The LHC String.

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Nov 15, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)




Nov. 97

he LHC String.

After the operation of the first LHC magnet, a “string” consistin
g of two
LHC magnets and a quadrupole

i.e. half of an LHC magnetic “cell”

been built. With future 50m magnets, the string size may increase from the
present 30m to a 100m length.

The String includes a String Feed Box, (SFB), i.e. all the equipmen
necessary for feeding the superconducting magnets with the different
cryogenic fluids and connecting the coil current (~ 26000 A).

Beginning 1995, tests have been run under power, including ”quench”
conditions (at high current densities, a wire can loos
e its superconductivity
due to micro hot
spots). Quenching raises problems related to the energy
stored in the magnetic field, the cryogenic conditions, etc.

The string cryogenic facilities (warm pumping unit, cold compressor unit,
helium test cryostat, u
tilities) are to be shared with the magnet Test Bench
situated in the same area.

A data acquisition system is used to log data for slow processes and record
system parameters during transients.

A 16
bit resolution, 450
channel transient recorder and trend

system was specified at CERN and tendered as a turn
key industrial project.
The main technical requirements were 1 kHz sampling frequency for the
transient recorder on 8 different trigger conditions, and 1 Hz sampling
frequency for the archiver w
ith storage of data on change of value. Transient
phenomena (in superconductors) also require several hundred channels with
acquisition rates of up to 50 kHz and continuous data logging.

measurement system includes acquisition and control, for example
magnetic field values, energy loss measurements in magnets during current
ramping, temperature calibration of sensors and specific device tests.

The system consists of 4 VME crates, each housing 19 ADC modules, one
68030 processor with on
board software

and a MXI
bus interface. A SUN
20 workstation with a MXI
interface runs a LabVIEW application
which down
loads the acquisition parameters to the 68030s and reads
the acquired data over the MXI
bus. The SUN stores the raw data on disk,
converts i
t to physical values and present this data in real
time strip charts
updated every 10s. At the end of each data
run the archived data and the
transient data are transferred to an ORACLE data base, running on another

For more information concerning tec
hnical specifications or data acquisition
system contact A.

Rijllart and for the database M.



The LHC Magnet Test Bench

A test bench has been built at CERN to test and measure the prototype
superconducting magnets of the future LHC. The magn
ets will be made by
the industry and then tested at CERN. Two successive test phases will allow
measuring first the magnets individually then clustered in a string (a set of
magnets). A prototype of a magnet test bench has been built and is used for
the fi
rst magnet prototypes. More benches will be built in order to measure
up to twenty magnets simultaneously. The test bench includes a cryogenic



Nov. 97

system: a) The Cooldown and

Unit (CWU) delivers 120kW of
refrigeration. It thus allows cooling down and wa
rming up a 17000kg
magnet in one day to about 50K. B) The Magnet Feed Box (MFB) supplies
the magnet with the required cryogenic fluids and electrical power during
the operation (4.2K to 1.8K). Safety functions have been implemented to
prevent damages durin
g the quenches. The control system takes care of the
start up sequences of the different pumps and other devices which complete
the test

Also used in the system: a Demineralized Water Unit (DWU); an electrical
power distribution system; a set of abo
ut 100 gauges located on the magnet
and in the cryostat, whose values describe the status of the magnet.

A plant

network links together the

and the control system:
about 1500 inputs and outputs are connected between the control room and
the t
wo benches of the first test prototype. Ten

are used; 2000
values/sec are transferred to the supervisory system.

Most of the commercial supervisory packages run on PC compatible
computers. Some of them have UNIX Workstations implementations. The
's complexity, the CERN commitment toward open systems and the
need to communicate between several supervisory systems drove the choice
towards a UNIX based software, i.e. FactoryLink on HP workstations.

The whole system manages 90 different windows, 700 a
larms and 140 trend

Three workstations connected to the plant network are located in the control
room. They communicate with each other and with remote computers via
TCP/IP across
. Supplemental displays are available by means of X
ls. One of the workstations is used to centralise all the archives.
Customised archives are available for each application. The frequency of
data storage changes depending on the operation's phase. In average, 700
values are permanently archived with a fre
quency ranging from 5 seconds to
1 minute.

A data acquisition system derived from the one used for the LHC string
makes use of LabVIEW on Sun and VME ADCs modules (INCAA ADCs;
150 channels at 50KHz and 500 channels at 1KHz). Embedded 68K
processors are use
d for fast phase of data acquisition.

LabVIEW on Sun and VME instruments are used also for very precise
magnetic field plotting.

The magnetic measurements are made with a probe attached to the end of a
11m rod which itself is moved by an automatic sledge
. The sledge displaces
the probe inside both magnet's aperture with a precision of 0.1mm.
Proprietary integrator modules and 300 ch

s of 1KHZ ADCs complete the
magnetic measure system.

The present control room (one
) shall be duplicate together wit
h test



Nov. 97

General Information




The Large Hadron Collider is the future CERN big accelerator; the
construction has been approved in 1995 and shall be completed in 2005.

LHC will be built in the CERN 27 km underground tunnel, probably
replacing the present large electron
positron collider LEP. The project will
cost 2,660 MSFr, about 1/4 being contributed by non
member states: the US
through the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel HEPAP, Canada, Japan,
China and Russia. Smaller countries
like Korea, India, Australia, Brazil,
Pakistan, Israel also want to collaborate

many physicists look forward to
the LHC after the cancellation of the American Superconducting Super
Collider (SSC).

The technical challenge


The beam
beam collision energy

of LHC protons
is 7+7 TeV, a point energy typical of the first 10


sec after the so
Big Bang.

The magnetic field required to circulate protons on an orbit corresponding to
the LEP diameter is 8.65 Tesla

an unprecedented high figure. Since ir
magnets saturate at about 1Tesla (10.000 gauss), the LHC magnets shall be
compact, superconducting magnets, made of thin niobium
titanium wires
conducting 12,400 Amps at about zero resistance. About 1000 magnets 14m
long, will be needed, with a double a
perture in order to house the two
vacuum chambers with the counter
circulating proton beams.

The main energy required by these magnets will be that used by the
cryogenic devices: the magnets will be cooled at 1.8
K, or
C (for
comparison the cosmic

space temperature is 2.7

The first LHC magnet has been successfully operated in 1994; soon after f
the first magnet n 1994, a larger test

has been built

see LHC String.

The interaction rate

LHC will provide a very high beam
beam interactio
rate (also called Luminosity): 100 times higher than ever achieved. In
practice, proton bunches will cross every 25 nsec (at 40 MHz rate),
producing about 20 interactions/cross; each interaction produces hundreds
of particles. Only one in 10

s will be an interesting one, worth
being measured: a real challenge for the detectors and associated
electronics. Besides, the equipment near to the interaction region shall
withstand the radiation damage at these high rates. The Detector Research
and Dev
elopment Committee RDC is working at these requirements since

The Experiments


Four physics experiments are planned at the four LHC
beam intersection points. ATLAS

A Toroidal LHC Apparatus, CMS

Compact Muon Solenoid, ALICE

A Large Ion Col
lider Experiment, and

study of CP violation in B
meson decay at LHC. Only the latter
one is an upgrade of an existing experiment. In every experiment, the
“detector” apparatus will have the size of a large building.