# Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

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September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

Pre
-
Lab and Warm
-
Up:

the Pre
-
Lab and Warm
-
up sections of this lab assignment and go
over all exercises in the Pre
-
Lab section before going to your
actual
assigned lab session.

Verification:
The Warm
-
up section of each lab must be completed during

When you have completed a step
and want verification
, sim
ply demonstrate the step to the
instructor.

Lab Report:

It is only necessary to turn in a repo
rt on
Section
s

with

graphs and short
explanations. You are asked to label the
include a title for every plot.
If you
are unsure
instructor
.

1 Pre
-
Lab

In this first week, the Pre
-
Lab will be
easy
. Make sure that you read through the information below
prior to coming to lab.

1.1

Overview

MATLAB will be used extensively in all the labs. The primary goal of this lab is to
get
familiarize
d

with
MATLAB.
Use

the

r
eference

and
i
ntroduction

manuals

as made available on black board

(see course documents:
Matlab stuff
) or
http://www.mbfys.ru.nl/~robvdw/CNP04/MATLAB_STUFF/
.

Here are three specific goals for this lab:

1. Learn basic MATLAB commands and syntax, including the help

system.

2. Learn to write and ed
it your own script files in MATLAB, and run them as commands.

3. Learn a little about advanced programming techniques for MATLAB, i.e., vectorization.

1.2

Getting Started

After logging in,
as '
gas
t
noprint
', go to d:
\
prac
\
matlabR13. Y
ou c
an start

MATLAB by double
-
clicking on a
MATL
AB icon.

When MATLAB has started you'll find yourself in the directory

d:
\
prac
\
matlabR2007a
\
work

Now first make a new directory:

mymatlab

by typing in the
<
Command Window
>

mkdir mymatlab
, fo
llowed by
cd mymatlab
.

You are now in
:

d:
\
prac
\
matlabR13
R2007a
\
work
\
mymatlab

.

This will be the directory in which you will create your own files and figures
.

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

Now it's time to exte
nd the path of M
atlab. You will have to include in the current path you
r new
directory, as well as the custom routines that have been prepared f
or this course. These routines,
with which you can create elementary auditory stimuli are found

on the network harddisk
D
.

They will be found in the directory:
d:
\
prac
\
matlabR2007
a
\
CNP04.
A
dd this directory to your
<Matlab
path
>
. You can add directories to your
<Matlab
path
>

with the file menu in the window in
the top
-

Store all files that you have made on your own USB stick
or other medium of your own.

NOTE:

When you shut off the computer all these settings are lost,

and the disk is entirely erased. NOTHING will be stored!!!

1.3

Introduction to Matlab

The following steps will introduce you to MATLAB.

(a)

View the MATLAB introduction by typing intro at t
he MATLAB prompt. This short
introduction will demonstrate some of the basics of using MATLAB.

(b)

Run the MATLAB help desk by typing helpdesk. The help desk provides a hypertext
interface to the MATLAB documentation. The MATLAB preferences can be set to use

Internet Explorer as the browser for help. Two links of interest are Getting Help (at the
bottom of the right
-
hand frame), and Getting Started which is under MATLAB in the left
-
hand frame.

(c)

Explore the MATLAB help capability available at the command lin
e. Try the following:

help

help plot

help colon %<
---
a VERY IMPORTANT notation

help ops

help zeros

help ones

lookfor filter %<
---
keyword search

help matlab/general
-

General purpose commands.

help matlab/ops

-

Operators and special characters.

h
elp matlab/lang

-

Programming language constructs.

help matlab/elmat

-

Elementary matrices and matrix manipulation.

NOTE: it is possible to force MATLAB to display only one screen
-
full of information at once
by issuing the command
more
on
).

(d)

Run the MAT
LAB demos:
type

demo

and explore a variety of basic MATLAB
commands and plots.

