2nd Semester Study Guide.docx

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Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Semester
2

Study Guide


A note about studying for Biology: This course contains a large amount of information. You cannot
possibly understand the concepts without first understanding the terminology. However, this does not
mean that you should just
study definitions. This will not be enough. You have to fully understand the
content and the big picture in order to be successful on the final exam.



This study guide is meant as a tool to help you focus your study. However, there are concepts not loc
ated
on this guide that may appear on the test. Ex
-

If we had a conversation about the 47 year old primate
fossil recently discovered, you have to know its relevance even if not on the guide.


Materials: Your primary source materials are in order of impo
rtance:


1.

Quizes and Tests

2.

Diagrams

3.

Notes

4.

Labs and Assignments

5.

Textbook


A Basic Overview of the Concepts


Mitosis and Meiosis



Cell Cycle



Mitosis



Meiosis



Karyotyping


Molecular Genetics



Structure and function of DNA



Transcription



Translation



Mutations


Classical Genetics



Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses



Incomplete and Codominance



Sex Linkage



Pedigree Analysis


Evolution



Age of Earth



Mechanisms of evolution



Evidence of evolution






Mitosis


Objectives:

1.

Define the terms cell cycle and mitosis.


2.

Identify
the type of tissue in which mitosis occurs and state at least four reasons for mitosis.


3.

Summarize briefly the events that occur in the cell before it undergoes mitosis (ie
-
interphase).


4.

Define the following terms:

a)

DNA

b)

centriole

c)

chromosome

d)

spindle

e)

chromat
id

f)

mother cell

g)

centromere

h)

daughter cell


5.

Identify the four phases of mitosis and outline the nuclear events of each phase.


6.

Describe factors that control, initiate or inhibit mitosis.


7.

Using a prepared slide of onion root cells, sketch diagrams of the four phases of mitosis and
interphase, and label the following structures:

a)

chromosome


b)

nucleolus

c)

chromatid


d)

spindle fibres

e)

centromere


f)

metaphase plate

g)

nuclear membrane


h)

cell plate


8.

Calculat
e the duration of mitosis and interphase from the observation of onion root tip cells.


9.

Define cytokinesis and explain how it differs between plant and animal cells.


10.

Describe the process of cloning.


11.

Explain how cancer is related to the process of mitosis
.


12.

Describe four differences between cancer cells and normal cells.


13.

Describe differences between the old and new theory of cancer.





Meiosis


Objectives:

1.

Define the term meiosis and state the reason why meiosis occurs.


2.

Identify the type of tissue in
which meiosis occurs.


3.

Summarize briefly the events that occur in the cell before it undergoes mitosis.


4.

Define the following terms:

a)

homologous pair

b)

sexual reproduction

c)

haploid


d)

asexual reproduction

e)

diploid


f)

gamete

g)

tetrad


h)

zygote


5.

Compare spermatogenesis and oogenesis with respect to the number of viable sperm and ova
produced.


6.

State the advantage of only one viable egg from one complete meiotic division.


7.

Using diagrams of the phases of complete meiosis, identify each phase and
state the changes that
occur in each stage.


8.

In the above diagrams, the student must be able to identify and label the following structures and to
state the function of each structure:

a)

chromatin

b)

spindle fibre

c)

chromatid

d)

equatorial plate

e)

chromoso
me

f)

nuclear membrane

g)

homologous chromosome

h)

nucleolus

i)

centromere

j)

nucleolus

k)

centriole

l)

cell plate (division plate)


9.

Explain the significance of synapsis and crossing
-
over in meiosis.


10.

At the conclusion of this lesson the student must be

able to compare and contrast the
processes of mitosis and meiosis with respect to:

a)

number of divisions

b)

chromosome number in resulting cells

c)

number of cells resulting from one complete division

d)

possibility of genetic differences occurring during the proces
s

e)

site of occurrence


11.

Explain how nondisjunction occurs and its significance.


12.

Describe the reproductive technologies used to diagnose chromosomal abnormalities.


13.

Prepare a karyotype chart and use it to diagnose genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome,
Tur
ner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome.



Reproductive Strategies


Objectives:

1.

Differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction, and describe advantages and
disadvantages of each reproductive strategy.


2.

Compare asexual reproductive strategies such as
budding, binary fission and spore
formation.


3.

Identify a group of organisms that has reproduced asexually for hundreds of millions of
years, and explain why this reproductive strategy has been successful for these organisms.


4.

Describe alternation of genera
tions as the life history of plants, using the following terms:

a)

haploid phase

b)

diploid phase

c)

mitosis

d)

gametes

e)

meiosis

f)

zygote

g)

fertilization


5.

