Ecology of Ukraine

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Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Ecology of Ukraine

Ecology of Ukraine

2


Introduction









3

Assessment

of

Environmental

Management

in

Ukraine





11

Environmental Impact on
Population Health







15


Influence of Various Factors on Environment and Health of the Population

A
tmosphere








16

Graphs
:



Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the air





17


Emission dynamics

of pollutants into the

the air
(1990
-
2012
)”








18


Water Sources and Drinking Water








21

Graphs
:


Volume of
w
ater taken from natural water bodies”






26


The use of fresh water









27


Capacity of treatment facilities









28


Total
of wastewater disposal









29


Separation of wastewater









30










Ecological Problems of the Black and Azov Seas






31

L
and Resources








35

Soil Contamination








3
7

Waste Management








41

Graphs:


Major waste indicators









45


Waste

Disposal









46

Treatment of Radioactive Waste








47

Treatment of Waste from Uranium
-
Mining Industry






48

Treatment of Waste from Nuclear Power Plants






49

Treatment of Radioactive Waste from other Sectors






51

Energy Policy and Environmental Safety








5
3

Use of International Investments

And

Technical Assistance








58

Potential for International and National Programs

In

Environmental Sector of Ukraine








60



СONTENT

3


Tender conditions. General information.








64

Instructions

for tender procedures participants
:






66


1. Information about the tender procedure







66

2. Participant’s obligation to inform the customer of his intention

To

participate in
tender









66

3. Registration of tender offers








67

4. The list

of documents to be provided by Member of the tender procedure


67

5. The minimum allowable term for a tender offer






68

6. Pricing of

tender offer









68

7. Currency of tender offer









69

8. Language of tender offer









69

9. How to apply
for explanation








69

10. Changes or withdrawal of tender offers by participants





70

1
1. Conditions for submission of
tender offer






70

12. Opening of
tender offers









71

13. Review and evaluation of tender offers







72

14. Terms of
tender offer rejection








73

15. Terms of cancellation of
tender procedure, or its recognition as non
-
valid


74

16
. Contract conclusion about
purchase







75

17. The Customer's right to demand t
he winning party to confirm
accordance

Of the
price to
the average market price







76

18. Essential conditions of
Contract








77

19. Other Information










78

Appendixes:

Appendix 1.Information about required technical, quality and quantitative

Characteristics of the purchase








79

Appendix 2.
List of the documents required to confirm compliance of

Participant and Participant’s tender offer with Tender conditions




80

Appendix 3. Form for “Price Offer”








81

Appendix 4. Form for “Estimate prices of services”






82

Appendix 5. List of cri
teria and methods that are used in evaluation of tender offers

83

Appendix 6. Form for ”Information about Participant’





84

4



INTRODUCTION

.


Ukraine has a high level of negative impact on environment caused by
industrial activities. Therefore, the
issue of environmental protection and
rational use of natural resources is very important
.
Further

development

of

productive forces is inevetable related with increased use of natural resource
and burden on environment.

This

presentation

will

review

the

concept

of

environmental

issues

and

their

reason, as well as characteristics of regional environmental problems.

Based on this study, the ways how to overcome the environmental challenges
will be identified, and the potential for collaboration in solving t
hese problems
will be discussed.







5



Ukraine is a home to the most distinctive na
tural resources and environment

in
Europe.

To
protect

life
-
supporting nature systems and improve

quality of life and
health among
the
population of Ukraine
,

effective environment protection and
proper management of natural resources

should be implemented
. For the past years
as a result of insufficient environmental management
,

the number of man
-
made
and natural catastrophes has grown
which

significantly
deter
iorated
the
health
condition among the population

of
Ukraine. Currently, the entire region of Ukraine
makes up 40% of eroded land
,

and

grows annually at about 80,000 hectares. At the
same time, Ukra
ine has
numerous natural
resources
.


One of the major U
kra
inian
natural

assets is
its
soil. It is widely acknowledged for its great
fertility and outstanding agricultural
characteristics.

Currently
,
17% the total land
area of
60

million hectares

is occupied by
forests and 72%
are

in use of agriculture.
6


Nevertheless, Ukraine is
considered

as one of the countries with significant land
deterioration in its region.




Ukraine participated in 19 international
protocols and conventions on environment

protection

issues that indicate its vigilance
about the current environmental situation
inside the country and its willingness to
resolve them.
Usually, t
his participation

is

organized in multisided way that allows the
country

to take part at the international
negot
iation processes

and
to have an active position in attracting financial
endorsement to solve incisive ecological problems

of the
country such as:



p
rotection of biological diversity



p
rotection of various water
resources
: rivers, sea, lakes



c
limate change



p
ollution c
ontrol



w
aste management



human impact on environment.

The sole genuine way for Ukraine to solve
environmental calamities and
to
prevent
ecological disasters is to be a

party
of

such
agreements and conventions
,

and cooperat
e

with more developed countries in the a
rea of
environmental protection.

7


Ecosystem
protection

approach

is a
primary

principle and distinguishing characteristic
for
a
steady

development

of the country

and
its
ability to

solv
e

the problems on
the

global,
reg
ional, national and local

levels
.
Ecosystem
approach
creates rather
respectable,

vigilant
and frugal
fundamental values

than
consumer
approach

towards natural resources
.

T
he
unsustainable patterns in production,
consumption and life
-
activity

are being eliminated b
ased on the ecosystem

approach. The values of ecosystem become

a subject
for the benefit of present and
future

generations.

A prospective to

withdraw

from traditional strategy

of natural resources
consumer
utilization
requires:



chang
e

of

society
behavior

with natural resources



development of new

environment protection

concepts




modification of

methodology
in

assessing the role and importance
of
ecosystems i
n human life.

A c
ost approach

to natural resourc
e
s

dominates

in administration
of
environment,
ecosystems and

natural resources

use

in Ukraine
.
The i
ntegrated
value

of

nature as
a
vital component

for

human
existence
is not

conscious
ly comprehended by

Ukrainian
society.
The evidence of this unawareness
is
revealed by the
absence of
na
tional strategy for sustainable
development of in
tegrated assessments of natural
potential and non
-
existence of any
specific programs

to strengthen the

foundations

of

environment
and human

life
in it.

Ecological

audit

conducts

environmental po
licy and admi
nistration

as a tool of
ecosystem approach
. T
he Law on Environmental Audit

has been
adopted

in
8


Ukraine
. However, multi
-
function
ed

environment
al

audit
is
not reg
imented,

and
therefore
it is not
implemented in
to

the practice of

industries, corporation
management

and state
administration.


