WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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WRITING THE
RESEARCH
PROPOSAL

Research process


Writing the
proposal

Session1



Select a
topic

Think of
a
problem

Conduct a
literature
review

Determine
methodological
orientation,
data collection
& data analysis
procedures


Research process


Write
Research
Proposal


Topic should be:


Appealing


Interesting


Manageable


Beneficial


BUT not controversial or theory
-
generating


PHRASING

IV and DV


Quantitative
eg

correlational studies

The effectiveness of motivation program on students’ CGPA

Phenomena observed


Qualitative
eg

case study

Arabic women and English language learning: A case
study


ACTIVITY: Brainstorm

List ALL the topics that you can do.








Select
a topic


Let’s explore
I
-
portal

for
thesis
titles

http://iportal.ump.edu.my




Teaching
English in South Korea: Studying, shaping, and representing my
expatriate experiences Theory and original fiction

Arabic women and English language learning: A case
study

The Effect of an English Language Learner Program on Student
Achievement Outcomes in Language, Reading, and
Math

Assessing the Impact of Computer Programming in Understanding Limits
and Derivatives in a Secondary Mathematics
Classroom


Engineering & Applied Sciences (
eg

computer)

Integrated Thermal Design and Optimization Study for Active

Integrated Power Electronic Modules (IPEMs)

Applying
convex optimization techniques to energy minimization
problems in computer
vision

Domain
adaptation of natural language processing systems




Present your working title.

Explain to the class why you have chosen
this title


rationale/ problem you
observed/ new invention/ necessity to
society, etc.

Give feedback to friends’ titles.

Use
powerpoint

for your presentation


1
slide is ENOUGH.





Individual presentation

Statement of problem should be answering these questions:

w
hat is the problem that you observe/encounter?

how

does

your

work

link

to

the

work

of

others

in

the

same

or

related

fields?


would

your

work

support

or

contest

the

work

of

others?


what

difference

do

you

think

your

research

will

make/what
new insights may be found?


what

research

‘gaps’

will

you

be

filling

by

undertaking

your




project
?


how

might

your

research

‘add

value’

to

the

subject?

why is your research important?



Think
of a problem

Session2


Read the Statement of problem provided. Identify:


What is the importance of this study?



What is the problem identified?



What is the aim of the study?


Task

Structure of
SoP

Background
(how

does

your

work

link
to

the

work

of

others

in

the
field
-

situating your study
in the field)

Problem observed/ faced
(clear articulation of
problem)

Purpose of study (identify
gap
-

The purpose/ aim of
this study is….an overview
of what you plan to do)

Research Objectives
&/ Questions

Research Objectives &/
Questions

Purpose of study
(identify gap
-

The
purpose/ aim of this
study is….an overview
of what you plan to do)

Situating your study
-

how

does

your

work

link


to

the

work

of

others

in

the

same

or

related

fields

Problem
observed/faced

Try and draft your problem statement.

Use the same
powerpoint

as continuation of
today’s presentation


1 slide is enough.


Research
aim
or
objective
:
the specific
accomplishments
the researcher hopes to achieve
by
conducting the
study



Research
objective is
stated
in a To + infinitive


clause



Research question
: statement
of specific query
the
researcher wants to answer to address the
research
problem


• Research
question is stated as a question

Research Objectives &/ Questions

Session3

To what extent are final projects/theses
written in English
?

What is the estimate of the level of
English of
theses
written in
English?


What
are the current methods of language
help
available/used
?


What challenges are
reported when it comes to the
current
processes
?


What improvements could
be made either by joint efforts
or at
the level
of individual institutions?

The aim of this study is to fill this gap by analyzing the feedback
provided on
students’ writing through their Wiki sites and
assessing its impact on ESL student’s engineering report writing
skills. The
objective of
the research
is:



to
investigate the impact of feedback given via Wiki on ESL
students’
report
writing.


RQ1: How
has the language used by ESL engineering
students in their
reports improved
after receiving feedback
via Wiki
?



RQ2: How
has the quality of ESL engineering students’
reports improved after
receiving
feedback via Wiki?


Formulate your:



Research objective/s


Research questions


Present on
powerpoint

slide as such:


-

Title


-

RO


-

RQ

Task

In evaluating literature the following questions should be
asked


1. What type of research has been done in the area?

2. What research questions have been asked (what


theories have been posed)?

3. How have researchers gone about answering those


questions? That is how did they define variables? What


research methods did they use?

4. What suggestions do other researchers make for


further study?

5. What has not been investigated?

6. How can the
proposedstudy

add to further knowledge in the
area?