Describe the reproductive pattern (life history) of higher animals.


Students should be able to demonstrate the interr
elationships among science technology and
society through the following examples:




Discussing the role of mitosis and biotechnology in regenerating damaged or missing
parts of organisms.




Evaluating how knowledge of cell division might be applied to the
limitation of
cancerous growth in plants or animals.



Discussing the types and sources of various teratogenic compounds
(cause development
defects)
found in the environment and the



Evaluating the impact of research in plant and animal reproduction on our u
nderstanding
of mitosis and meiosis in humans.


DNA: Structure and Replication


Objectives:

1.

Define the following terms:

a.

DNA

b.

gene

c.

chromosome


2.

Outline the structure of a DNA nucleotide and identify the four possible
bases.


3.

Describe the Watson
-
Crick model of

DNA and show the position of the
following components:

a.

deoxyribose sugar [S]

b.

phosphate [P]

c.

nitrogen bases [A, C, T, G]


4.

Outline how the DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds
into a single strand.


5.

Explain how a DNA double helix is formed u
sing complementary base
pairing and hydrogen bonds.


6.

Draw a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.


7.

Explain the structure of DNA including the anti
-
parallel strands, 3'→5'
linkages and hydrogen bonding between purines and pyrimidines.
Honors on
ly


8.

Explain DNA replication in terms of:
Honors only

a.

helicase

b.

DNA polymerase III

c.

DNA polymerase I

d.

DNA ligase

e.

RNA primase

f.

Okazaki fragments

g.

deoxynucleoside triphosphates




9.

Explain how DNA replication is semi
-
conservative.


10.

State that DNA replication occurs in a 5´→ 3´ direction.
Honors only


11.

The 5´ end of the free DNA nucleotide is added to the 3´ end of the chain
of nucleotides that is already synthesized.
Honors only


12.

Explain the significance of complementary base pairin
g in the
conservation of the base sequence of DNA.


13.

State that in a eukaryotic chromosome, replication is initiated at many
points.


Transcription and Translation

Objectives:

1.

Define the terms amino acid, RNA, and polypeptide.


2.

Identify at least six uses of

protein molecules.


3.

Identify the number of different amino acids that can be used in
building protein molecules.


4.

Explain why there are almost an infinite variety of proteins that can be
synthesized.


5.

Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed
of triplets of
bases.


6.

Compare the structure of DNA and RNA.


7.

State the functions of messenger RNA and transfer RNA.


8.

Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand
complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase.


9.

State that transc
ription is carried out in a 5´→ 3´ direction.

The 5´ end
of the free RNA nucleotide is added to the 3´ end of the RNA molecule,
which is already synthesized.

Honors only


10.

Explain the process of transcription in eukaryotes including the role of
the promote
r region, RNA polymerase, nucleoside triphosphates and the
terminator. The following details are not required: there is more than
one type of RNA polymerase, features of the promoter region, the need
for transcription protein factors for RNA polymerase bin
ding, TATA
boxes (and other repetitive sequences), the exact sequence of the bases
which act as terminators.



11.

Gene regulation can be limited to the presence of other genes (often on
other chromosomes) that affect binding of RNA polymerase to the
promoter
region, and to the control of both the post
-
transcriptional
modification of RNA and post
-
translational modification of proteins.

Honors only


12.

Distinguish between the sense and antisense strands of DNA.

The sense
strand is the coding strand and has the same base sequence as mRNA
(with uracil instead of thymine). The antisense strand is transcribed and
has the same base sequence as tRNA.


13.

State that eukaryotic RNA needs the removal of introns to form matur
e
mRNA.

Further details of the process of post
-
transcriptional
modification of RNA are not required.

Honors only


14.

State that eukaryotic chromosomes contain far more DNA than is
needed to code for their protein products.


15.

State that reverse transcriptase ca
talyses the production of DNA from
RNA. This is an opportunity to relate some aspects of the DNA viral life
cycle to that of the AIDS virus (an RNA virus).

Honors only


16.

Explain the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide and its
significance.


17.

De
scribe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of
bases.


18.

Explain the process of translation, leading to peptide linkage formation.

Include the roles of messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA),
codons, anticodons and ribosomes.


19.

Outline
the structure of ribosomes including protein and RNA
composition, large and small subunits, two tRNA binding sites and
mRNA binding sites. Outline the structure of ribosomes including
protein and RNA composition, large and small subunits, two tRNA
binding
sites and mRNA binding sites.


20.

State that translation consists of initiation, elongation and termination.


21.

During translation, the ribosome moves along the mRNA towards the 3´
end. The start codon is nearer to the 5´ end than the stop codon.



22.

Explain the process of translation including ribosomes, start codons and
stop codons.