Ukraine has joined to the major international conventions

on environmental
protection
.
Several legislations on national and state programs were approved in
Ukraine for 2000
-
2015

such as
the National Pro
gram of Toxic W
aste Management,
the National Program for Protection and Rehabilitation of Black and Azov Seas,
the National Program for Environmental Restoration of Dnepr Basin and Quality
Improvement of Drinking Water, the National Program for Development of
National Ec
ological Network.

9


Realization
of specific programs

was

organized

with

international assistance.

However, their implementation wa
s
suspended due to political
factors. These
factors

did not

allow

forming

a coherent
national system
of
environmental
management with effective methods
to attract

investment
s
,
provide
efficient
economic and
ecological

incentive
s,

and
evenly
distribut
e

responsibility
among

the state
and society
.
Ukraine has a tremendous need for
environment protection

system
.

Potential of ecosystem in

the country is deplet
ing

due to
the
excessive usage and consumer attitude.
Current
misbalance

among the
function
s of natural resources usage
and its reproduction led to the large
-
scale
destructive processes that create a serious
threat to the human health and society
development.

Th
e
agricultural land takes 72% of the
country, of which arable land accounts
for 56
%.

The area of

eroded lands is
estimated at 49%
of

the
total resources

of
agricultural

land. The area of flooded

land
s
is

estimated for about
13
million
hectares (32% of farmland). The total
area of land used for waste

accumulation

(dumps, waste banks,
storage
s for slag
and garbage
) consists
of mor
e than 160
hectares.
Annually
,
400 tons of waste

is
produced by
one person
.

In general, the national ecosystem of Ukraine is unde
r

the

10


great anthropogenic pressure t
hat make
s environment to be adverse to
its
reproduction and

weaken its

assimilative functions.

Water
basins of the count
ry are in critical state due to:



overregulation of river flows



pollution
of natural water basins
by sewage




infringement of ecosystem support

for

groundwat
er objects



violations in regulation of water system

supply
.

Forests in

Ukraine

represent

17
%

of its

territory, and

this is less tha
n favorable
level of 20
-
22%
.

The current state of
natural landscapes only partially meets
the criteria to be a part of the European
Ecological Network.


Ukraine
has a
great potential

in raw
-
material base
, which
can enhance
not
only
the

further develop
ment
of

economy, but also

restore

the national
pote
ntial of su
stainab
le growth

and

create secure environment

for
society.

Ukraine is
locat
ed

on

the crossroads
of
many natural ecosystems,
migration

animal
passes
and
plant distribution
.

These
factors allow the c
ountry

to account for
approximately 35% of European biodiversity
, while covering only 6% of the total
area
.

F
our natural ecosystems

were formed on the relatively small territory of Ukraine
:
forest, forest
-
prairie, prairie and sea. Ukraine is characterized
with unique presence
of prairie ecosystem and power
ful aquatic ecosystem of Dnepr River

with its great
variety of natural landscapes.

11



However
,
Ukraine has its negative sides as well
. The major of them are
represented by
:



global extent of
Chernobyl cat
astr
ophe




radioactive contamination of the forest and forest
-
prairie zones




massi
ve violations against ecosystem

and natural landscapes.

An unambiguous understanding of ecosystem approach is required

from the

state
institutions,
local
officials, and society

as a whole

to put into

practice
governmental planning and administration
of

the national development
in

environmental sector
.








12



The
National Environmental M
anagement system ha
s not

been

formed yet as an
integral environmental
body

in Ukraine
.
Functions and responsibilities

for
environment
protection
are

defined by the Law of Ukraine on Environment
Protection
. The weakened accountability

for contamination actions

of the

major
land owners
was caused by the state monopoliz
ation of environmental liabilities
.

Currently, national environmental management system is not legally defined an
d
its complex assessment is

fragmented.
The major concepts in environmental
management are represented by

Ukrainian legislation

as
:




environmental safety and health



revival of ecological balance



pollution prevention of ecosystem



interaction
harmonization
between society and nature.

As it has to be noted
, the concepts are not oriented
on protection of the
env
ironment, but rather on the harm prevention and eco
-
recovery
.

Management

of the water resources in

Ukraine has

implemented

its legal
framework and restrictions.

Economic mechanism in this area has been deterred
Assessment of Environmental Management System in
Ukraine

13


because of the defective system of funding
t
hat

is
completely dependent on the government of the
country
.

T
he law of Ukraine

on
Protection

of the
Environment

defines environmental management
as
administration

of
the community unions

in

the
field of environmental
pr
eservation

with a set of
relevant authorities
.
Environmental management
in the corporate sector is not explicitly stated and
its compliance is not mandatory by the fixed law
or policy, though

the

State

Standards Series


Guide
lines for Environmental
Control”

were
rat
ified

in
Ukraine.
The
administrating concept of governing
authorities has to define joint responsibilities

between
the
society and
state

to
harmonize the usage of natural resources
.
Additionally, e
nvironmental protection
should be
come

a
priority for th
e
public and

local
communities.

In 1998, Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) of Ukraine defined basic

directions of
the
state policy in the field of
environmental protection,

natural
resources

utilization

and e
nvironment
al
s
afety. These regulations
no longer
meet

new environmental requirements
and

should be

updated in accordance
with

the

international limitation
s and
policies
.
By creating n
ew national
environmental policy
,
Ukraine can

demonstrate its

commitment and
readiness

to deal with

the

climate change
.

Also,
it has

to
organize an adequate
14


control of biodiversity extinction
,
prevent

desertification,
put into use and follow

environmental requirements and mechanisms
proclaimed and accepted during
international eco
-
conventions and summits.

The main obstacle on th
e way of
systematic implementation of
sustainable development principles
stands uncertain

management
of the

key
ministries:
the Ministry of
Environmental Protection of Ukraine
(
major
component of sustainable
environment protection
), the Ministry
of Economy

and the Minis
try of Labor
and Social policy. In 2003,

the

National
Council
for

Sustainable
Environment
Development

was

established
under
the
mandate of the

President of Ukraine,
but
it
has
never

officially

had a

meeting.

The administrative infrastructure
functions of the Ministr
y of Environmental
Protection in Ukraine
include
regional
administrations
and specialized
departments
of eco
-
control which are all

limited by
the applicable law and the l
aw of Ukraine
on

Environment Protection
.
The law
is not adapte
d to the European environmental
legislation and does not meet principles of sustainable development.

