Environment Management - yimg.com

advertisementhumphManagement

Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

71 views






SYMMS 2009
-
2010

2010

Environment Management

Significance of
environment management



Broad outline of
National Environment


Policy definition of
Environment with
particular reference to
management

Presented by

ROLL
NUMBERS


13, 14, 15, 16, 17 &

18.

Environmental management

Environmental management
is

the management of interaction by the modern human societies
with, and impact upon the environment. The three main issues that affect managers are those
involving politics (networking), programs (projects) and resources (money, facilities, etc.). The
need f
or environmental management can be viewed from a variety of perspectives.
Environmental management is therefore not the conservation of the environment solely for the
environment's sake, but rather the conservation of the environment for humankind's sake.

Environmental management involves the management of all components of the bio
-
physical
environment, both living (biotic) and non
-
living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and
network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats
. The environment also
involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic
environment with the bio
-
physical environment.

As with all management functions, effective management tools, standards and systems are
req
uired. An 'environmental management standard or system or protocol attempts to reduce
environmental impact as measured by some objective criteria. The ISO 14001 standard is the
most widely used standard for environmental risk management and is closely alig
ned to the
European Eco
-
Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS).

Scope of Environment:
The environment consists of four segments as under:

1.
Atmosphere:
The atmosphere implies the protective blanket of gases,

surrounding the earth:

(
a
) It sustains life on the
earth

(
b
) It saves it from the hostile environment of outer space.

(
c
)
It absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space and a major portion of the

electromagnetic radiation from the sun.

(
d
) It transmits only here ultraviolet, visible, near infrared rad
iation (300 to 2500

nm) and radio
waves. (0.14 to 40 m) while filtering out tissue
-
damaging
ultraviolet
waves below about 300 nm.


The atmosphere is c
omposed of nitrogen and oxygen b
esides, argon, carbon dioxide,

and trace
gases.


2.
Hydrosphere:
The Hydro
sphere comprises all types of water resource
s like

oceans, seas,
lakes, rivers, streams, reservoirs, polar icecaps, glaciers, and ground water.


(
i
)

Nearly

97% of the earth’s water supply is in the oceans,

(
ii
) About 2% of the water resources is

locked in the polar icecaps and glaciers.

(
iii
)Only about 1% is available as fresh surface water
-
rivers, lakes streams, and ground water fit
to be used for human consumption and other uses.


3.
Lithosphere:
Lithosphere is the outer mantle of the solid ear
th. It consists of minerals
occurring in the earth’s crusts and the soil
e.g.
minerals, organic matter, air and water.


4.
Biosphere:
Biosphere indicates the realm of living organisms and their interactions with
environment, viz atmosphere, hydrosphere and

lithosphere.


Element of Environment:

Environment is constituted by the interacting systems of physical,
biological and cultural elements inter
-
related in various ways, individually as well as
collectively. These elements may be explained as under:


(1)
Physical elements: Physical elements are as space, landforms, water bodies, climate soils,
rocks and minerals. They determine the variable character of the human habitat, its opportunities
as well as limitations.

(2) Biological elements: Biological element
s such as plants, animals, microorganisms and men
constitute the biosphere.

(3) Cultural elements: Cultural elements such as economic, social and political elements are
essentially manmade features, which make cultural milieu.


Importance of Environmental
M
anag
e
ment
:
The environment management

enlightens

us,
about the importance of protection and conservation of our indiscriminate release of pollution
into the environment.


At present a great number of environment issues, have grown in size and complexity d
ay by day,
threatening the survival of mankind on earth. Environment studies have become significant for
the following reasons:


1.

Environment Issues Being of International Importance:
It has been well recognized
that environment issues like global warming
and ozone

depletion, acid rain, marine
pollution and biodiversity are not merely national issues but are

global issues and hence
must be tackled with international efforts and cooperation.

2.