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

(e)

Use MATLAB as a calculator. Try the following:

pi*pi
-
10

sin(pi/4)

ans ˆ 2 %<
---
"ans" holds the last result

(f)

Do variable name assignment in MATLAB. Try the following:

x

= sin( pi/5 );

cos( pi/5 ) %<
---
assigned to what?

y=sqrt(1
-
x*x )

ans

2

Warm_up

2.1

MATLAB Array Indexing

(a)

Make sure that you understand the colon notation.

Jkl = 0 : 6

Jkl = 2 : 4 : 17

Jkl = 99 :
-
1 : 88

Ttt = 2 : (1/9) : 4

Ttt = Ttt’

tpi = pi * [

0:0.1:2 ];

(b)

Extracting and/or inserting numbers into a vector is very easy to do. Consider the following
definition of xx:

xx = [ zeros(1,3), linspace(0,1,5), ones(1,4) ]

xx(4:6)

size(xx)

length(xx)

xx(2:2:length(xx))

Explain the results echoed
from the last four lines of the above code.

(c)

Observe the result of the following assignments:

yy = xx; yy(4:6) = pi*(1:3)

Now write a statement that will take the vector xx defined in part (b) and replace the even
indexed elements (i.e., xx(2), xx(4)
, etc) with
0.
Use a vector replacement, not a loop.

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

2.2

MATLAB Script Files

(a)

Experiment with vectors in MATLAB. Think of the vector as a set of numbers. Try the
following:

xk = cos( pi*(0:11)/4 ) %<
---
comment: compute cosines

Explain how the differ
ent values of cosine are stored in the vector xk. What is xk(1)? Is
xk(0)

defined?

NOTE
: the semicolon at the end of a statement will suppress the echo to the screen. The
text following the %is a comment; it may be omitted.

(b)

(A taste of vectorization)
Loops can be written in MATLAB, but they are NOT the most
efficient way to get things done. It’s better to always avoid loops and use the colon
notation instead. The following code has a loop that computes values of the cosine
function. (The index of yy()
must start at 1.) Rewrite this computation without using the
loop (follow the style in the previous part).

yy = [ ]; %<
---
initialize the yy vector to be empty

for k=
-
5:5

yy(k+6) = cos( k*pi/3 )

end

yy

Explain why it is necessary to write
yy(k+6
)
. What happens if you use yy(k)instead?

(c)

Plotting is easy in MATLAB. The basic plot command will plot a vector y

versus a vector
connecting successive points by straight lines. Try the following:

x=[
-
3
-
1 013];

y = x.*x
-
3*x;

plot(x, y );

Use
help ar
ith

to learn how the operation xx.*xx works when xx is a vector;
compare to matrix multiply.

(d)

Use the built
-
in MATLA
B editor (on Windows
-
95/98/NT)
to create a script file called
mylab1.mcontaining the following lines:

tt=
-
1: 0.01: 1;

xx =
sin
( 5*pi*tt
);

zz =
cos
( 5*pi*tt );

plot( tt, xx, ’b
-
’, tt, zz
, ’r
--
’ ), grid on

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

%<
---
plot a sinusoid

title(’TEST PLOT of a SINUSOID’)

xlabel(’TIME (sec)’)

What is the

phase and amplitude
and frequency of xx
? Make a

calculation of the phase
from a time
-
sh
ift measured on the plot.
Also the command
’hold on’
is useful when
plotting several functions within the same plot.

(e)

Run your script from MATLAB. To run the file mylab1that you created previously, try

mylab1

%<
---
will run the commands in the file

typ
e mylab1

%<
---
will type out the contents of

%
<
---
mylab1.m to the screen

3

Manipulating Sinusoids with MATLAB

3.1

Create a pure tone.

The exercises in this section involve sound signals, so you should bring headphones to the lab for
listening.

(a)

Run the
MATLAB sound demo by typing

xpsound

at the

MATLAB prompt. If you
are unable to hear

the sounds in the MATLAB demo then ask an instructor for help.

When unsure about a command, use help.

(b)

Now generate a tone (i.e., a sinusoid) in MATLAB and listen to it

with the
soundsc()

command.