The practical

application of this

law is very weak

in Ukraine
.

This

causes the main
problem
in the environmental

regulation due to
inadequate
functioning of the
legal
governance

and regulatory mechanisms. The current administrative and
institutional
i
nfrastructure
of the e
nvironmental
state
management is largely
centralized with
replication

of

the

functions
on

the regional and local levels. This

often leads to conflict
s

and irresponsibility.

15



The functions of economic incentives are not
-

sufficiently developed. For this
reason, m
ajor industry
poll
uters

are not forced

to change
contaminating
techn
olog
ies

to environmentally

safe and do not comply
with environmental
requirements
.
An economic mechanism that
governs protection

of
e
nvironment
al

and
n
atural
resources is

not very effective, although
there are
rece
nt improvements
to some extent
.
Deficient p
ricing

system

and
erroneous

application of econom
ic
mechanisms

are

t
he
key

problem
s

of

unstable

economic condition of
environmental sector
.
Ignorance of pricing

mechanisms

leads to poor

environment.
T
he current economic incentives
are incapable of

compelling the

polluters

to
change the
ir

production model
s as the market

need
s

are not accounted
and this
leads

to an inefficient allocation of
funds
.






16



The major
integral indicator of civilized
society and social
-
economic development of
the country is the
population
health.
One

of the
most influential factors on the population’s
health is
denaturalized environment
.
In
Ukraine, t
he
deterioration
of

demographic
and
health

indicators among

the population

is
caused by the social
-
economic and e
cological
distress
. This

distress is related

to the high
level of environmental
contamination as a

result of exposed harmful

factors created by chemical, biological and physical
activities.

Despite
of
such anxious tendency in the
health sector, creation of new system for
assessment

of interrelation between

the
population

health

and quality
of
environment

occurs in a very sluggish

manner
. The most influential ecological
indicators on the person’s health can be
extracted from the demographic data on
illnesses and disabilitie
s. Existent situation
requires fast transition from the passive
observation to the dynamic actions
by
stabilizing health of the population and
forming better
ecological conditions.

Environmental Impact on Population Health

17




Atmosphere


An existin
g enormous industrial potential

on a relati
vely small territory of Ukraine

became a major polluter by exposing harmful substances in the atmosphere.
T
he
number of chronic diseases

constantly increases

among the population of Ukraine
.

The
infringement of protecti
ve functions of the human body

leads to creation of
new
diseases
.

Increased population mortality and great number of illnesses
are

more

obvious in the cities with metallurgical industries where
the quality of the
clean air is very low
.

Also, in the cities with a high level of contamination
,

population suffers
from tuberculosis, diseases of cardiovascular and nervous
systems, illness of airways and malignancies. Th
ose

and many other diseases
excee
d the level of illnesses by

20
-
40% than in the areas with low industry
concentration.

Children suffer from this contamination the most. Their bodies are
particularly
sensitive to the adverse allergenic
and
mutagenic effects created by
polluted environment.

The growth of immunodeficiency is
another

reason

that
causes

increasing level of infectious diseases.




Influence of Various Factors on Environment and Health of
the Population


760

989

830

700

567

530

466

455

444

436

440

452

435

477

471

523

515

641

642

562

603

663

634

2782

2537

2376

2194

1715

1639

1292

1132

1023

1026

976

983

1023

1034

975

1119

1333

1313

1290

1235

1206

1333

1399

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide into the Air, thousand meter tons

Emission volume of Nitrogen
Oxide
Emission volume of Dioxide
19


15549

14315

12269

10015

8347

7483

6342

5966

6040

5853

5908

6049

6101

6191

6325

6615

7027

7380

7210

6442

6678

6877

6821

0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Emmision Dynamics of Pollutants into the Air
(1990
-
2012)
, thousand metric tons

Emission volume of
pollutants


C
arcinogenic
and
chemical mutagenic
pollutants

of soil, air
and water

exceeds
hygienic standards

in
Ukraine
.


The major indicators of environmental contamination by carcinogens
presented by
:



formations of the large geo
-
chemical polluted areas created by out
-
dated
heavy industries that were operating on the limited territor
y for a long period
of time




saturation

of carcinogens

to the
life
-
necessary sources
of human existence
(water, air, food)



e
mission

of great number of carcinogens

in the wastewater d
ischarges and
air



accumulation

of hazardous waste.


21


The

ways to decrease det
rimental influence of atmospheric

pollution

are based on
:




regulation of emission amount

and its

compl
iance

with
the national and
international
requirement
s

for the clean
air




organiz
ation of

efficient
control
on

distribution of concentr
ated
contaminants





constant

ass
ess
ment

of

population
health

in relation with the air
contamination
.



22


Water S
ources and
Drinking Water


Ukraine has the
largest

water resources among
the
European countries
.

But it

still occupies the last
place on

water supply
,

and
water resources
pollution
is more intense than in other European countries
.

Today

the problem of drinking water remains
extremely relevant

in the country
.
The distribution
of water resources across

the
country is very
uneven. There are more

water resources

in the north
and less in the sout
h
where the biggest water
consumers are located.

The water resources are
essential for population.

Technologi
es of water purification and

wastewater treatment plants

remain
without
noticeable changes, while the
pollution

of almost all surface
waters come

close to
the
third

contamination
level.

The critical ecological condition of water resources
is enhanced by the industries that use water
-
intensive technologies in production
process.

Most

of the population
in
Ukraine is
supplied
by the drinking water with

significant departures from

accepted
norm
s
. Water is indispensible product
for the human life and consumption of
contaminated water leads to non
-
infectious and infectious diseases with
serious consequences. The problem is
greatly exacerbated
by the

current
purification
technologies
that widel
y
use chlo
rine for the water sanitization.

This
23


approach

creates
in drinking water a great amount of toxic chlorine organic
compounds
that
have
dangerous carcinogenic and
cumulative effects

on
human body
. In some parts
of the country, deterioration
of underground artesian
waters is detected.
Nevertheless, t
hey are used
for the centralized water
supply without any prior
purification
treatment
.


The problem

of water consumption

among
the
rural population is

caused by the use
of

groundwater

for drinking. This water is filled with chemical pollutants
(pesticides, mineral fertilizers and nitrates) and widespread bacteria.





24


Only one fifth of the villages
have con
structed

centralized
water supply.