Problems Cropped in The Wake of Development:
Development, in its wa
ke gave birth
to Urbanization, Industrial Growth, Transportation Systems, Agriculture and Housing etc.
However, it has become phased out in the developed world. The North, to cleanse their
own environment
has

fact fully, managed to move ‘dirty’ factories o
f South. When the
West developed, it did so perhaps in ignorance of the environmental impact of its
activities. Evidently such a path is neither practicable nor desirable, even if developing
world follows that.

3.

Explosively Increase in Pollution:

16 per cen
t of the world's population and only 2.4 per
cent of its land area, there is a heavy pressure on the natural resources including land.
Agricultural experts have recognized

health problems like deficiency of micronutrients
and organic matter, soil salinity
and damage of soil structure.

4.

Need for An Alternative Solution:
It is essential, specially for developing countries to
find alternative paths to an alternative goal. We need a goal as under:

(1) A goal, which ultimately is the true goal of development an e
nvironmentally sound
and sustainable development.

(2) A goal common to all citizens of our earth.

(3) A goal distant from the developing world in the manner it is from the over
-
consuming

wasteful societies of the “developed” world.

5.

Need
to

Save Humanity
From Extinction:
It is incumbent upon us to save the humanity
from
extinction
. Consequent to our activities constricting the environment and depleting
the biosphere, in the name of development.

6.

Need For Wise Planning of Development:

Resources
, processing a
nd use of the product
have all to by synchronized with the ecological cycles in any plan of development
. O
ur
actions should be planned ecologically for the sustenance of the environment and
development.

7.

Misra’s Report:
Misra (1991) recognized four basic pr
inciples of ecology, as under:

(
i
) Holism

(
ii
) Ecosystem

(
iii
) Succession

(
iv
) Conversation.

Holism has been considered as the real base of ecology. In hierarchical levels at which

interacting units of ecology are discussed, are as under:

Individual<popula
tion<community<ecosystem<biome<biosphere.


Misra (1991) has recognized four basic requirements of environmental management as

u
nder
:

(
i
) Impact of human activities on the environment,

(
ii
) Value system,

(
iii
) Plan and design for sustainable development,

(
iv
) Environment education.

Keeping in view the of goal of planning for environmentally sustainable development
India contributed to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED), also referred to as “Ea
rth Summit” held at Rio de Jane
i
ro, the Capital of
Brazil, 3rd
-
14th June, 1992.


Need for public awareness:
It is essential to make the public aware of the formidable
consequences of the

Environmental Degradation, if not retorted and reformative measures
undertaken, would

result in the
extinction of life. We are facing various environmental
challenges. It is essential

to get the country acquainted with these challenges so that their acts
may be eco
-
friendly.

Some of these challenges are as under:


1. Growing Population

A population of ov
er thousands of millions is growing at 2.11 per cent every year. Over 17
million people are added each year. It puts considerable pressure on its natural resources and
reduces the gains of development. Hence, the greatest challenge before us is to limit th
e
population growth. Although population control does automatically lead to development, yet the
development leads to a decrease in population growth rates. For this
,

development of the women
is essential.


2. Poverty

India has often been described a rich
land with poor people. The poverty and environmental
degradation have a nexus between them. The vast majority of our people are
directly dependent
on the natural

resources of the country for their basic needs of food, fuel shelter and fodder.
About 40% of our people are still below the poverty line. Environment degradation has adversely
affected the poor who depend upon the resources of their immediate surrounding
s. Thus, the
challenge of poverty and the challenge environment degradation are two facets of the same
challenge. The population growth is essentially a function of poverty. Because, to the very poor,
every child is an earner and helper and global concerns

have little relevance for him.


3. Agricultural Growth

The people must be acquainted with the methods to sustain and increase agricultural growth with
damaging the environment. High yielding varieties have caused soil salinity and damage to
physical struc
ture of soil.


4. Need to Ground water

It is essential of rationalizing the use of groundwater. Factors like community wastes, industrial
effluents and chemical fertilizers and pesticides have polluted our surface water and affected
quality of the groundwa
ter. It is essential to restore the water quality of our rivers and other water
bodies as lakes is an important challenge.
F
inding

suitable strategies for consecration of water,
provision of safe drinking water and keeping water bodies clean which are diff
icult challenges is
essential.