Naming of the P and A sites
, details of the T factor and
memorization

of actual stop codons are not required.


23.

State that free ribosomes synthesize proteins for use prima
rily within
the cell and that bound ribosomes synthesize proteins primarily for
secretion or for lysosomes.


24.

State that translation consists of initiation, elongation and termination.


25.

Define the terms
degeneracy

and
universal

as they relate to the geneti
c
code.


26.

State that only small portions of the DNA in the nucleus constitute
genes and that the majority consists of repetitive sequences.


27.

State the "one gene
-

one polypeptide" hypothesis.


28.

Give a definition of a gene that applies more generally at the m
olecular
level than the 'one gene
-
one polypeptide' idea.





Mutations and Genetic Engineering Technology

Objectives:

1.

Define
mutation
, and differentiate between a
point mutation
and a
chromosome

mutation.


2.

Discuss the causes and significance of mutations.


3.

Outline the difference between an insertion and a deletion


4.

Explain why mutations in germ cells are more significant than
mutations in somatic cells.


5.

Explain the consequence of a base substitution mutation in relation to
the process of transcription and
translation, using the example of sickle
cell anemia
.

The relationship between the frequency of the sickle cell
allele and the distribution of malaria should be discussed.


6.

State that genetic material can be transferred between species because
the genetic
code is universal.


7.

Describe the function of restriction enzymes (endonucleases) and ligase
enzymes (ligases).



8.

State that PCR (polymerase chain reaction) copies and amplifies minute
quantities of nucleic acid.

Details of methods are not required.


9.

State t
hat gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented
pieces of DNA according to their charge and size
and
is used in DNA
profiling.


10.

Describe two applications of DNA profiling.

Applications could include
paternity suits or criminal investigations (murder or rape) or the
identification of people who died a long time ago (e.g. the dead tsars of
Russia and some Egyptian mummies). The problems caused by
contamination of samples shoul
d be mentioned.


11.

Define
genetic screening

and discuss three advantages and/or
disadvantages of genetic screening. These may include may include
ethical issues, pre
-
natal diagnosis of genetic diseases, immigration
disputes and confirmation of animal pedigre
es


12.

State that the Human Genome Project is an international cooperative
venture established to sequence the complete human genome.

Describe
two possible advantageous outcomes of this project.

It should lead to an
understanding of many genetic diseases, the

development of genome
libraries and the production of gene probes to detect sufferers and
carriers of genetic diseases (e.g. Duchenne muscular dystrophy). It may
also lead to production of pharmaceuticals based on DNA sequences.


13.

Outline a basic technique

used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a
host cell (bacterium, yeast or other cell), restriction enzymes
(endonuclease) and DNA ligase.


14.

The use of
E. coli

in gene technology is well documented. Most of its DNA
is in one circular chromosome but it also has plasmids (smaller circles
of DNA helix). These plasmids can be removed and cleaved by restriction
enzymes at target sequences. DNA fragments from another
organism
can also be cleaved by the same restriction enzyme and these pieces can
be added to the open plasmid and spliced together by ligase. The
recombinant plasmids formed can be inserted into new host cells and
cloned.


15.

State two examples of the current

uses of genetically modified crops or
animals.

Examples include salt tolerance in tomato plants, delayed
ripening in tomatoes, herbicide resistance in crop plants, factor IX
(human blood clotting) in sheep milk.



16.

Discuss the potential benefits and possibl
e harmful effects of one
example of genetic modification.


17.

Some gene transfers are regarded as potentially harmful. A possible
problem exists with the release of genetically engineered organisms in
the environment. These can spread and compete with the nat
urally
occurring varieties. Some of the engineered genes could also cross
species barriers. Benefits include more specific (less random) breeding
than with traditional methods.


18.

Outline the process of gene therapy using a named example.

This
involves repla
cement of defective genes. One method involves the
removal of white blood cells or bone marrow cells and, by means of a
vector, the introduction and insertion of the normal gene into the
chromosome. The cells are replaced in the patient so that the normal
gene can be expressed. Examples are the use in cystic fibrosis and SCID
(a condition of immune deficiency, where the replaced gene allows for
the production of the enzyme ADA

adenosine deaminase). A cure for
thalassemia is also possible.


19.

Define
clone

and
outline a technique for cloning using differentiated
cells.

The method used to clone Dolly the sheep is a good example.


20.

Discuss the ethical issues of cloning in humans.



Mendelian Genetics

Objectives:

1.

Define the following terms:

a)

genetics

b)

heredity

c)

hereditary traits

d)

acquired traits

e)

chromosomes

f)

genes


2.