Al
most half of
them
have been in

prolonged
and excessive
use that
work
s

with malfunctions and cannot
provide drinking water of
necessary quality.
T
he
inhabitants of 1228 settlements in fourteen regions of Ukraine are forced partially
or entirely buy imported

water

as the w
ater
supply system was debilitated

because
of the man
-
made and natural damage
s
.
As a result of urbanization the problem of
groundwater is complicated by a
large amount of waste waters
being accumulated
in it.

In collective farms and private

sectors
, the
excessive use of nitrates
and fertilizers
greatly contaminate
groundwater
. It should be noted

that
currently

there are no

effective methods

for
removing nitrates

from
water

in
Ukrainian
decentralized water supply

system
. There

are
obvious
reason
s

to

make
a
conclusion

that Ukraine has

unsatisfactory supply of
drinking water
.

The quality
of drinking water has

great

25


non
-
compliance with regulatory norms

and

initiates a large amount of
infectious
(
dysentery, hepatitis A, cholera
) and non
-
infecti
ous diseases (illnesses of digestive
system,

cardiovas
cular and endocrine systems
)

among the population
.


Water supply network is extremely inhabited by

infectious disease
s

which

have

distinctive
pathogens characteristics
.

The

outdated
purification technologies
became

un
able to extract
them
fro
m water.
It

becomes harder to
see the
differ
ence

between

non
-
pathogenic and
pathogenic
viruses and bacteria because o
nce discovered and
well
-
know bacteria

before

at some point

become
adjusted to the ozone, chlorine and
other disinfectants.

Extremely unsatisfactory conditions of
deteriorated water supply networks
significantly affect the quality of
drinking water. In some regions, the
deterioration

of hygiene norms

in

the
water

supply networks reach
about
70
%. An intense contamination of
drinking water by pathogens
of
infectious diseases
is caused by

the
strict
schedule of water supply

and
frequent

disconnect
ion of the
networks

from the power systems
that

support them.


26



In the

Southern part of Ukraine, the incidence of gastrointestinal tract diseases
(gallstones, gastritis, urolithiasis) increases. The reason for this occurrence is a
high degree of salinity in drinking water.





In the recent years, an alternative
w
ater
supply through the
packaged

water became
very
widespread among the population.
The
re is a

lack of modern
technologies in the process of
preparing this water for drinking
.

De
ficiency of required normative
documentation for realization of
this product leads
to that packaged
water on market very often has
lower quality than water from
tap

and
it
does not
respond to

the
quality indicators of hygienic
standards.










35615

34905

32461

24380

29499

25852

23477

21091

19027

19748

18282

17577

16299

15039

14694

15083

15327

16352

15729

14478

14846

14651

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Volume of Water Taken from Natural Water Bodies, million cubic meters

28






30201

28206

26924

24521

23468

20338

18668

15623

13836

14825

12991

12168

11589

11034

9973

10188

10245

10995

10265

9513

9817

10086

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
The Use of Fresh Water, million cubic meters

29





8131

7937

8854

8134

8775

8419

8281

8271

8284

8018

7992

7790

7546

7733

7740

7688

8104

7768

7518

7581

7425

7687

6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

The Capacity of Treatment Facilities, million cubic meters

30





20261

19126

17872

16650

15869

14981

13998

12534

11040

11488

10964

10569

10005

9459

9065

8900

8824

8917

8655

7692

8141

8044

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Total of Wastewater Disposal, million cubic meters

31






Separation of W
astewater
,

million cubic meters

3318

2532

3207

2611

2075

1936

2304

1798

1644

1743

2100

2188

2111

1946

1492

1315

1304

1245

1357

1711

1760

1763

470

701

951

1196

1053

912

980

763

813

748

758

746

782

804

758

896

1427

1506

616

270

312

309

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
purified according with the norms
without treatment

Black and Azov seas
situated considerably

far
from the
Ocean
.
The volume

of
the
water
-
catchment

pool

is much higher than
the area of the
seas
. This

factor

has
led
to their extreme sensitivity to the effects of human activity.
In the recent decades
have occurred major environmental problems:



massive

pollut
ion of marine shelf

by
toxins



abrasion
of the
coast

line



loss

of biod
ive
rsity and
fishery resources



significant
decrease

of recreational resources
.



Intensive economic development and unsustainable use of nature led to significant
environmental load on the ecosystem of the Black and Azov Seas.


The

past 30 years

have
resulted in signi
ficant changes in the natural state of the
marine environment influenced by different contaminating factors:



Excessive amount of pollution in marine ecosystem than it can assimilate



Influx

of abnormal biological species to the sea environment



Use

of natural marine resources that exceeds their natural potential

Ecological Problems of the Black and Azov Seas

33




Utilization

of environmentally harmful technologies
that applied for
extract
ing of

marine resources



Pollution by
transportation and handling of sea cargo
s on the sea.



Microbiological
contamination of coastal waters

by

sewage

from

utilities



Wave erosion leads to the spread of dangerous geological processes
along
the coast



Annihilating influence on the sea environment is caused by the dredging and
hydro mechanical works in the territor
ial waters of the Black Sea.

The most sensitive to
anthropogenic impact
is
the coastal
line of the Black and Azov Seas
, especially in the
areas
of seaports
,
river

estuarine
and
areas that located close to
the big cities
.

Also, the coastal part of the Blac
k Sea is
greatly polluted by the local enterprises which

discharg
e
production waste
in

the sea.


Another problem of the coastline is erosion. In Ukraine, around 2,600 km of the
coastline is destroyed by erosion and flushing. This destruction leads to the
reduction
of areas

for urban planning and tourism development
,

and has
detrimental effect on the
coastal ecosystem.

The u
ntreated release of
the sewage to the
Black
Sea

damages marine
environment. For instance,
in Balaclava every day ten
thousand cubic meters of
wastewater

is released to
34


the Black Sea
.
The s
ewer network does not meet the standards
of operation
because a lot of sewage comes to the Black Sea when
collector
s are out of order.
Also, many treatment facilities operate inefficiently and do not cope with the
regulatory norms of the wastewater treatment.

Another

important factor that leads

to marine pollution is dumping of ballast water which always has
oil produc
ts
, iron
and chemical substances

in it
.

The concentration of toxic metals in the sediments of the Black Sea does not cause
a concern.
T
here is increased concentration of the mercury

only in some areas
. The
degree of
sediments
contamination
with lead, zinc and copper does not
exceed the
second level of
contamination standards
. Most of the

basins are

characterized as a pure or
semi
-
pure soil

by the content of these
metals
.