5. Development
and

Forests

Forests serve catchments for the rivers. With increasing demand of water, plan to harness the
mighty river through large irrigation projects were made. Certainly, these would submerge
forests; disp
lace local people, damage flora and fauna. As such, the dams on the river Narmada,
Bhagirathi and elsewhere have become areas of political and scientific debate. Forests in India
have been shrinking for several centuries owing to pressures of agriculture a
nd other uses. Vast
areas that were once green, stand today as wastelands. These areas are to be brought back under
vegetative cover. The tribal communities inhabiting forests respects the trees and birds and
animal that gives them sustenance. We must reco
gnize the role of these people in restoring and
conserving forests. The modern knowledge and
skills of the forest dep
t. should be integrated
with the traditional knowledge and experience of the local communities. The strategies for the
joint management of
forests should be evolved in a well planned way.


6. Degradation of Land

At present out of the total 329 mha of land, only 266 mha possess any potential for production.
Of this, 143 mha is agricultural land nearly and 85
suffer

from varying degrees of soil

degradation. Of the remaining 123 mha, 40 are completely unproductive. The remaining 83 mha
is classified as forest land, of which over half is denuded to various degrees. Nearly 406 million
head of livestock have to be supported on 13 mha, or less than 4

per cent of the land classified as
pasture land, most of which is overgrazed. Thus, our of 226 mha, about 175 mha or 66 per cent is
degraded to varying degrees. Water and wind erosion causes furthe
r degradation of almost 150
mha.
This degradation is to be

avoided.


7. Reorientation of Institutions

The people should be roused to orient institutions, attitudes and infrastructures, to suit conditions
and needs today. The change has to be brought in keeping in view India’s traditions for resources
use
managements and education etc. Change should be brought in education, in attitudes, in
administrative procedures and in institutions. Because it affects way people view technology
resources and development.

8. Reduction of Genetic Diversity

Proper measures

to conserve genetic diversity need to be taken. At present most wild genetic
stocks have been disappearing from nature. Wilding including the Asiatic Lion are facing
problem of loss of genetic diversity. The protected areas network like sanctuaries, natio
nal parks,
biosphere reserves are isolating populations. So, they are decreasing changes of one group
breeding with another. Remedial steps are to be taken to check decreasing genetic diversity.


9. Evil Consequences of
Urbanization

Nearly 27 per cent Indians live in urban areas.
Urbanization

and
industrialization

has given birth
to a great number of environmental
problems

that need urgent attention. Over 30 percent of
urban Indians live in slums. Out of India’s 3,245 towns and cities
, only 21 have partial or full
sewerage and treatment facilities. Hence, coping with rapid urbanization is a major challenge.


10. Air and water Population

Majority of our industrial plants are using outdated and population technologies and makeshift
facil
ities devoid of any provision of treating their wastes. A great number of cities and industrial
areas that have been identified as the worst in terms of air and water pollution. Acts are enforced
in the country, but their implement is not so easy. The reas
on is their implementation needs great
resources, technical expertise, political and social will. Again the people are to be made aware of
these rules. Their support is indispensable to implement these rules.


Environment Management at HCL


1.

HCL's E
-
Waste M
anagement initiative

Waste of Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE) has been a subject of concern globally and
nationally. WEEE is a commonly used name, whic
h refers to all end
-
of
-
life
products. In India,
the establishment of state of the art recycling
facilities for e
-
waste is still at a nascent stage. HCL
Infosystems believes that the producers of electronic goods are responsible for facilitating an
environmental friendly disposal, once the product has reached the end of its life. HCL
Infosystems suppo
rts the ongoing initiative for separate e
-
waste legislation in India.


Recognizing the need to minimize the hazardous impact of e
-
waste on the environment, HCL
Infosystems Limited as the country's premier information enabling and integration company has
fo
rmulated a comprehensive programme for the recovery and recycling of WEEE in an
environmentally safe manner. HCL has been working on an easy, convenient and safe
program
me for recycling of e
-
waste in I
ndia.

