11. charged particles
The balloon gains
charges (electrons). There is an electrostatic buildup.
When the balloon gets rubbed on the sweater, it becomes negatively charged (due
to the physical properties of rubber and wool). Then when the balloon is against
positive charges will attract the negatively charged balloon
opposite charges will be attracted towards each other.
as they receive similar charges.
The more the charge the
the balloons move.
g is an
exchange of charges
. The clouds become negatively charged
relative to the ground or other clouds. Since opposite charges attract, a lightning
bolt will appear as charges are exchanged between the cloud and the ground.
are materials that do not allow charges to move freely on or through them.
metals) Hold their electrons tightly.
are materials that allow charges to move freely. (Most metals) Hold
are materials with higher conductivity than insulators but with lower
conductivity than metals. Conductivity is increased by implanting foreign atoms into
are materials that offer little
, if any, resistance to the flow of
charges. Usually metal alloys and ceramics. Some materials become superconductors
when subjected to extremely low temperatures.
Neutralizing Unbalanced Charges
The sparks that result from static cling a
re an electric discharge as the accumulated
charge on the clothing was neutralized.
Connecting an object to Earth with a conducting
wire is called grounding the object and is an easy way to neutralize conductive materials.
conductors, or insulato
rs, usually must be neutralized with ionization.
Preventing Electrostatic Buildup
Antistatic sprays, coatings, special antistatic packaging, grounding straps.