Problems of the Black Sea require
amplified
attention for

their
solutions
.

The extent and complexity
of the problems of ecosystem
degradation of
the
Black and Azov
seas are beyond the boundaries of individual coastal states.


The Azov Sea

suffers

from

huge
anthropogenic load

and

is
in
state of active
ecological
catastrophe

because of its very specific geographic and environmental
characteristics
.
It should have its own
strategic plan for protection and recovery,
and appropriate environmental fund

for this should be established
.

The s
trategic d
irections for the protection and restoration of the
Black and Azov
seas
marine environment
were

adopted

by the s
tate program
s

in Ukraine
.

The
35


programs

ha
ve

been

developed by
the Ministry

of Environment

Protection

for the participation of
interested m
inist
ries and agencies,
academies

and NGOs.
The
programs and projects were only

partially

implemented
due to the
lack of clear
c
oordination, strict
control and
funding.

Threatening
development of
degradation

pr
ocesses in this region continue to

reduce

its sea
biological reserves,
increase
amount of
contamination and

level of environmental hazard
.

Primary

goals of the
program
s

to improve environmental situation in the region of
Black and Azov seas are
:



flow

redu
ction of contaminated

waters to the sea



preservation

of b
iological resources of the sea



restoration of biological diversity



control

of
the

coastline

environment




sustainable use
of
natural
sea resources



recovery of the
contaminated sea basin
caused
by
burial

of hazardous
substances
.






36



The

land
re
sources
of Ukraine

are the largest in Europe. Crop lands occupy
approximately 56% of the territory.
However, the

sustainable development and
use of them is
influenced

by various factors:



microclimate change as a result of
forest, meadows and pastures area
reduction



level change of ground water



activation of drying and

desertification
processes



development of erosion caused by the
impact of water and wind results in degradation of soil fertility



productivity reduction of agr
icultural ecosystem
.


The structure of

the
land
re
sources

is characterized
by high

index of agricultural
development
.

The

level of cultivated lands
exceeds ecological limits.

A considerable amount of Ukrainian land
resources has unsurpassed economic and
environmental characteristics. These include the
unique foundations of
the
black earth, and 60% of
which

is
used
in arable lands. However, they are
the
most affected by erosion
and require careful
control.

Land Resources

37


Ecological and agrochemical condition of the arable land is systematically
deteriorated by profound
ecological disproportion in the
balance of major nutrients. The
Law of Return, a natural
scientific theory of
reproduction
soil fertility and
partial manifestation of general
conservation of

natural

substances

in it
, was violated in
agricultural sector for many
decades

in Ukraine
. The failure to comply with this natural law resulted in soil
environment acidification, depletion

of topsoil

and its

organic substances
,
and
exhaustion

of nutrients

in arable lands that
keeps

progressing
.


There is a tendency of diminishing soil fertility due

to the catastrophic use
reduction of organic fertilizers and activation of
various
degradation processes
.
Also, the land
re
sources
are
greatly polluted

by

radionuclide,
heavy metals an
d

pesticides.
Activated

exogenous processes
such as shifts

and

land flooding
noticeably worsen the condition
of
soil
. Currently, the situation
of land
re
so
urces

is close to
critical in Ukraine.



38




The main reasons for contamination of the soil by chemical substances are:



N
on
-
compliance
and

violations of
the rules about the storage of
pesticides,


mineral and
organic
fertilizers




Contamination

of the air by
different groups of xenobiotics
produced by industrial emissions

and

vehicles
.



O
ver 8
million hectares of the land,
including 3.5 million hectares of arable land
are

contaminated by radionuclide as a
result of Chernobyl catastrophe. In general, Ukraine does not have unpolluted soil,
only the levels of degradation can fluctuate.

Biological soil contamination by bacteria becomes
a reason of spreading infectious
and para
sitic diseases because of:



a
ccidents on sewer networks



a
bsence

of
sufficient
sewage

system

in
greatly

populated areas



a
ccumulation of rainwater and silt
in the soil
due to insufficient performance
of rain sewage



concealed burying of waste from animal farms
.

At first, variety of xenobiotics gets

into the
soil, and then by natural ways to the
human body. Depending on the biological and chemical properties of xenobiotics,
amount absorbed and

ability of the human body adapt
to them
the
human body

Soil Contamination

39


becomes

endang
ered by various diseases such as hepatitis, cardio
-
, nephro
-

and
encephalopathy, tumors.

The

contamination of
environment produces not
only direct impact on
human health, but also
indirect

impact

after

environmental balance in

the

nature was
changes
.
Interaction of various
radionuclide and
microorganisms can result in genetic mutation, stimulation of biota development
and depletion of biomes, as microorganisms are the first to react to the biosphere
pollution. Also, they can be involved in the transi
t of radionuclide from
soil

to

the
plants
.

This process can
activate

the
pathogens of

different anthropogenic
infections

which

can
exist in the soil
.

Various wastes are
the most
significant

pollutants

in

soil

environment
.

Mostly
r
esidents of the cities
are concerned
about the solid waste which is one
of the most important ecological
issues for them.

T
here are many
pesticides, nitrates, harmful
compounds and pathogens of
infectious diseases

in the solid
waste
.

The number of waste from
households is steadi
ly increasing.
40


The
contamination
effects

as a

result
of inappropriate
waste dumping are not
immediate
,

but they will appear in drinking water and soil

after several years
.

A
ppropriate infrastructure and secure funding for waste management
has

not

been

established. After
the
solid waste

was burned
, the
acquired
energy is
put into use.



Though, it
can be
efficiently
used
by other industrial enterprises or
waste

can be
sorted and processed.

The most dangerous chemical and
biological characteristics
have

livestock waste
.

It contains a
number of
organic
substances t
hat
indicates their bacterial
contamination
and presence

of
pathogenic microorganism
(Staphylococcus,
Salmonel
l
a).

Pathogenic agents of infectious and parasitic diseases
from

toxic ingredients pose a
real danger and adverse effects for human health in the areas of waste
accumulation
as a result of
:



l
ong
-
term stay of different toxic substances in the environment



l
ow level of waste processing technology



merger

of different type
s of waste that makes
it

even more dangerous.






41




Current

situation of waste accumulat
ion is very alarming in Ukraine. D
espite
reduction of waste production

by industries, the situation
is not improving.