Key Objectives:

The key objective of HCL's 'E
-
Wa
ste Policy' aims at provi
ding efficient and easy product
recovery options to its consumers to facilitate responsible product retirement of all i
ts
manufactured EEE products. The key o
bjectives of the policy include



Product design:



Th
e
y

have taken appropriate care in, designing and production of products that facilitate
dismantling and recovery/reuse.

Separate collection/Recovery:



HCL extends the recycling facility to its users regardless of the fact, when and where they
purchased the p
roduct.



HCL has created the online process of e
-
waste recycling request registration, where
customers (both individual and corporate ) can register their requests for disposal of their
e
-
waste



HCL assures to all its customers that the entire process of r
ecycling/disposal of WEEE
will be carried out by an authorized recycling agency.

To improve the efficiency of the WEEE recycling system HCL has adopted the following
options



Increasing the number of collection points in co
-
ordination with the recyclers



H
elp
-
desk for answering queries related to WEEE



Online facilitation of e
-
waste disposal



Increasing customer awareness on E
-
Waste recycling and participation of our valued
customers through take
-
back schemes for old computers.

Customer awareness and informa
tion:



In all the products shipped, HCL includes the e
-
waste related FAQs and contact details of
all its e
-
waste collection
centers.



HCL assures transparent and effective goal setting and customer awareness for E
-
Waste
management programmes
. Include: what are the goals for e
-
waste management?



In all its user meets, HCL shares the e
-
waste management details with its customers



Apart from corporate customers, HCL has extended its e
-
waste collection program to
retail customers also through its
HCL Touch spread points spread across the country
.

2.

Importance of Environment Management System (EMS)

An Environment Management System (EMS) is a tool for managing the impacts of an
organization's activities on the environment. It provides a structured appr
oach to planning and
implementing environment protection measures.

HCL has a well defined environment management policy that

we proudly refer to as HCL
ecos
afe.
HCL is the first company in the country to be ISO14001 compliant
. International
Standard Organi
zation has laid down certain compliance guidelines before a manufacturer
qualifies as ISO14001.



International Environmental Standards
-

ISO 14001

ISO 14001 is a collection of voluntary standards that assists organizations to achieve
environmental gains t
hrough the implementation of effective environmental management. The
standards provide both a model for streamlining environmental management, and guidelines to
ensure environmental issues are considered in an effective manner to safeguard the interests of

all stakeholders involved namely the manufactures, the consumers and recyclers.

HCL, under its ecosafe Policy assures its customers to work with an aim to meet the
following commitment always and every time:

Environmental Compliance
:

To meet all environm
ental requirements, as well as the spirit and
intent of those requirements.



Pollution Prevention
: To reduce or avoid pollution associated with the materials, processes, and
practices associated with manufacturing/product operations.

Continuous Improveme
nt
: To enhance and ensure sustainability of the environmental
management system through assessments, goals and objectives, management review and
communication.


Any supply of polythene cover for packing any materials shipped to HCL should be greater
than 2
0 microns
.











Environmental Management:

Administrative functions that develop, implement, and monitor the environmental
policy of an organization.

Environmental management

is not, as the phrase could suggest, the management of
the

environment

as
such, but rather the management of interaction by the modern
human societies with, and impact upon the

environment. The three main issues that
affect managers are those involving politics (networking), programs (projects) and
resources (money, facilities,
etc.). The need for environmental management can be
viewed from a variety of perspectives. A more common philosophy and impetus behind
environmental management is the concept of

carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying
capacity refers to the maximum number
of organisms a particular resource can sustain.
The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has
its roots in

Malthusian

theory. Environmental management is therefore not the
conservation of the environment solely for
the environment's sake, but rather the
conservation of the environment for humankind's sake.

This element of sustainable
exploitation, getting the most out of natural assets, is visible in the EU

Water Framework
Directive.

Environmental management involves

the management of all components of the bio
-
physical environment, both living (biotic) and non
-
living (abiotic). This is due to the
interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their
habitats. The environment also involves th
e relationships of the human environment,
such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the bio
-
physical
environment.

