WEALTH MANAGEMENT OF THE BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE

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Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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1


WEALTH MANAGEMENT
OF THE
BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE

last


Edmund Resenos, National Polytechnic Institute;

Angel Machorro, Technological Institute of Oaxaca;

Daniel Pineda, National
Polytechnic Institute

Rodolfo Radillo, National Polytechnic Institute



Official Address:

Carpio

471, Building "H" 2 °.
Piso, cubiculo

16

Col. Santo Tomas,

Deleg. Miguel Hidalgo,


xico DF 11340

Ph. 52 55 5729 6300, ext. 61659

Phone: 55 5407 9216

E
-
mail: e
resenos@yahoo.com

anmar51@hotmail.com

danpin07@yahoo.com.mx

rradillo@avantel.net






Eleventh International Business and

Economic Conference


The Changing Face of Globalization



January 5
-
8, 2012



Hawaii, USA



















2


W
EALTH MANAGEMENT BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE


Edmund R
eseno
s, National Polytechnic Institute;

Angel Machorro, Technological Institute of Oaxaca;

Daniel Pineda, National Polytechnic Institute

Rodolfo Radillo, National Polytechnic Institute


Abstract


The purpose is to show empirical evidence that knowledge wisely used produce all kinds
of wealth for
enterprises. Unfortunately there are no systems for measuring the knowledge
of universal acceptance. In Mexico, most of the administrations of science and
technology
in general accept the amount of paper written and published, and leave the review and
opinion of the scientific and technological input in the hands of the reviewers assigned by
the publishing houses. Facts make it evident absence of systems or
procedures to
measure knowledge. The importance and concern that has emerged in the last two or
three decades, comes from these and other shortcomings. These results are not
considered conclusive because of the size of the sample, which was determined by
s
elective procedures guided by the characteristics of the problem with Nonaka's theory
about the knowledge within the companies describe an upward spiral in its distribution
processes or dissemination. The results show positively Nonaka theoretical proposit
ion of
the spiral generated by the sharing of knowledge and have a provocative effect with other
methods to search for different systems and criteria, methods and procedures to measure
the impacts of scientific, technological, social and economic knowledge
, as multicriteria
ind
dex
, the intensity, the theory of fractals, among others, and an evolution in knowledge
management, intellectual capital, social equilibri
um

and the restructuring of knowledge
societies.


K
eywords: Knowledge Management, Intellectual C
apital, Science and Technology.





















3


WEALTH MANAGEMENT BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE


Introduction


Theoretical research on knowledge, its nature, classification, performance, distribution or
dissemination, structure, and impacts (Nonaka, Ikujiro and

Konno, Noboru. 1998; Nonaka,
Ikujiro and Tomaya, Ryoko. 2005; Nonaka, Ikujiro; Tomaya, Ryoko and Nagata, Akiya.
2000; Nonaka, Ikujiro, and Ryoko Toyama. 2003), allowed to infer the probability of the
existence, within companies, sequential relationships b
etween intelligent acts, knowledge
and technology.

However, what
it is possible to observe in enterprise,

is the result of
processes that are less visible, more complex and sophisticated that occur within the
enterprise
intellectual capital (IC), individua
l and collective, therefore,
it is affirmable
that
the main elements of the IC are: innate intelligence, knowledge and technologies

(Resenos, Pineda
,
and Gonzalez; 2008),
without excluding the existence of elements of
other natures as the emoti
ve
, emotiona
l, memory.



Do not attempt to analyze all elements and all interactions and transactions that occur
in the human brain,
only,
from the standpoint of manageme
nt science could be
irrelevant, so it proceeded to make methodological

abstraction
,

to
select

the
IC
elements more visible from the management approach,

innate intelligence, knowledge
and technology.


One of the main reasons for the existence of organizations and
enterprises

specifically,
for its lucrative nature and consequently of its aims is the cre
ation and possession of
wealth, manifested predominantly in
money
. However, in the study of
I
C
,
wealth

understood in its broadest sense, in all forms
or
manifestations
of
become
evident
, all
they generate and integrate the company's
plusvalia
, yet difficul
t to measure and
valuable, even more, when it appears that I
C

scores are distorted during the process

important rational prioritization and assignment of values
in rational

knowledge
societies, privileging monetary enrichment o
ver

creative enrichment, of the generation
and enrichment of knowledge, the generation of new technology, corporate image;
corporate prestige to society
;

the confidence gained in customer
,

suppli
ers

markets;

between communication systems;

government agencies
;

the non
-
profit

organizations;

and
on
the enrichment
of discoveries, inventions,
gradual

i
nnovation
, continuous
improvement.

