Managerial Support Systems

addictedswimmingAI and Robotics

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

64 views

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

CHAPTER 9

Managerial Support Systems

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

2

Chapter Outline

9.1 Managers and Decision Making

9.2 Business Intelligence, Multidimensional Data
Analysis, Data Mining, and Decision Support
Systems

9.3 Digital Dashboards

9.4 Data Visualization Technologies

9.5 Intelligent Systems

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

3

Learning Objectives


Describe the concepts of management, decision making
and computerized support for decision making.


Describe
multidimensional data analysis and data mining


Describe
dashboards


Describe
data visualization
, and explain geographical
information systems and virtual reality.


Describe
artificial intelligence
(AI).


Define an expert system and identify its components.


Describe natural language processing and natural language
generation, and neural networks.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

5

9.1 Managers and Decision Making


Management


A process by which organizational goals are achieved
through the use of resources (people, money, energy,
materials, space, time).



Managers have three basic roles (
Mintzberg

1973)

a)
Interpersonal roles: figurehead, leader, liaison

b)
Informational roles: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

c)
Decisional roles: entrepreneur, disturbance handler,
resource allocator, negotiator.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

6

The Manager’s Job & Decision Making
(continued)


Decision refers to a choice that individuals and group make
among two or more alternatives.


Decision making is a systematic process composed of three
major phases: (Simon 1977)


Intelligence Phase
-
the starting point where reality is examined and
the problem is defined.


Design Phase
-
design and construct a model, or simplified
representation of reality


Choice Phase
-
selecting a solution to test “on paper.”


Example, Making A Decision About A New Automobile:


Intelligence

review automobile maintenance records showing
chronic transmission problems. Seek information from dealers,
consumer reports and friends about new automobiles.


Design

Establish objectives and criteria for evaluating
automobiles. Establish weights illustrating the relative importance
of these criteria. Analyze alternative possibilities.


Choice


generate summary statistics on the evaluation of each
automobile.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

7

Decision Making Process

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

8

Why Managers Need IT Support


The number of alternatives to be considered
constantly increases.


Decisions must be made under time pressure.


Decisions are more complex.


Decision makers can be in different locations and so is
the information.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

12

9.2 BI, Multidimensional Data Analysis,
Data Mining, and
DSSs


Business Intelligence (BI) refers to applications and
technologies for consolidating, analyzing, and
providing access to vast amounts of data to help users
make better business and strategic decisions.


Two types of BI Systems:


Those that provide data analysis tools


Multidimensional data analysis (or online analytical
processing)


Data mining


Decision support systems


Those that provide information in structured format


Dashboards

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

14

Multidimensional Data Analysis

(or online analytical processing)


Provides users with a look at what is happening or
what has happened.


Allows users to analyze data in such a way that they
can quickly answer business questions.

Figure 4.11

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

15

Data Mining


Searching for valuable business information in a large
database, data warehouse, or data mart.


Data mining performs two basic operations:


Predicting trends and behaviors


Identifying previously unknown patterns and relationships

Credit card
companies often
use Data Mining
to check for
fraudulent credit
card use.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

16

Decision Support Systems (
DSS
)


Decision support systems


combine models and data in an attempt to solve semi
-
structured and some unstructured problems with extensive
user involvement.


A DSS is not a standalone system, usually a collection of
computer information systems.


DSS

Analysis capabilities


Sensitivity analysis is the study of the impact that changes
in one (or more) parts of a model have on other parts.


What
-
if analysis is the study of the impact of a change in
the assumptions (input data) on the proposed solution.


Goal
-
seeking analysis is the study that attempts to find the
value of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of
output.


Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

17

Two Types of Group
-
based Decision
Support Solutions


Group decision support system (
GDSS
)


an interactive computer
-
based system that supports the process of
finding solutions by a group of decision makers.


Decision Room (War Room) is a face
-
to
-
face setting for a group
DSS
, in which terminals are available to the participants.


Organizational Decision Support System (
ODSS
)


a
DSS

that focuses on an organizational
task or activity
involving
a sequence of operations and decision makers.


ODSS

Characteristics:


It affects several organizational units or corporate problems.