As with all management functions, effective management tools, standards and systems
are required. An 'environmental managemen
t standard or system or protocol attempts
to reduce
environmental impact

as measured by some objective criteria. The

ISO
14001

standard is the most widely used standard for environmental

risk
management

and is closely aligned to the European

Eco
-
Management

and Audit
Scheme (EMAS). As a common auditing standard, the

ISO 19011

standard explains
how to combine this with

quality management.

Other

environmental management systems (EMS
)

tend to be based on the ISO 14001
standard and many extend it in various ways
:



The Green Dragon Environmental Management Standard

is a five level EMS
designed for smaller organisations for whom ISO 14001 may be too onerous and for
larger organisations who wish to implement ISO 14001 in a more manageable step
-
by
-
step approach



BS 855
5 is a phased standard that can help smaller companies move to ISO 14001
in six manageable steps



The Natural Step

focuses on basic

sustainability

criteria and helps
focus

engineering

on reducing use of materials or energy use that is unsustainable
in the
long term



US Environmental Protection Agency

has many further terms and standards that it
defines as appropriate to large
-
scale EMS



The

UN

and

World Bank

has encouraged adopting a "
natural capital
" measurement
and management framework.



The

European Union

Eco
-
Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

Other strategies exist that rely on making simple distinctions rather than building top
-
down management "systems" using

performance audits

and

full cost accounting
. For
instance,
Ecological Intelligent Design

divides products into

consumables,

service
products

or durables and

unsaleables

-

toxic products that no one should buy, or in
many cases, do not realize they are buying. By eliminating the unsaleables from
the

comprehensive outcome

of any purchase, better environmental management is
achieved without "systems".

Recent successful cases

have put forward the notion of "Integrated Management". It
shares a wider approach and stresses out the importance of interdisciplinary
assessment. It is an interesting notion that might not be adaptable to all cases.

"Today's businesses must comply with
many Federal, State and local environmental
laws, rules, and
regulations
. It's vital to safeguard your company against compliance
short
-
cuts. This approach leaves you vulnerable to violations of the law, in addition to
missing important environmental liabi
lities.


Tripti and Suraj

Environmental policy

From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia

Environmental policy is any [course of] action deliberately taken [or not taken] to manage
human activities with a view to prevent, reduce, or mitigate harmful effects on
nature and natural
resources, and ensuring that man
-
made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects
on humans.

Definition

It is useful to consider that environmental policy comprises two major terms: environment and
policy. Environment primaril
y refers to the ecological dimension (ecosystems), but can also take
account of social dimension (quality of life) and an economic dimension (resource management).
Policy can be defined as a "course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a governmen
t,
party, business or individual". Thus, environmental policy focuses on problems arising from
human impact on the environment, which retroacts onto human society by having a (negative)
impact on human values such as good health or the 'clean and green' en
vironment.

Environmental issues generally addressed by environmental policy include (but are not limited
to) air and water pollution, waste management, ecosystem management, biodiversity protection,
and the protection of natural resources, wildlife and
endangered species. Relatively recently,
environmental policy has also attended to the communication of environmental issues.

Rationale

The rationale for governmental involvement in the environment is market failure in the form of
externalities, including
the free rider problem and the tragedy of the commons. An example of an
externality is a factory that engages in water pollution in a river. The cost of such action is paid
by society
-
at
-
large, when they must clean the water before drinking it and is exter
nal to the costs
of the factory. The free rider problem is when the private marginal cost of taking action to
protect the environment is greater than the private marginal benefit, but the social marginal cost
is less than the social marginal benefit. The t
ragedy of the commons is the problem that, because
no one person owns the commons, each individual has an incentive to utilize common resources
as much as possible. Without governmental involvement, the commons is overused. Examples of
tragedies of the com
mon are overfishing and overgrazing. Environmental policy instruments


Environmental policy instruments are tools used by governments to implement their
environmental policies. Governments may use a number of different types of instruments. For
example, ec
onomic incentives and market
-
based instruments such as taxes and tax exemptions,
tradable permits, and fees can be very effective to encourage compliance with environmental
policy.