A
ll involved in the
whirlpool

of life of people, enterprises, organizations,
societies of every kind and nature.



Technological de
velopment has been studied since Schumpeter (1934) demonstrated
the economic effects on the generation of economic wealth
enterprises
. Later, John
Kenneth Galbraith
, (
1969
)

introduc
e

the economists vocabulary the term "intellectual
capital", "in a letter to economist Michael Kalecki, Galbraith wrote,

'I wonder how much
if you realize those of us in the World h
ave around the in
tellectual capital owed to you
h
ave
p
rovided over
t
hese pas
t
d
ecade', he believed that the intellectual capital meant
more than just 'intellect as pure intellect', but had something else built a degree of
'intellectual action'


(Bontis, 1998; Feiwal, 1975; Serenko and Bontis, 2004).

In this
sense,
IC is not only a
n i
ntangible assets static, but
that it is an
intellectual and
ideological processes between human intelligence and philosophy of making life easier,
is 'a means to an end', which produces a warning on an asset humanity's intangible
,

as
important generator

of technology and wealth (in its broadest sense)

of
human

societies and with it also, consequently, it is
admit
that knowledge plays prominently in
this intr
icate and dynamic interweaving. K
nowledge, science, innovation, technological
development and tech
nology, from the intellectual work of man, the results of
4


individual or collective
IC
, and all the
ir

elements working together with human
intelligence,

constitute the "intellectual capital".

Probably the enjoyment of
IC

system
autopoietic

properties.
Aga
in,

the man's work generates human wealth in all its forms
and representations (Heidenreich, 2004).
Maybe, it could

be
convenient

to reconsider
the of Karl Marx
’s

reasoning
that lead him to propose that human
work

is
the
capital,

no
t

representations
,

n
or
the
symbols
, with

which the majority of persons identifies as
capital. Human work
is not only the use of physical force, but also the application of
force and energy generated by human intelligence to accelerate industrial machinery.
Perhaps
,

Marx did not
put
enough emphasize about the
IC functions
, at the time this
variable was not handled,

was unknown, but the
IC

is a

complementary
element of
man's work
;

both,
intellectual work

and
physical

work are a whole, intellectual capital
.
Of course, do not ignore
the roles of tangible resources
, they

are
tools, and

not part of
this analysi
s;

but without them the functions of specific intangibles and intellectual
capital would be very limited. Money is one of those highly important tangible
resources, too.

However,
as already stated, this research
is
address
,
conventionally
, to

innate

i
ntelligence,

knowledge
,
and

technology
, and specifically distribution or
dissemination knowledge in enterprise
.


CONCEPTS


Knowledge


Knowledge is the result of human effort to use their innate intelligence,
carrying out a great

number of operations, work
s
, step by step to discover the
integrating
elements that make
up everything that exists in reality, tangible and intangible, and all l
inks, relationships or
processes that occur between the elements of a phenomenon studied (Gortari, 1972);

seeks to understand,
to get to

the bottom
and discover nature, physical, social, economic,
and perhaps
,
virtual

nature surrounds us;

their nature, cha
racteristics, types, classes,
demonstrations, in short, anything that helps to account for all that surrounds the man,
based on previous experience and using all his rational capacity analysis, critique,
synthesis, inference, generalization. In this way ar
e common knowledge to all mankind
(Gortari, 1972) is gradually moving from the scientific communities
toward the societi
es
and people, of scientific knowledge to common knowledge. In both cases, such as
scientific or common

knowledge
, are used by either in
dividuals or communities or,
scientific or otherwise, to solve problems of all kinds; for any kind of incremental
innovations to existing technology, hard or soft, or radical innovations or completely novel
inventions of tangible or intangible things do no
t exist in the current environment, when
disclosed. Knowledge, is the set of know that man has acquired over the composition,
combination, nature, properties, characteristics of the elements and processes of natur
al
environments
;

social, economic
,

psychological
;

real, imaginary, virtual, physical
;

tangible
and intangible nature
;

and
the
man have created and recreated environments integrate
direct, indirect and remote that surround us and relate to our lives , including the industrial
environment, w
hich although as usual and natural feel, the truth is that the industry is not a
nature creation, is a man creation.