T
he
s
anitary requirements are not met

in the places of waste accumulation
.
Environment is

contaminate
d

by unorganized waste
and

surface storages.
I
ndustrial waste that contains variety of toxic substances being dumped with the
solid waste, and this only complicates an existing problem
of

wast
e
management
.


42



The problems related to
the
waste creation and
their treatments are

very essential
for Ukraine today. Natural

resources

are

intensive
ly

use
d.

Such approach

does not
comply with the principles of sustainable development, and consequently leads to
the

mineral and

feedstock depletion
.

Irrational use of natural
resources, outdated
technologies and
deficient operation of
recycling sector results
in formation of l
arge
amounts of waste and
elimination of big land
areas for its storage.
Inadequate storage and
accumulation of waste,
in particular toxic,
becomes a source of
negative impact on people health and
quality of the natural
re
sources
.

With
the
high rates of
waste accumulation, the use of recycled mate
rials remains at
the same level.

Only a
bout 40% of waste from all industries is

used

second time.
This data is hard to analyze

as the industries mainly
do

not
use
recycle
d waste

that

is formed during production c
ycle.
Such
exploitation
of production
waste created
hu
ndreds of small and medium

size anthropogenic

deposits with various
minerals
that are suitable for

further

industrial development and use.

Waste Management

43


S
mall fees for waste disposal, lack
of attention to the issue
and society
unawareness of the problem
constrains prompt solution of
existing problems.

V
ery few
enterprises work according
ly

to the
norms of International Organization
for Standardization (ISO).
Thermal

power plants and other industries do
not have decont
amination
equipment
that
neutralize or use oxides of nitrogen and sulfur gas emissions. The
low compensation for the waste placing and storage does not stimulate waste
processing and implementation of measures for waste utilization

in society
.

There is no

progress in pesticides disposal.

Occasionally,
appears

different kind of

poisoning
among the population
caused by
imprope
r
supervision

of temporary waste storages
.

There are no

funds and
infrastructure for
removal

of
chemicals

from waste
. Majority
of chem
ical

waste

storages

are

in despair. Usually,
the

storage
s

are
situated in destroyed or not
suitable for
this purpose
building

without definite owner
who would be responsible for
this. In Ukraine, there are approximately 109 storages for obsole
te pesticides

and
44


agrochemicals

and about 5000
storages in agricultural
enterpri
ses. In total
,

approximately twenty two
thousand ton of accumulated
waste

is stored
.

Annually, in Ukrainian cities
and towns produced big amount
of municipal solid waste, which is transported to municipal landfills. Most of
the
landfills

are filled up to 90%, do not comply with norms of environmental safety
and significantly contaminate gr
oundwater and air. None of these landfills are
equipped with special waterpro
of structures,
protective dams or walls
,

and
does not
have
drainage channels or drainage pipe system.

Annually, it has been
created 3.3
thousand of illegal dumps

in private sector

due to the deficiency of waste
collection system
. Only 2% of municipal solid waste is recycled at two incineration
plants. They
were built many years
ago

and do not meet modern
requirements for environment
protection.

H
ousehold and industrial waste is
pla
ced together

at the vast majority of
waste processing objects
. Partial
separation or previous selection of
the
waste is carried out only on some
objects
.
Besides the usual
waste ingredients

like paper packa
ging materials, plastic
and
glass, also

is

increas
ing the number of used electrical

supplies

and batteries
.

45


They
can
contain
toxic

substances

and have to be separated before the beginning of
recycling process
.





Another problem is

introduced

by the waste from health sector, which is creating
environmental hazard for environment and society.

Quantity of this waste is

not
very big,

but it has to be completely removed and disposed. There is an urgent task
for waste management to treat

the waste
from

veterinary, medicine, animal,
husbandry and poultry
sectors, in order to

prevent the spread of infectious diseases
and their transfer from animals to humans.







4956

3563

3151

3161

2454

2820

2613

2543

1728

2436

2420

2412

2371

2585

2301

1230

419192

447641

2133

1915

1571

1795

1660

1138

1376

2292

1701

1184

840

863

848

1031

919

826

145711

153687

1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Major Waste Indicators, thousand metric tons


Amount of established waste
Amount of processed waste
47



1244

1232

1262

1393

669

885

761

640

727

932

1103

949

1057

991

1066

333

336952

277107

40843

54841

46014

71551

34337

37099

26244

23002

18728

31304

28349

21674

20121

20132

21017

20852

13267452

14422372

1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
100000000
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Waste Disposal, thousand metric tons

Allocated to the special storages
As of the end of the year in designated areas or on the territory of enterprises
Treatment of Radioactive Waste

For Ukraine, the correct
treatment
of radioactive waste with ionizing
radiation is essential as nuclear
power takes the leading position
among energy suppliers of the
country.

The leadership of
radioactive waste is owned by

the

nuclear power sector which during
its
production

process creates
radioactive waste from technological cycle, evaporations of used fuel and waste
created by uranium
-
mining industry.

Currently, Ukraine does not have long
-
term policy for dealing with radioactive
waste. The necessary long
-
term storage and
disposal system for radioactive waste
has to be determined.
But the strategy will
hardly come into
the
life and stay only as
perspective project if the Fund for
Radioactive Waste Treatment will not be
created on the governmental level. The
Fund will be fin
ancially supported by the
allocated fees
to the users

of
radioactive
substances

and ionizing radiation. Such
system will provide stable financing for
research work and treatment of
radioactive waste.


49


An Exclusion Zone is the most appropriate place for the

storage of radioactive
waste and toxic s
ubstances that are not subject for

disposal.
The zone creation

should be based on detailed study of the geological factors and disposal
technologies.

Compare to the system of industrial and domestic waste treatment,

the
system

of radioactive waste

management
has been moderately formed and
based on the legislation

of the country

that is moving toward the global principles
of radioactive waste treatment, especially after Chernobyl catastrophe.


Treatment of
Waste
from

Uranium
-
Mining Industry

A great amount of waste is created as a result of intensive processing and mining
of uranium. This kind of waste is the source
of environmental pollution, and it creates a
threat
for

emergency
environment
situation.
Old uranium de
posits, which are not in
exploitation, form the biggest danger.

The
movement of contamination is sedentary but
the radionuclides were found in the
groundwater in all area
s

of
the former
landfill underground leaching.

All storages do not meet the requirem
ents of modern sanitary
rules

and their
physical protection does not exactly comply with the Law of Ukraine "On the
Physical Protection of Nuclear Settings." Due to the scarcity
of funds,
monitoring
and technical maintenance of the objects with potentially

hazardous waste in
uranium
-
mining industry is fairly low.




