoride Chemical Laser, Space
Electron Laser, and the NPB
Stealth Bomber, Military Strategic Tactical and Relay System (MILSTAR), Advanced Cruise Missile
Ability and determination to use available technologies as tools of mass destruction
Program to explore the
possibilities of strategic defense military
Prevent the widespread acquisition of NBC weapons.
List of targets that U.S. long range nuclear forces would attack and assign weapons to target based
established damage, criteria, routing, and timing.
A weapon using a living organism, usually a pathogenic microorganism, for hostile purposes.
Biological agents can be bacterial, fungal, viral, rickettsial, or protozoan.
attack so powerful to leave one’s country with forces inadequate to inflict damage on the
Deployment of military power in order to get another nation to change its behavior to make it more
satisfactory to aggressor.
ual Assured Destruction
Defense Related Research
Aim weapons at “softer” targets like urban population centers, industrial facilities and economic
Lack of readiness
Spongiform Encephalitis (BSE)
Attempts to and must ultimately answer the question How safe is safe enough? Experts use
historical accident and fata
lity records to reveal patterns of acceptable risk
benefit ratios. Generally,
an acceptable risk for a new technology equates to the level of safety associated with ongoing
ng similar benefits to society
An individual’s inability to think
clearly due to an excessive a
mount of cognitive stimulation
This social behavior or attitude refers to the extent to which a social group is able to recognize and
take advantage of the patented benefits of a technological breakthrough and simulta
any of its
negative side effects or risks
Knowledge, Awareness, Confidence and skill, Control, Insight
will cure all of society’s illnesses.
Education, training, modification, orientation, guidanc
e, indoctrination, and therapy
The word change produces emotional reaction, since it is not a neutral word. To many people,
change is threatening. Without any sort of modifier the word change promises no respect fo
present cultural values. Change may even disrupt the val
The degree to which you enjoy life and the
possibilities it holds for you
is characterized by a concept labeled
. The world is an open system heavily reliant o
network of technology transfer
The conscious expenditure off effort to make the time interval between wanting something and
etting it as short as possible
the ability to “have it all” in a fast pace, high
Industrial recreation services can cement employee loyalty to the company, reduce tensions, lower
, and promote employee camaraderie and morale. Many companies offer some type of
recreation activities as a component of their employee benefits package. Some of the industrial
activities are basketball, racquetball tennis, weight lifting equ
Scientists believe religion skews objective reasoning, fuels repressive movements,
freedom of thought
Americans work more tha
n Western European
because technology, job market, political environment, etc are c
eo cameras, and heart monitors
Schools exist to educate and socialize the residents of
, state, nation, or continent
Religious leaders are convinced science pursued from an agnostic or atheistic base will continue to
feed the ever
growing materialism in society and contribute to
the violence of the
lleges, churches, health clubs
Family is two or more people living together who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Household is one or more people who occupy a house, apartment, or other residential u
nit that i
Food processors; “since all of the individual components must be cleaned separately, its laborsaving
profile is best observed when large quantities o
f ingredients must be prepared
Artificial procreation including
sperm banks, embryo banks, postmortem insemina
tion, and surrogate
Some companies have taken to imbedding advertisements directly in network programs to
ract these consumer tendencies
is the gathering of children a
nd parents to eat an evening family meal and is one of the primary
ways in which growing children learn about conventional behaviors they need to be in touch with as
adults.” As a growing child I have had many unforgettable family diners, how
ever in recent years
family diners have been reduced to almost none because of t
he busy life that we all live.
Zapping and Zipping
Laboratory animals are commonly exposed to high concentrations of chemicals to ensure that if
there are any toxic effects, they will be evident at st
atistically significant levels.
The initial use of high doses of toxic substances may a
ctually interrupt the recipient’s internal
metabolic reactions toward the initiatio
n of carcinogenesis.
Animals and humans met
abolize substances differently.
s a small
group brainstorming session in which the participants exa
mine the consequences of a
trend or a technological event.
Integrity, Honesty, Candor, Civic
To make projections about the future state specific technologies, so we can assess and plan for the
impacts on society.
Risk assessors must be able to determine how potential threats are released into and move
through the ever changing environment.
They have to figure out how much of the substance people might e
at, breathe, or swallow and
then estimate how much of it they could ultimately absorb.
Phase three entails a determination of how much of a hazard the absorbed substance poses
(whether it will cause symptoms such as a
a or chronic loss of hearing).”
A method of studying the risk of a new technology, material, or device so they may be better
avoided, reduced, or otherwise managed.
Reviewers keep track of events as they occur, in order to make an accurate projection of major
one to two years down the road.
involves technologies allowing us to be identified by specific biological traits. It’s use
d for face
recognition, iris recognition, fingerprint recognition, voice recognition, and dynamic signature
knowledge discovery in databases
(KDD), is based on elaborate pattern recognition
. Exciting applications are projected in many fields, including automobile maintenance,
astronomy, geology, medicine, quality assurance, and military intelligence.
Rules of thumb based on a compilation of personal experiences over time. They are
used to help
guide problem solving exercises. In the field of artificial intelligence, they are built into computer
programs to enable machines to make educated guesses. Unlike algorithms (mathematical
computation), they do not guarantee