Lecs. 4 & 5

addictedswimmingAI and Robotics

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Lec
s
.
4
&
5


Second

language

acquisition

(SAL)



Second

language

acquisition

research

focuses

on

the

developing

knowledge

and

use

of

a

language

by

children

&

adults

who

know

at

least

one

language
.





Understanding

how

languages

are

learned

will

lead

to

more

effective

teaching

practices
.



Second
-
language acquisition

or
second
-
language learning

is
the process by which people learn a
second language
. Second
-
language acquisition (often abbreviated to
SLA
) is also the
name of the scientific discipline devoted to studying that
process.
Second language

refers to any language learned in
addition to a person's
first language
; although the concept is
named
second

language acquisition, it can also incorporate the
learning of third, fourth or subsequent languages.
[1]

Second
-
language acquisition refers to what learners do; it does not
refer to practices in
language teaching
.

(http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second
-
language_acquisition)


L
2
may be learned

1.
s
imultaneously with L
1
, or

2.
s
uccessively with L
1
(Childhood/ adolescence/ adulthood)


L
2
may be learned in

1.
L
1
environment (Instruction)

2.
L
2
environment (verbal contact with native speakers)


Acquisition


Subconscious process of
picking up a language
through exposure


Contact with natives

Learning



Conscious process of
studying it


Formal setting


Attempts have been made to answer the following question:


How do individuals acquire an L
2
?


What are the different thoughts & premises that have been
offered in order to explain the process of SLA?


What needs to be taught in L
2
classes?



The behavioristic approach


The cognitive/ psychological approach


The creative construction approach


The sociological approach


1950
s


pedagogic (the teacher)


1970
s


pedagogic (the learner)


External factors


internal factors


Mental grammar processes of the speaker, NOT the linguistic
structure


Why?

1.
Research in linguistics, psychology, & L
1
acquisition

2.
T
he need to understand the mechanisms underlying SLA.

3.
Are these mechanisms similar to those involved in FLA?


(Skinner,
1957
)

SLA is a process of imitation & reinforcement




(
Lado
,
1957
)

The acquisition of L
2
is essentially a task of overcoming the L
1
habits & learning (in their place) the habits of the L
2
. Only the
different elements between L
1
& L
2
are to be learned.


Positive vs. negative transfer (Arabic & English)


I’m going
to

home

I
n

my way
to

home

This is the house I live in
it

Open

the light &
close

the light

To drive
a plane






To identify the structural similarities & difference between
languages


The findings will aid in planning the language
-
teaching
materials



The main aim of behavioristic teaching is to (
i
) form new correct
linguistic habits through intensive practice, & (ii) eliminate errors
in the process of SLA

1.
The learning process is more complex than imitation & habit
-
formation.

2.
Transfer alone doesn’t fulfill the function of explaining the
learner’s behavior in the L
2
.

3.
L
2
learners know that certain features of their L
1
are less
likely to be transferable than others (idiomatic expressions).

4.




Cognitive factors involve the mechanics of how an individual
acquires something.


SLA = the acquisition of a complex cognitive skill (sub
-
skills)


A complex cognitive skill /

P
erformance A (pattern) + Performance B (tense) = Fluent Performance




E.g. learning to express a communicative function (
may I …)


sub
-
skill


To take part in a conversation


a whole skill



There is an interaction between the element the learner is
learning & the knowledge he has already acquired


This may restructure the system (language) the learner has or
acquires


An L
2
learner’s performance improves & develops through
constant reorganizing & restructuring of information contained
in this system.


An L
2
learner will simplify & unify linguistic information, & gain
increasing control of language performance.


Chomsky & SLA


What is the
creative construction hypothesis

?


The learner constructs a series of internal representations of the
L
2
system which result from natural processing strategies:

(generalization, transfer, exposure to the L
2
in communication
situations)




1.
The analysis of learners’ errors at various points in their SLA

2.
The order in which certain structures are acquired

INPUT


OPERATION OF INTERNAL PROCESSING
STRATEGEIS /
(not the learner’s attempts


to produce the language)

SLA takes place internally via HEARING & READING
not
SPEAKING & WRITING


INPUT

Communication
situations

Natural
processing
strategies

L
2
exposure

Internal
representations of
L
2

Learner’s actual
utterances

OUTPUT


The acquisition
-
learning hypothesis


The monitor hypothesis


The natural order hypothesis


The input hypothesis


The effective filter hypothesis

Acquisition



The processing of language
input provided by
information





Learning



The
processing of language
input provided by explicit
teaching of grammatical
rules



I
t is knowing the rules;
having a conscious
knowledge about grammar



Monitor is a device that learners use to edit their own language
performance by modifying utterances which are generated
from the acquired knowledge (competence)


It occurs just before or after an utterance


BUT, there are
3
conditions

1.
Some knowledge of the acquired rule

2.
Sufficient time

3.
The learner’s attention


location + nature of the
grammatical form



Language learners acquire properties of an L
2
in a predictable
order through a series of common transitional stages in moving
towards target/
2
nd

language forms


Exception: morphemes & conjunctions



Input is the most important factor in SLA; it affects the progress
of the learner in learning the L
2
.


The characteristics of comprehensible input:

1.
Comprehensiv
e

2.
Adequate to the level of learners

3.
Clear (pronunciation + grammar
)



Non
-
linguistic factors affecting SLA


MOTIVES, NEEDS, ATTITUDES, EMOTIONAL STREES, ETC.


The focus in the late
1970
s & early
1980
s


the social context
of the adult SLA


Acculturation


the process of becoming adapted to the culture
of the new or
2
nd

language



understanding of the system of thoughts, beliefs, emotions, &
system of communication of the new culture


Degree of adaptation to L
2
= extent of competence acquired
in L
2




Learners of L
2


Social distance


native speakers of
L
2


Development towards L
2
is dependent on the level of social
distance between the learner & native speakers of L
2


Social distance & the acquisition of Grammar


Learners of L
2


psychological distance


native
speakers of L
2


Psycho.
Distance results
from various affective factors
concerning the learner as an individual


Resolution of language shock, culture shock, stress, integrated vs.
instrumental motivation


This model explains why L
2
learners often fail to develop/
achieve native
-
like competence due to social and/ or
psychological factors