50


Treatment of
Waste from Nuclear Power Plants

The waste from nuclear power plants is processed and stored in the special
facilities on their territory. The
main drawback is the absence
of a full

cycle radioactive waste
processing system
.

It does not

allow
obtaining

prepared
recycled
products for the
transfer into
long
-
term storage.
It has been

intended to provide
all necessary equipment for the
nuclear power plants, but it is
not executed in full

volume by
the lack of funds. This results in
premature filling of tanks with radioactive waste and after three or four years there
is a need for the construction of new facilities at the plant to store radioactive
waste.

T
here is little att
ention paid to

the reduction of

radioactive waste quantity

at the
Ukrainian nuclear power plants
.

Special

equipment for these purposes is not used.
T
he one optimal technology for the radioactive waste management can be applied

since all nuclear power plants have similar structure
.

A step forward became the development and entry into the force of integrated
program “Treatment
of

Waste on the stage of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning.”
The program links an existing program

of

radioa
ctive waste

treatment with the
project for creation

of exploitation, completion and transformation

infrastructure

of
Chernobyl NPP
.

51




For Ukraine, Chernobyl NPP
helped to acquire experience
in

extracting
nuclear power
units

from use
. In this process
appears a range of both
technical and simply
organizational problems.






52


Their solution organized in quite slow and inconsistently manner. For the past
years, this problem was even more complicated by changes in subordination and
statuses of Chernobyl NPP. Although the Plan for Actions has been approved and
the funding is mainl
y provided by international community, on the governmental
level is observed inconsistency in the construction and renovation of the shelter at
CNPP
.


Treatment

of Radioactive Waste from other Sectors


Radioactive waste from the sources of ionizing
radiation is used in various fields
(industry, medicine, science). The

specialized plant “Radon”

process
and dispose

this kind of waste. In
order to solve the problem about the
treatment of highly radioactive
waste was adopted state target
program about sa
fe disposal of
waste s
ources with ionizing
radiation.

Today,
there are no

facilities for
processing

radioactive waste

does
not

reduce

the volume of waste
for
storage or

disposal.

S
eparate storage
for radioactive

waste (for instance,
burned and pressed wast
e) is not planned to be put into practice.



53



For Ukraine, one of the most efficient ways to amplify the level
of
radioactive
security and guarantee
secure

preservation of radiation ionizing sources is to create

the

state system that will register and
organize them. The State Register of Ionizing
Radiation was created and put into use by the government of Ukraine
, but it does
not work efficiently
.






54



The

energy structure in Ukraine has

a vast need for implementing energy
policy
from

Eur
opean practices and
restructuring

its energy sector.
Energy sector
represents a
fundamental part of
the
na
tional and
economic security and become an
indispensable factor for the growth
and existence of th
e country
. Despite
these indicators,

a small amount of explicit efforts were made toward
modernization of the regulatory structure and compliancy of the current energy
usage policies with accordance to the
internationally adopted norms
.

The power sector o
f Ukraine together with mining and metallurgy industries are
the major atmosphere polluters. Currently, half of the energy provided is produced
by nuclear power plants and about
40
-
50% by the thermal power
plants that use fossil fuel.
Thermal power plants
are known
as the major reason of greenhouse
gases

in Ukraine
.


Due to the nature of industrial
structure and exploitation of old
techniques and technologies, the
energy intensity of the national GDP exceeds
European indicators

by

approximately 14

times and
electricity intensity of GDP

by
9

times higher.

Energy Policy and Environmental Safety

55


Most of the thermal power units for burning fossil fuels have largely
deteriorated
condition of environment
. They do not
have
efficient equipment for capturing the
dus
t and hard substances,
and
f
or neutralization of the
oxides emissions of sulfur
and nitrogen. This
deficiency results in the
overconsumption of fuel per
unit of produced energy and
a significant pollution of
atmosphere. The energy
saving program can be
promoted by
reducing the
use

of

fossil

fuels, and
accordingly decreasing

amount of hazardous emissions.

From consumption of fossil fuels, t
he coal
consumption
presents about 70 %
within the structure of thermal power plants in Ukraine. Extraction of the coal from
thin layers leads to th
e significant content of rocks in it and requires
its
enrichment.
Insufficient enrichment results in considerable amount of the ash content, which
for many types of thermal coal reaches 40% when
is allowed

ash content is 20
-
25%. The damage to environment b
y coal
processing

is estimated to
about

35 % of
its cost.

The
ash dumps
from

thermal power
plants
have

been

accumulated over 390
million tons
of ash and slag. The

degree of their use does not exceed 16%.
Together
,
thermal power plants and mining industry
form 2.5 times more

of solid
waste than steel industry. In the ash and
slag contain

numerous heavy metals.
56


Thermal power
plants consume
about 30 % of fresh

water,
including recycling
processes
accounting

for 50% of the total
water
use in the country. The
p
erformance of capturing solid parts

emissions

from thermal
power
plants
is inconsistent

to the global
requirements.

In the recent years, a significant

emission

reduction
was

cause
d

by

small amount of
fossil

fuel

use
, rather than
by

use of modern
emission disposal
technologies. Plans on increasing the

use of coal

as a fuel

can only worsen current environmental situation.



Priority actions that have to be taken are:



reduction

of fossil fuel use and

emission amount



increase the efficiency quality
of boilers



reduction of expenses to produce 1Kw of energy

57




introduction of new
technologies for reduction
of nitrogen oxides
formations

and

dust
emissions.

The combined cycle is actively
used for the energy production in
the world. The use of this
technol
ogy will enable power
plants

to

decrease

expenses

on

fuel
for production of

the same amount
of energy

in two times
from what

is currently generated by

old
equipment.


Another way to reduce fossil fuel consumption is
to use renewable

energy
sources
such

as
:



wind



water



methane



bio
gas
from plant debris and
processed
dump waste.


58


It is
obvious

that these sources will not
completely
solve the problem

of the basic energy needs for the
country industries, but
it
may fit perfectly for
small

energy

enterprises
and towns
. Use of bio
gas
and methane as energy sources also positively
impact environment by reducing
release of
methane
substances that destroy
atmosphere.