The first two lines of code in part 2.2(d) create a vector xx
of values of a 2.5 Hz
sinusoid.

The frequency of your sinusoidal tone should be 2000 Hz and its duration should be 0.9
sec. Use a sampling rate (
F
s
)

equal to 11025

[
samples

/

sec
]
.

The sampling rate dictates the time interval between time points, so the time
-
vector
should be defined as follows:

t = 0:(1/F
s):dur;

where
fs

is the desired sampling rate a
nd
D
ur

is the desired duration [in seconds]
.
help

for both
sound
()
and
soundsc()

using this command. What is the length (number of samples) of your
tt

vector?

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

3.2

Display Sinusoids
.

Include a short summary of this Section
with plots in your Lab report.
Write a MATLAB scrip
t

file to
do steps (a) through (
i
) below. Include a listing of the script file with your report.

(a)

Graphically display a sinusoid (i.e., “pure tone”) from
T
1,
-
10 [msec]
,

up to
T
2,
90
[msec]
.
Use a sampling frequency,
Fs
,
of 4000 Hz. Give the
formulas that c
ompute

(1)
the sample time
T
, (2) the duration,
Dur
, and (3) the length of the single,
L

(i.e.,
number of samples).
Notice that
T1

and
T2

are given in [msec].

Now it should be
possible to generate a time vector,
tt
,

to cover the range
-
10 to 90 msec with a

interval
T
.

(b)

Make a plot of a sinus function as a fat
(‘linewidth’, 2)

red line
(‘r
-
‘)
, with
a frequency of 150 Hz, a phase of
pi/6

and an amplitude of 1.5, running from
-
10 to
+90 ms.

How many cycles do you expect to see.

(c)

Provide the correct x
-
label and

y
-
label and title texts to the

figure.

(d)

Keep the figure
(type 'hold on')
, and now plot another sinus function as a fat
green line, with a frequency of 80 Hz, a phase of
pi/3

and amplitude 0.6

(e)

Make a plot, in the same figure, of the sum of the two previou
s sinusoids in black.

(f)

Create a

program (name this program:
twosines_2a.m
) that implements the plots of
the previous exercise, but now for an arbitrary time axis (from 'start' to 'end', in ms, but
your time array will be sampled at 50 kHz, i.e. at 20 micro
second intervals), for arbitrary
frequencies ('f1' and 'f2'), amplitudes ('A1' and 'A2'), and phases (‘p1’, and ‘p2’). These
values are given as inputs to the function. Make some obvious input error checks like:
end should be greater than start, and f1 and

f2 should be greater than zero).

(g)

Same program as in [a] (
twosines_2b.m
), but now the three plots are displayed as
different sub
-
plots within the same figure.

(h)

S
ame as in [g
], but you store the three sine waves as 'wav files', and at the end of the
progr
am they are played over the headphones.

For this, you can use the M
atlab routine
playsound.m

(i)

S
ame as in [h
],
(
twosines_2c
.m
),
but you create a simple loop in which the user is
asked to type in the necessary parameter values one by one:

start, end, f1, pha
se1, f2,
phase2, A1 and A2

hint: you want to use the
INPUT

comman
d
(
use
help

to learn
on
how to use it)
.

Also the

eval

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

%%First enter the parameters of the problem: we're sampling 4000 times per time
unit (probably a second) = Fs
(sampling frequency)

%%so each time sample covers 1/4000 of a second = T

%%the length of the entire signal that we have to look at is 1000 samples

%%we make a time vector that has an entry for each time sample in the whole
signal time
--
so goes from 0 to t
he (signal length
-

1)

%%(because we're starting to count from zero instead of 1) and has total time
samples number of entries (which should equal the length

%%which are listed in time units (so here, fraction of a second)

%%%%%% THE CODE

Fs = 4000;

% Sampling frequency

T = 1/Fs; % Sample time

Dur = 0.100; % Sample duration

L = Dur/T; % Length of signal

t = (0:L
-
1)*T; % Time vector

t_msec=(t*1000)
-
10;

%convert time vector in msec starting at
-
10 msec

% Now we're going to create an idealized signal, which is composed of two parts

% 150 Hz sinusoid at 1.5 amplitude and phase pi/6

% and

% 80 Hz sinusoid at 0.6 amplitude and phase pi/3

% as a f
unction of time.