Voluntary measures, such as bilateral agreements negotiated between the go
vernment and private
firms and commitments made by firms independent of government pressure, are other
instruments used in environmental policy. Another instrument is the implementation of greener
public purchasing programs.

Often, several instruments are
combined in an instrument mix formulated to address a certain
environmental problem. Since environmental issues often have many different aspects, several
policy instruments may be needed to adequately address each one. Furthermore, instrument
mixes may al
low firms greater flexibility in finding ways to comply with government policy
while reducing the uncertainty in the cost of doing so. However, instrument mixes must be
carefully formulated so that the individual measures within them do not undermine each
other or
create a rigid and cost
-
ineffective compliance framework. Also, overlapping instruments lead to
unnecessary administrative costs, making implementation of environmental policies more costly
than necessary. In order to help governments realize thei
r environmental policy goals, the OECD
Environment Directorate studies and collects data on the efficiency of the environmental
instruments governments use to achieve their goals as well as their consequences for other
policies. The site www.economicinstru
ments.com serves as a complementary database detailing
countries' experience with the application of instruments for environmental policy.

The current reliance on a market based framework is controversial; however, with many
prominent environmentalists arg
uing that a more radical, overarching, approach is needed than a
set of specific initiatives, to deal coherently with the scale of the climate change challenge. For
an example of the problems, energy efficiency measures may actually increase energy
consump
tion in the absence of a cap on fossil fuel use, as people might drive more efficient cars
further and they might sell better. Thus, for example, Aubrey Meyer calls for a 'framework based
market' of contraction and convergence examples of which are ideas s
uch as the recent Cap and
Share and 'Sky Trust' proposals.




Harsh

10 Ways to Make Your Business Environmentally

Friendly

Green Business is good for the Bottom

Line

By

Susan Ward, About.com Guide

Operating a green business is not only good for the
environment but good for your business's
bottom line because conserving resources and cutting down on waste saves money. The good
news is that whether you run a home
-
based business or an off
-
site enterprise, there are simple
things you can do to run an env
ironmentally friendly business.

Recycling is the first thing that comes to mind when we think of being environmentally friendly.
And recycling is important. But recycling is only one part of the environmentally friendly
business equation. We can also take
a large step towards being more environmentally friendly by
reducing the amounts of waste in our offices and business operations.

Here are just ten easy
-
to
-
implement ideas for running a green business from the Department of
Foreign Affairs and Internationa
l Trade's Greening Operations guides that you can put into
practice right now to make your office a more environmentally friendly place:

1.

Turn off equipment

when it's not being used. This can reduce the energy used by 25 percent;
turning off the computer
s at the end of the day can save an additional 50 percent.

2.

Encourage communications by email
, and read email messages onscreen to determine
whether it's necessary to print them. If it's not, don't!

3.

Reduce fax
-
related paper waste

by using a fax
-
modem
and by using a fax cover sheet only
when necessary. Fax
-
modems allow documents to be sent directly from a computer, without
requiring a printed hard copy.

4.

Produce double
-
sided documents

whenever possible.

5.

Do not leave taps dripping
; always close them

tightly after use. (One drop wasted per second
wastes 10,000 litres per year.)

6.

Install displacement toilet dams in toilet reservoirs.

Placing one or two plastic containers
filled with stones [not bricks] in the toilet's reservoir will displace about 4
litres of water per
flush
-

a huge reduction of water use over the course of a year.

7.

Find a supply of paper with maximum available recycled content.

8.

Choose suppliers who take back packaging for reuse.

9.

Instigate an ongoing search for "greener" prod
ucts and services in the local
community.

The further your supplies or service providers have to travel, the more energy will
be used to get them to you.

10. Before deciding whether you need to purchase new office furniture,

see if your existing
office fur
niture can be refurbished.

It's less expensive than buying new and better for the
environment.

Environmentally friendly actions don't have to be large to have an impact. Consistently reducing
the amount of energy, water, and paper our businesses use can
make a huge difference, both to
the environment and to our pocketbooks. How much paper would you save over the course of a
year, for instance, if you

always

ran
double sided

copies? A small thing
-

but a big result!