The role of knowledge has been studied and discussed extensively in the literature of
management and argued for inclusion in the functions

of "knowledge
-
based economy" at
least to some different degree from the logic of "value created" in industr
ial

economy. The
special attributes of knowledge, especially in its characteristics as a "public good"

including
the infinite possibilities of repli
cation,
which
mak
es of the

knowledge a key
;

economic
resource, a means to an end,
as point out

Galbraith
; which at present is
viewed as a
dominant
resource
in the

competitive advantage (Drucker, 1995
;

and Marr, 2005 in
5


Smedlund and Toivonen, 2007), knowled
ge has become

to be a prominent economic
resource, as a form itself of the bases

of competitive advantage (Khan, 2008).

However,
knowledge is not subject manageable subject, perhaps, by its nature, offer hard difficulty to
management.


From another perspec
tive, more social, talent, workers knowledge,
from
creative class
(Florida, 2002),
enterprise IC, from
all levels,
they
will flow to the port and shelter that
will make them successful
,

and
will
offer them quality of life
.

T
he creative class is the
economy

growth
, one of the inputs of raw materials more attractive, the equivalent of
quartz for industrial society. Thus, the knowledge will
become an essential tool for the
new urbanism and sustainability of cities, proposed as a cathedral (Edvinsson, 2006)
or
"Ba" Nonaka and Konno (1998),
Perhaps, it should not be said that

"
will become an
essential tool”,
but
that
it already is, and
it
always has been, although it is possible
that humanity had not accepted or recognized or ignored

it
,
since the last years of t
he
past century it has been recognized as a fundamental element for the generation of
wealth
in all its
manifestations
and

natures.


Technology.



This application of knowledge for the purpose of improving the technology arises what
generally
is known

as
technological development (Ramirez Salazar and Valdez, 1990).

Technolog
ical

development refers to activities to inventions
,

into practical use and
continually improves

them,

step by step,
which is
known as continuous improvement
or
gradual innovation.
G
rad
ual
i
nnovation is achieved by parallel knowledge that
emerges from their constant use in invents, and its gradual innovations, until to carry
out the radical innovation,
which is a new invention that with constant use will also be
subject to gradual innovation processes, and so on, for example the major inventions
in semiconductor industry: the transistor (1947), the integrated circuit (1959) and
m
icroprocessor (1971)
that

ha
ve

given
development to
countless and successive
development of new technologies in areas such as data processing, memory devices
(Burgelman and Maindique, 1988)
,
and
at present

to
the mobile phone or cell phone.
But not all inventions can be put into p
ractical use
,

and become technology. The
criteria or conditions generally accepted for
to be
considered technology inventions
arise
from the constant use to do the work for which it was designed and
manufactured,
that is to say, carried over from
level of
experimental construction of
prototype, to the
industrial production

and for sale level; as well as verifying that the
work it carries out effectively more beneficial in diverse aspects and markets;

their
financial investment programs are another type, com
monly with a less risk, that
risk
rank
to the stage
of implantation
industrial production, which
some make decisions or
gamble are
riskiness
, the greatest,

for highly ambitious entrepreneurs
, they love

spectacular triumphs.
Given that

the invention
can

be
tangible or intangible
;

products
or processes
;

graduals or radicals; modular o architectural
(Henderson and Clark,
1990)
,
for hum
an benefit or use of human work, their frequent use, and almost
parallel
ism

learning process

between and
technological developm
ent
,

also increase the
knowledge

to stimulating numerous and

news possibilities to explore in science and

to
evolve the technology

in parallel,
which
generate a rich dynamics feedback to
knowledge, technological development and high technology
;
and
rich income
-
yield
capacity for the most
daring industrial
who
play with very high investment

whit great
risk, not only monetary, but they are also viewing prestige, recognition, admiration,
fame, and the more participation market, very attractive; they to
ok the risks that
others avoided, for the high risks involved, they were the bravest among the brave.



6


gradual development, modular, architectural, radical, (Henderson and Clark, 1990)
,

also increase the base knowledge and has served as evolved, and also
, in parallel,
leading in turn to new discoveries that naturally generate a rich dynamics feedback to
knowledge, technological development and high technology and industrial returns for
daring to play with very high investment
,
high risk adventures not onl
y money, but
where well displayed monetary gain prestige, recognition, admiration, fame, move the
main competitor, for taking risks that others shunned, for the high risks were involved,
were

the

bravest

of

the

brave.


Another of the wealth it generates are:

a)

New knowledge generated in the achi
e
vement of technological developments
and the ability to accelerate and feed the creative capacity of the IC, to
conceive the possibilities of new adventures in each time more auda
cious
developments.


b)

This new knowledge are also stimulus for creativity and boldness of intelligence
to achieve higher positions in society and worthy of knowledge.

c)

C
onstitute trust platforms of the real possibility of keeping the movement for
the better

through

making the impossible possible.

d)

E
nrichment of skills, capabilities, and competences, brings enrichment about
uses and growth of the improved technology, or in evolution radical, and

e)

I
ntelligence innate has become human intelligence

enriched
by
interactions
with
human intelligences,
enrichments technological developments and technologies.

f)

Well seen

so
, produce a virtuous circle.