%Create the signal and take a look at its components (in the firstwindows) and the summed whole
signal.

x1 = 0.6 * sin( 2 * pi * 150 * t + pi/6 );

x2 = 0.6 * sin( 2 * pi * 80 * t + pi/3 );

x1x2=x1+x2;

figure('NumberTitle','off');

plot(t_msec,x1,'r
-
','LineWidth',2);

hold on;

plot(t_msec,x2,'b
-
','LineWidth',2);

plot(t_msec,x1x2,'k
-
','LineWidth',2);

axis([
-
10 90
-
2 2]);

xlabel('Time [msec]','Fontsize',13);

set(gca,'YT
ick',[
-
2:.5:2],'YTickLabel',…

{'
-
2.0','1.5','1.0','0.5','0.0','+0.5','+1.0','+1.5','+2.0'})

ylabel('Amplitude [a.u.]','Fontsize',13);

set(gca,'FontName','Arial','FontSize',13,'LineWidth',2);

grid

%%

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

%%

close all

clear all

clf

A1=1.5;

A2=0.6;

F1=500;

% Frequency in Hz

F2=600; % Frequency in Hz

P1=pi/6;

P2=pi/3;

T1=10; % start time in msec

T2=50; % end time in msec

%%First enter the parameters of the problem: we're sampling 4000 times per time unit (probably a
second) = Fs (sampli
ng frequency)

%%so each time sample covers 1/4000 of a second = T

%%the length of the entire signal that we have to look at is 1000 samples

%%we make a time vector that has an entry for each time sample in the whole signal time
--
so goes
from 0 to the (sig
nal length
-

1)

%%(because we're starting to count from zero instead of 1) and has total time samples number of
entries (which should equal the length

%%which are listed in time units (so here, fraction of a second)

Fs = 8000; %
Sampling frequency in Hz

T = 1 / Fs; % Sample time

Dur = abs(T1
-
T2) / 1000; % Signal duration

L = Dur / T; % Length of signal

t = (0:L
-
1) * T; % Time vector

t_msec=(t*1000)+T1;

%convert time vector in msec starting at
-
10 msec

% Now we're going to create an idealized signal, which is composed of two parts

% F1 freq sinusoid at A1 amplitude and phase P1

% and

% F1 freq sinusoid at A2 amplitude and phase P2

% as a func
tion of time in msec.

% Now create the summed whole (black) and display its components (red & blue).

x1 = A1 * sin( 2 * pi * F1 * t + P1 );

x2 = A2 * sin( 2 * pi * F2 * t + P2 );

x1x2 = x1 + x2;

x=[x1' x2' x1x2'];

fig_title=[ 'pure ton
e at ' num2str(F1)

'pure tone at ' num2str(F2)

'Sum of two tones'];

figure('NumberTitle','off');

for i=1:1:3

subplot(3,1,i)

hold off;

h=plot(t_msec,x(:,i)','
-
','LineWidt
h',2);

if(i==1)

set(h,'Color',[1,0,0])

elseif(i==2)

set(h,'Color',[0,0,1])

elseif(i==3)

set(h,'Color',[0,0,0])

end

title(fig_tit
le(i,:),'FontName','Arial','FontSize',13);

Amp_range=abs(max(x1x2)
-
min(x1x2))*0.1; % calulates 10% of the summed amplitude range

axis([T1 T2 min(x1x2)
-
Amp_range max(x1x2)+Amp_range]);

xlabel('Time [msec]','Fontsize',13);

ylabel('Amplitude [a.u.]','Fontsize',13);

set(gca,'FontName','Arial','FontSize',13,'LineWidth',2);

grid

end

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

%%

close all

clear all

clf

cd 'E:
\
PROJECTS2007
\
COLLEGE_2007
\
PRACTICA_AUDITORY_PERCEPTION
\
CNPA04
\
'