Define and compare the following terms:

a)

phenotype and genotype

b)

dominant and recessive

c)

homozygous and heterozygous

d)

alleles and genes

e)

purebred and hybrid


3.

Define and use these terms:

a)

parental generation (P
1
)

b)

first filial generation (F
1
)

c)

second filial generation (F
2
)



4.

Use a Punnett square to illustrate a monohybrid cross, and work out the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios expected from such a cross. Express probabilities as fractions and as
percentages.


5.

Explain Mendel's first three laws of heredity:

a.

Law of segregation (First Law)

b.

Law of independent assortment (Second Law)

c.

Dominance

d.

Unit characters (genes)



6.

Explain what is meant by the term "test cross". Design a test cross to determine the
genotype of a
n organism having a dominant phenotype.


7.

Explain Mendel's law of independent assortment.


8.

Use a Punnett square to illustrate a dihybrid cross, and work out the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios expected from such a cross. Express probabilities as fractions
and as
percentages.


9.

Perform an experiment to investigate the relationship between chance and genetic
inheritance.


10.

Perform an investigation to demonstrate the inheritance pattern of a trait controlled by a
single pair of genes or by two pairs of genes.


11.

Explain inheritance by incomplete dominance, codominance, and multiple alleles by using a
Punnett square to illustrate the crosses and work out the genotypic and phenotypic ratios
expected from such crosses. Express probabilities as fractions and as perce
ntages.


12.

Determine the following relationships between alleles by observing phenotype and
genotype ratios:

a)

dominant
-
recessive

b)

co
-
dominant or incompletely dominant

c)

multiples alleles

d)

lethal alleles


13.

Describe the genetic basis for procedures such as selective

breeding, embryo transplants,
and genetic screening.



Chromosomal Basis of Heredity


Objectives:

1.

Explain the chromosome theory.



2.

Describe the pattern of sex determination and distinguish between autosomes and sex
chromosomes.


3.

Explain the inheritance of
sex
-
linked traits.


4.

Use a Punnett square to illustrate a cross involving a sex
-
linked trait, and work out the
genotypic and phenotypic ratios expected from such a cross. Express probabilities as
fractions and as percentages.


5.

Determine relationship betwee
n alleles controlling sex
-
linked traits by observing phenotype
and genotype ratios.


6.

Interpret and illustrate genetic data using pedigree charts.


7.

Describe linked genes and explain the significance of crossing
-
over on genetic
recombination.


Students shoul
d be able to demonstrate the interrelationships among science technology and
society through one of the following:




Evaluating, from a variety of perspectives, the needs and interests of society and the role of
genetic counseling in the identification and
treatment of potentially disabling genetic
disorders. (e.g. PKU, Tay Sachs)



Discussing the role of gene banks used to preserve endangered species and genotypes,
particularly of plants and animals used in agriculture; and the responsibility of society to
p
rotect the environment for future generations.



Discussing biotechnology a
nd gene replacement therapy in the treatment of human genetic
disorders.


Variation and Adaptation


Objectives:


1.

Define the terms
population

and
species
.


2.

Define
adaptation
.


3.

Explain how some variation may be of adaptive value to a species.

Explain how some variation
may be a disadvantage to a species.


4.

Distinguish between inherited and acquired variations.


5.

Describe and give an example of each of the following three categorie
s of adaptation:

a.

structural adaptations

b.

physiological adaptations

c.

behavioral adaptations



Evidence of Evolutionary Change

Objectives:

1.

Define
evolution
.


2.

Describe what a fossil is, and explain how they are dated.


3.

Explain how fossils are evidence of
evolution.


4.

Define embryology, and explain how embryos can be evidence of evolution.


5.

Differentiate between
homologous,

analogous and vestigial structures
. Give examples of each.


6.

Explain how homologous and vestigial structures are evidence of evolution.


7.

Define physiology, and explain how physiological similarities can be evidence of evolution.


8.

Explain how biochemistry can provide evidence of evolution.


9.

Explain how biogeography can provide evidence of evolution.


10.

Explain how homologies on the tree of li
fe can provide evidence of evolution.


Theories and Mechanisms of Evolution

Objectives:

1.

Explain Lamarck's hypothesis of how life evolved by describing his ideas of:

a.

use and disuse

b.

inheritance of acquired characteristics


2.

List and describe the main ideas
that form the basis of Darwin's theory.


3.

Summarize Darwin's theory of natural selection.


4.

Describe Devries' contribution to the modern view of natural selection.

The logic of natural
selection.


5.

Explain how isolation and migration can affect evolution of
a species.


6.

D
efine

adaptive radiation
.

7.

Define
speciation
.


8.

Differentiate between allopatric and sympatric speciation.


9.

Explain how we can see evolution happening now.