Conduct
a literature review

Session4


Citation

Research
Objectives
&/
Questions

Methodology

Findings

Your

reflections

Literature review table

Conduct
a literature review


Go to the library/
iportal


Browse for journals relevant to your study


Use keyword search to find a minimum of five journal
articles
relevant to your study


Read the journals and complete the literature review
table as shown.


Put the table on the
powerpoint

slide that you have
been using.


In the next class, present to the class what you have
found.


Homework for tomorrow’s class


Present you Literature Review table to the
class.

Review of homework task

Session3

The literature review:



helps place the proposed study under the general body of
knowledge & saves duplication


h
elps anticipate possible causes, effects, and complex
processes of the problem under investigation


i
s NOT a summary of related works nor a mere listing of
previous research BUT a critical appreciation of relevant
literature conceptually integrated within the logic of the
proposed investigation


s
hould show similarities & differences with other relevant
research


p
rovides the theoretical foundations/ framework of the
study


c
an provide conceptual/operational definitions

Literature review in proposal





Go to:

http
://
uhe3142project
-
based
-
proposal
-
writing.wikispaces.com/Literature+Review


Identify:

-
the structure of a good literature review
paragraph

-
useful language expressions

-
t
echniques of being critical




Theories underlying the study:



Title: The effect of online chat on students’ revision
process



Theoretical foundation/framework: process writing,
computer
-
mediated communication, interaction



Group your literature review to areas/ issues/ theories in
your
Theoretical
foundation/framework


Theoretical foundation/
framework

1.5
WIKIS IN THE ESL WRITING
CLASSROOM


The

application

of

computer

technology

in

ESL

writing

classroom

is

not

something

new

and

has

been

found

to

be

beneficial

in

developing

students


writing

skills

(Cunningham

,

2000
;

Goldberg,

Russell

and

Cook,

2003
)

and

enhancing

their

writing

process

(
Price,

1997
;

Lee,

2004
;

Ware,

2004
)
.

The

tools

used

have

evolved

from

the

use

of

software,

word

processor

to

synchronous

or

asynchronous

computer
-
mediated

communication

(
CMC)

tools
.

Today,

Web

2
.
0

applications

like

blog

and

wikis

are

seen

as

the


second

generation

Web

which

offer

powerful

opportunities

for

online

collaboration

for

both

language

professionals

and

learners”

(Godwin
-
Jones,

2003
:

12
)
.

Wikis

is

an

editable
,

web
-
based

free

authoring

tool

which

allows

users

to

create

a

fully

editable

website

(
Boulos
,

et

al
.
,

2006
)
.

Visitors

to

the

website

can

easily

read,

and

edit

or

modify

content
,

structure

or

design

of

the

website

directly

on

the

page,

often

without

the

need

for

registration

(
Augar
,

et

al
.
,

2004
;

Tonkin,

2005
;

Boulos
,

et

al
.
,

2006
;

Wang

&

Turner
,

2004
;

Charles

&

Ranmi
,

2007
)
.



Wikis

can

be

easily

used

for

writing

instruction

especially

for

process

and

collaborative

writing

activities

(Chen

et

al
.
,

2005
)
.

The

software

makes

the

writing

process

visible,

for

example,

the

writer

s

edits

can

be

viewed

on

the

screen
.

It

provides

a

platform

for

instructors

to

monitor

the

students


writing

development

and

give

feedback


at

any

stage

of

their

writing

process

(Carr,

et

al
.
,

2007
:
280
)
.

In

addition

a

group

of

students

can

work

together

on

a

writing

task,

editing

and

building

on

one

another

s

work

or

a

student

can

work

with

the

instructor

one
-
on
-
one

receiving

feedback

and

revising

the

written

work

without

having

to

meet

face
-
to
-
face
.

The

tool

also

allows

those

browsing

the

wikis

site

to

take

a

dual

role

of

reader

and

writer

(
LeLoup

&

Ponterio
,

2006
)
.

Thus

this

tool

can

free

students

and

teachers

from

the

rigid

time
-
constraints

of

the

classroom

and

facilitates

meaningful

creation

of

knowledge

online

(Lamb,

2004
)
.

The

facilities

available


on

wikis

make

it

a

feasible

tool

for

teaching

writing
.

It

can

be

used

to

easily

monitor


students


writing

progress
.

The

students

do

not

have

to

meet

lecturers

face
-
to
-
face
.


Instead,

wikis

can

be

used

to

provide

support

and

feedback

to

students


written

work

without

the

constraints

of

time

and

place

as

compared

to

face
-
to
-
face

consultations


(
Godwin
-
Jones,

2003
)
.