% F1 = input('enter F
1 ');

% P1 = input('enter P1 ');

% P1 = pi/P1;

%

% F2 = input('enter F2 ');

% P2 = input('enter P2 ');

% P1 = pi/P2;

%

% A1 = input('enter A1 ');

% A2 = input('enter A2 ');

%

% T1 = input('enter T1 ');

% T2 = input('enter T2 ');

for i=1:1:2

e
val(['F' num2str(i) '= input(''enter F' num2str(i) ' '')']);

eval(['P' num2str(i) '= input(''enter P' num2str(i) ' '')']);

eval(['A' num2str(i) '= input(''enter A' num2str(i) ' '')']);

eval(['T' num2str(i) '= input(''enter T' num2str(i) ' '
')']);

end

% A1=0.4;

% A2=0.6;

% F1=500; % Frequency in Hz

% F2=600; % Frequency in Hz

% P1=pi/6;

% P2=pi/3;

% T1=0; % start time in msec

% T2=2000; % end time in msec

%%First enter the parameters of the problem: we're sampli
ng 4000 times per time unit (probably a
second) = Fs (sampling frequency)

%%so each time sample covers 1/4000 of a second = T

%%the length of the entire signal that we have to look at is 1000 samples

%%we make a time vector that has an entry for each time

sample in the whole signal time
--
so goes
from 0 to the (signal length
-

1)

%%(because we're starting to count from zero instead of 1) and has total time samples number of
entries (which should equal the length

%%which are listed in time units (so here, f
raction of a second)

Fs = 8000; % Sampling frequency in Hz

T = 1 / Fs; % Sample time

Dur = abs(T1
-
T2) / 1000; % Signal duration

L = Dur / T; % Length of signal

t = (0:L
-
1
) * T; % Time vector in sec

t_msec=(t*1000)+T1; %convert time vector in msec starting at
-
10 msec

% Now we're going to create an idealized signal, which is composed of two parts

% F1 freq sinusoid at A1 amplitude and phase P1

% and

% F1 freq sinusoid at A2 amplitude and phase P2

% as a function of time in msec.

% Now create the summed whole (black) and display its components (red & blue).

x1 = A1 * sin( 2 * pi * F1 * t + P1 );

x2 = A2 * sin( 2 * pi * F2 * t +
P2 );

September 11, 2007

Lab 01: Introduction to MATLAB / SOUND

x1x2 = x1 + x2;

x=[x1' x2' x1x2'];

figure('NumberTitle','off');

for i=1:1:3

subplot(3,1,i)

hold off;

h=plot(t_msec,x(:,i)','
-
','LineWidth',2);

if(i==1)

set(h,
'Color',[1,0,0])

elseif(i==2)

set(h,'Color',[0,0,1])

elseif(i==3)

set(h,'Color',[0,0,0])

end

Amp_range=abs(max(x1x2)
-
min(x1x2))*0.1; % calulates 10% o
f the summed amplitude range

axis([T1 T2 min(x1x2)
-
Amp_range max(x1x2)+Amp_range]);

xlabel('Time [msec]','Fontsize',13);

ylabel('Amplitude [a.u.]','Fontsize',13);

set(gca,'FontName','Arial','FontSize',13,'LineWidth',2);

grid

end

%% PLAY SOUND

clc

sound(x1,Fs,16);

sound(x2,Fs,16);

sound(x1x2,Fs,16);

%% CREATE 32 BIT WAV FILE with Normalized Amplitude

clc

wavwrite(x1,Fs,32,[ num2str(F1) 'Hz' ]);

wavwrite(x2,Fs,32,[ num2str(F2) 'Hz' ]);

wavwrite(x1x2,
Fs,32,[ num2str(F1) '
-
' num2str(F2) 'Hz' ]);