For Forl 8250 Fall 2011 By Barbara Williams

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Second Language Acquisition Theory

For
Forl

8250

Fall 2011

By Barbara Williams


PhD
-

Harvard, 1966


Professor Emeritus in Cognitive Psychology at
University of California, Santa Cruz


Research interests
: second language acquisition in
children and adults


Served as consultant on bilingual education for
California’s Department of Education


Served as director of the National Center for Research
on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning


Noted publications
:


Second
-
language
acquisition in childhood. Volume 1:
Preschool children

(1984)


S
econd
-
language
acquisition in childhood. Volume 2: School
-
age children

(1985)


Theories
of second
-
language learning

(1987
).



Based on
Cognitive Theory


Second language learning is a mental
process


Assumes a hierarchy of complexity of
cognitive skills


Structured practice leads to
automatization

and integration of
linguistic patterns




McLaughlin's assumptions


Second language learning is a skill


Second language learning requires

automatization

of component sub
-
skills”


Humans have a limited capacity to
manage controlled processes


Second language processing skills become
more efficient via
automatization

Attention to
Formal

Properties
of Languages

Controlled

Automatic

Focal

Performance based on
formal rule learning

(Cell

A)

Performance in a test
situation

(Cell

B)


Peripheral

Performance based on
implicit learning

or
analogic learning

(Cell

C)


Performance in
communication
situations

(Cell

D)


Information

P
rocessing

Attention to Formal

Properties
of Languages

Controlled: new skill capacity
limited

Automatic: well
-
trained
practicedskill

capacity is
relatively unlimited

Focal

Intentional

Attention

(Cell

A)


Grammatical explanation of a
specific point


Word definition


Copy a written model


The first states of
“memorizing” a dialog


Prefabricated patterns


Various discrete
-
point
exercises

(Cell

B)


“keeping an eye out for
something


Advanced L2 learner focuses
on modals, clause formation,
etc.


Monitoring oneself while
talking or writing


Scanning


Editing, peer
-
editing


Peripheral/

Incidental Attention

(Cell

C)


Simple

greetings


The later stages of
“memorizing” a dialog


TPR/Natural Approach


New L2 learner successfully
completes a brief conversation

(Cell

D)


Open
-
ended group work


Rapid reading, skimming


Free writes


Normal conversational
exchanges of some length


From Brown 1994: 285


Schulz, R. A. (1991). Second Language
Acquisition Theories and Teaching Practice: How
Do They Fit?.
Modern Language Journal
, 75(1), 17
-
26
.


Doughty, C., & Long, M. H. (2003).
The handbook
of second language acquisition / edited by
Catherine J. Doughty and Michael H. Long
.
Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub.,
2003.


Nagle, Stephen J., & Sanders, Sara L. (1986).
Comprehension Theory and Second Language
Pedagogy.
TESOL Quarterly, 20
(1), 9
-
26.


Brown, H. (1994).
Principles of language learning
and teaching / H. Douglas Brown
. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall Regents,
c1994.