Sample


Write one section of your literature review

Homework: submitted at end of
week






Determine
methodological
orientation, data collection
&
data analysis
procedures

Session5



Quantitative

is upon facts that are
the products of direct
or indirect
observations, upon
concepts, and their
indicators, hypothesis
testing based upon
sample survey, and
upon statistical
analysis of data.
Researchers are
concerned with
relationships among
variables and patterns
e.g

cause
-

effect


Qualitative

examines social
phenomena in their
natural settings and
emphasises

verbal
descriptions and
explanations of human
behaviour
.

Researchers try to
understand
behaviour

and institutions by
getting to know the
persons involved by
getting to know their
rituals, symbols,
beliefs and emotions
.



Mixed method

mixing of
quantitative and
qualitative

methods


Triangulation

the use of diverse data, it involves
combining different methods and
theories, as well as perspectives of
different investigators


data triangulation
-

the use of variety
of data sources and data sets in a
study. Data may be both qualitative
and quantitative, gathered by different
methods or by the same method from
different sources or at different times.



investigator triangulation
-

the use of
several different researchers. Here the
importance of partnership and
teamwork is underlined as the way of
bringing in different perspectives.



theory triangulation
-

the use of
different theoretical viewpoints for
determining competing hypotheses as
well as for interpreting the single set of
data.



methodological triangulation
-

the use
of multiple methods to study a single
problem or phenomenon. It may also
include the use of the same method on
different occasions and situations.

Methodological
orientation

Quantitative

Design:

Surveys, experimental designs,
natural scientific enquiry

Data collection instruments
:

Questionnaire, pre
-
post test, lab
experiments

Data analysis procedures:

Statistical analysis e.g. t
-
test, ANOVA/MANOVA

Software:
SPSS,
Rasch

Qualitative

Design:

Case study, ethnography,

Data collection instruments::

participant observation,
interview, content analysis
.

Data analysis procedures:

Emerging trends/ patterns/
themes

Software:
NVIVO

Methodology



Divide
this section into:


Research
design,


Population/ Participants,


Sample & sampling,


Data collection instrument/s,


Validity
, reliability
,


Procedures for data collection.


for each of these you must provide:


A clear and
meaningful
reason
for choosing your methodology
such as
from literature
review
.


example


Data
collection

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

This study adopted the case study approach as it aimed at looking at one
particular phenomenon
. McMillan (2004: 271)
provides a comprehensive definition of a case study
research
below:


A
case study is an in
-
depth analysis of one or more events, settings,
programs
, social groups, communities,

individuals
and other bounded
systems.


The
case study is an investigation of one entity, which is carefully
defined
and characterized by time and place
. The
single
entity could be a person, a school or even an event. Yin (2003: 13) further
emphasizes
that the case study method is an
empirical inquiry that can provide a holistic
understanding
of real
-
life events “especially when the boundaries between
phenomenon
and
context are not clearly evident”. What this highlights is that case study can facilitate
meaningful
enquiry
into everyday phenomena. The researcher believes that the context is as important as the phenomenon itself and seeks to
find out how each contributed to
and influenced
the other.

3.3.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS


Seventeen
undergraduate ESL engineering students from three intact classes
enrolled
in the Undergraduate Research Project
1 at the Faculty of Chemical Engineering

and
Faculty of Electrical Engineering were selected as participants for this study.
Non
-
random purposive sampling method was used to select the participants in order to elicit
the
data
pertinent
to this
study. Random sampling is the primary method used to
ensure
external validity but non
-
random sampling is preferred
when the nature of research
or
size of population under study is unsuitable for random sampling which requires a

relatively large population (
Babbie
, 2001). Three possible methods of non
-
random
sampling
are systematic, convenience and
purposive sampling (Mackey &
Gass
, 2005).
Purposive
sampling is commonly used when the researcher has selected the
participants based on his/her knowledge of the participants and their relevance to the purpose of the

study
(
Babbie
, 2001). Purposive sampling is the main sampling strategy in qualitative
research
because it seeks rich and thick
description through in
-
depth study of particular
subjects
(
Fraenkel

&
Wallen
, 2006, Patton, 1990,
Wiersma
, 2000).


The
participants were students who stayed on in the class
for
the ten
-
week period of the study and continually posted drafts
on their
wikispaces
. All
of
the participants were 21 year
-
old, fourth year students. They had completed their
compulsory
eight credits of English and a total of 80 credits of the graduation
requirements
. These courses were the pre
-
requisite for URP
1
.






Divide this section into:


Describing the method/ procedure/ scheme you are going to
use to
analyse

each type of data collected


-

You might have a coding system/ sheet to
analyse



each data


Rationale for choosing that
particular method/ procedure/
scheme
(literature review)


Data analysis procedures


Title


Background of the study


Statement of the problem


RO


RQ


Methodology


data collection and data analysis
procedures


Expected outcome (engineering research)


Scope of study
(engineering research)


Gantt chart
-

milestones


Write the research proposal


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Thank you & Good luck

Questions????