It cuts across organizational functions or hierarchical layers.


It involves computer
-
based and (usually) communications
technologies.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

18

9.3 Digital Dashboards


Dashboards:


Provide rapid
access to timely
information.


Provide direct
access to
management
reports.


Are very user
friendly and
supported by
graphics.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

19

Sample Performance Dashboard (Figure
9.4)

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

20

Another Example of Dashboard

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

26

9.4 Data Visualization Systems


Data visualization is the process of presenting data to
users in visual formats, thereby making IT
applications more attractive and understandable to
users.


The Power of Visualization


Even though a picture is “worth a thousand words,” we
have to be very careful about just what we are seeing.


Remember, on the Internet, it is “user beware!”

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

27

New York City Police Department
Command Center


Data visualization in action

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

28

Example Of Data Visualization


21
-
minute video that illustrates data visualization

Hans
Rosling

at the TED Talks

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

29

Two Types Of Data Visualization Systems


Geographical Information Systems: a computer
-
based
system for capturing, integrating, manipulating, and
displaying data using digitized maps.


Virtual Reality: interactive, computer
-
generated,
three
-
dimensional graphics delivered to the user via a
head
-
mounted display.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

31

GIS for
existing
land use

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

32

GISMO


GISMO

is a geographical information system
developed for the city of Corvallis, Oregon.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

33

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

34

Virtual Reality

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

35

Technology of Data Glove

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

36

Virtual Reality manipulation with data
glove

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

37

Driving Simulator


Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

39

Virtual Tour Of A Museum

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

41

9.5 Intelligent Systems


Intelligent systems is a term that describes the various
commercial applications of Artificial intelligence
(AI).


AI is a subfield of computer science concerned with:


studying the thought processes of humans


recreating those processes via machines, such as computer
and robots.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

43

Expert Systems


Expert Systems (
ESs
) attempt to mimic human
experts by applying expertise in a specific domain.


Can support decision makers or completely replace them.


Expertise refers to the extensive, task
-
specific
knowledge acquired from training, reading and
experience.

Star Trek
Voyager’s doctor:

a 24
th

century
expert system

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

44

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

45

Four Activities Involved in the Transfer of
Expertise from an Expert to Computer and
then to a User


Knowledge acquisition:


Knowledge is from experts or from documented sources.


Knowledge representation:


Acquired knowledge is organized as rules or frames
(objective
-
oriented) and stored electronically in a
knowledge base.


Knowledge inferencing:


Given the necessary expertise stored in the knowledge base,
the computer is programmed so that it can make inferences.
The reasoning function is performed in a component called
the inference engine, which is the brain of ES.


Knowledge transfer:


The inferenced expertise is transferred to the user in the
form of a recommendation.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

46

The Components of Expert Systems


Knowledge base


Contains knowledge necessary for understanding,
formulating and solving problems.


Inference engine


A computer program that provides a methodology for
reasoning and formulating conclusions.


User interface


Enables users to communicate with the computer


Blackboard


An area of working memory set aside for the description of
a current problem.


Explanation subsystem


Explains its recommendations.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

48

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

49

Natural Language Processing & Voice
Technologies


Natural language processing (NLP):


Communicating with a computer in English or whatever
language you may speak.


Natural language understanding/speech (voice)
recognition:


The ability of a computer to comprehend instructions given
in ordinary language, via the keyboard or by voice.


Natural language generation/voice synthesis:


Technology that enables computers to produce ordinary
language, by “voice” or on the screen, so that people can
understand computers more easily.



Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

51

Neural Networks


Neural network is a system of programs and data
structures that approximates the operation of the
human brain.


Neural networks are particularly good at recognizing
subtle, hidden and newly emerging patterns within
complex data as well as interpreting incomplete
inputs.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

53

Fuzzy Logic


Fuzzy logic deals with the uncertainties by simulating
the process of human reasoning, allowing the
computer to behave less precisely and logically than
conventional computers do.


Involves decision in gray areas.


Uses creative decision
-
making processes.

Information Technology Foundations
-
BIT 112

54

Chapter Closing Case



P. 290

GPS
sensor