In Ukraine, compulsory introduction of energy saving methods is essential.
Efficient use of ener
gy can provide significant improvement
of the problem

with

energy
re
sources supply
,

and at the same time reduce the negative effects on
environment. Current legislation of Ukraine does not provide effective incentives
for the introduction of measures or technologies that will offer efficient ways of
energy use. To achieve this goal, the
energy consumers
must participate in this
process more actively than
energy
suppliers,

who are interested in
selling it. Significant acceleration in
this process can be achieved when
the administration will tightly
connect legislative norms and
regulations

with concessional money
lending and tax incentives for the
projects related to the efficient
energy use.





59




Given the major

significanc
e of
environmental problems,
strategic

partnership and cooperation in
environmental sec
tor require
significant efforts.

Financial help to
achieve environmental objectives is
the first priority.
In order to
accomplish environmental program
goals and to have appropriate funding at the national a
nd local levels, the
government of Ukraine constantly tries to attract the donors from countries with
transit economies.

There is a significant gap between needs and available funding
. U
kraine spends
very little on envir
onmental sector needs
-

up

to 0.3%

of the national budget.
Another problem is that a vast part of
environmental expenses is spent on
municipal infrastructure funding,
primari
ly

on supporting the operation of
water suppliers and sewers. Officially
the largest fraction of expenditures is
use
d to fi
nance national priorities of
environment

protection sector
. However,
the national policy is not formulated at
the level of specific objectives that
would facilitate
effective

solutions
. This
Use of International Investments and Technical Assistance

60


is true especially in the
control and implementation of ag
reed

upon

goals in
preventing water pollution
as well as in its
purification.

Management of expenditures is further unsatisfactory in the evaluation of
necessary expenses because of the weak informational base.
Most of the
government expenditures in envir
onment protection sector are spent without
accurately structured program and set goals that have
to be achieved. Ultimately,
this current

approach
severely
constrains the achievement of
positive results. Approved
programs do not have necessary
analysis of
cost


either of their
effectiveness or of

realisti
c
financial plans.
Financial planning
of environment
protection
programs often involve
s an
investment inflow from the private
sector or municipalities
. However,
Ukrainian government makes little
or no sug
gestion or offers any incentives for encouragement of this shared
responsibility.

As a result, limited resources are spread extensively among a large
number of programs and projects
that are primarily underfunded.
Therefore

they
have little effectiveness or
become uncompleted.





61




Partnership
s are

positively viewed
prior to
and during
the process of implementing new
technologies on all
administrative
levels

in
Ukraine’s

environmental sector
. This
position serves as an
incentive for
sustainable development and cooperation
among

state,
business

and
local
governments.


P
artnerships in

environmental sector

are

based on:



appropriate
scientific ecosystem studies



economical

and environmentally efficient joint decisions



reduction of the informative gap and easy access to the information during
decision
-
making and
implementa
tion of projects



documented agreement on
voluntary responsibility for
environmental consequences
of strategic decisions



implementation of
environmental audit



ecological safety and
rationality.

Potential for International and National Programs in
Enviro
n
mental Sector of Ukraine

62


Voluntary agreements
are
the
legal

basis for
the

partnership

in environmental
sector
. These agreements can be regarded as

a
:




form of voluntary cooperatio
n




joint commitment to make decisions
and
to
achieve strategic objectives at

any level (
regional, national, local).


Ukraine is usually r
epresented by special
,

a
uthorized body or the Ministry of
Environment Protection during the process of preparing and adoption of

socially
significant decisions.

The

state should be interested in creation of voluntary
environmental agreement with business or community union. This
would
greatly
increase

the guarantee for success of the pr
ogram implementation and ensure

joint
responsibility. Currently, the Ministry of
Environment
Protection has determined
the conditions for the partnership by
creating
an
Environmental Council for
public
hearings
. However, this has no acceptance

of

joint responsibility.

Potential for the successful completion of
national and interna
tional environmental
programs depend
s

on the clearly defined
goals and mechanism of control. The
primary problem in suc
cessful project
development and completion is the deficit of
government budget funding. The
government usually cannot provide proper
financial support
from the budget
of
Environment

Protection

Fund
. Frequently, i
t
poorly,
plans more programs and
63


activities

th
an it can support. O
ther financial
mechanisms for providing the funds
are

not involved. The tendency of planning

too many
projects has an

annihilating
impact on the country economy.
After

the projects were launched, the budget gets
exhausted by unplanned expenditures
that are needed for the completion of
projects.


Al
most

all

information related to the
results and process of realization of all
national and all
-
state programs is not
availa
ble for the public review

and

monitoring is not implemented.

Lack
of transparency

makes

it

impossible
to
adequately assess

the potential

or the
effectiveness

of national, all
-
state and
international
environmental programs.
P
riorities of implementation of
environmental programs
and

discovering
the

new w
ays for their financing needs

direct discussion

with
state

authorities.









64


GENERAL INFORMATION

1. Organization
which organizes the bidding (customer):

1.1. The full name of the company.

1.2. Address of the company.

1.3. Contact information of person responsible for bidding.

1.4. Methods of communication for the purpose of acquiring more information:


1.4.1. He
lp on organizational matters


1.4.2. Help for technical questions.

2. Information about the subject of the purchase:

2.1. Purchase subject: Repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment for
special purposes.

2.2. Required information about technic
al, quality and quantitative characteristics
is given in Appendix 1.

3. View of the tender procedure.

4. Source of funding.

5. Preparation of Tender conditions:

5.1. Method: in person or by mail, or from the web
-
site.

5.2. Location: The address of the tend
er and Tender
-
contract department.

5.3. Tender
-
contract department contact information.

6. Bid security and enforcement of the terms of the agreement:

6.1. Bid security and enforcement of the terms of the contract are not required.

7. Terms of Submission:

7.1. Location: The address of the tender and contract department.

TENDER CONDITIONS on procedure for purchase and
maintenance of special purpose equipment

65


7.2. Method: in a sealed envelope in person or by mail.

7.3. Deadline: by Kyiv time.

8. Opening of tender offers:

8.1. Place: address.

8.2. Date: by Kyiv time.

Member of the tender procedure

(hereinafter
-

the member)

-

an individual,
including an individual
-

entrepreneur, a legal person (resident or non
-
resident),
who confirmed in writing their intention to participate in the tender, received
tender conditions and submitted tender offer.











66



1.Information about the tender procedure

The tender procedure

is a form of selection on a competitive basis of potential
suppliers of goods in accordance with the tender conditions.

2.
Participant’s obligation to inform the customer of his

intention to
participate in

tender

Member who received Tender conditions must notify the Customer of his intention
to participate in the tender no later than 2 working days before the deadline for
sub