This
conceptual system, so
-
called "intellectual capital"
,

consti
tuted by
elements innate
intelligence,
knowledge,
tec
hnology,
emotional intell
i
gence, memory and others, and
the internal processes between them;

their

input and

outputs

interacting with systems
that constitute the enterprise and external systems
,
enrich
all aspects
of the
enterprises
itself
, their rationali
ty;

countries
;
and humanity
world. This kind of
interactions and processes,. Perhaps, could constitute parameters to measure the IC
into possible scale from “cero” to “infinite”
in general is one of the virtuous circles that

gives

proudest

human

dignity
.
Also, constitutes too, another of the virtuosos circles
that gives more pride to human dignity.


KNOWLEDGE PROCESSES.


T
he
theme
of
IC
, has emerged as one of the
major
interest in research agendas
(Stahle,

and Bounfour 2004) and consequently in the study o
f knowledge, which is
considered a critical element or component of
IC
, generally
.

Knowledge, since
individual until any level group, formals or informal,
possess
, have
abilit
ies
to generate
and useful
them
to achieve the
ir

mission
s,

including

attitudes, skills
,
values,
ethics,
philosophy, know that, know what,
and know
-
how (Martin and Lopez de Castro, 2008)
,
education
systems
to improve their economy (Stahle and Bounfour, 2004), or a
conce
pt,

or systems concept to measure

the
knowledge

(Caddy,

2002; Hunt, 2003;
Ordonez de Pablos, 2002).
However, it seems that are not found parameters with a
certain degree of generalized acceptation, with which it will be possible
to make
reliable measurements.
This has led to consider
the search of

way
s

of
appr
oximation,
suggestive guidelines that provide signs, indicators to
possible measurements, if not
direct and highly reliable, at least glimpses
some
primary

of them, that permit

indirect measurement
,

evaluations with
a significance, credibility
,

confidenc
e

and
convention acceptance degree
s, that

it measure
d

are transmitting o reflecting
,
some
idea about of
knowledge
significance, and what
is or does.


7


Characteristics

of

knowledge
.


Accepting that
knowledge
is a
whole
of know
s

relating to the discoveries of the nature
secrets
that surrounds us, which have gradually
achieved

humans and technology has
been invented by the application of such knowledge, also gradually. Both
,

scientific and
technology
knowledge
become common knowle
dge or
public domain

due to processes
of diffusion, dissemination and utilization levels, mainly.

Knowledge

is invisible and
intangible, but the knowledge can be known through the abstractions that humans
perform using their intel
ligence and reasoning proc
esses;
and observe their effects for
organizations in general and particularly
in

enterprises,
is an intangible
capital
that has
its correspondence also intangible assets, and many individuals and organizations not
explicit

it
, they if recognize their impo
rtance (Sveiby, 1997, in Hunt, 2003)

and try to
appreciate it in its proper dimensions
; and others
underestimate

it, in function to

personal

interests,

in

most

cases

distorted.




Taxonomies.



The classification process allow

to
perceive

different forms or ways in which it was
studied
the knowledge

theme
,
with
more
illustrative purpose
than exhaustive intent.

Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998)

refer to human capital

as

social capital,
as collective
capital
,

as the main
engine motor

of productio
n
,

and therefore
,

to
the
human
knowledge
in
possess
ion of
a

work unit
,

and
to the
knowledge

of a
person, which
distinguishes him as the wise

man
, the knower, the
skilful
, the person who knows. In
this sense
, the
classif
ication
knowledge that allows people
to act in new ways, as
follows:




Acquired Knowledge




Skills



abilities



ca
pacities



They also refer to the dimension of origin, those from systematic reflection and
abstraction of philosophers and researchers come from experience or practi
ce,
procedural:



Know that



Know what



Know how


Another classification, most cited, in terms of the inability to communicate, is offered
by

Polanyi

(1966)

(in

Nahapiet

and

Ghoshal,

1998):




Tacit knowledge



Explicit knowledge


These taxonomies show the differences between the theories positions and support
approaches
, which is also difficult to find
ways

to the measurement of knowledge.

During the
revisions of studies, were found ones of Nonaka and colleges
(1998, 1999,
2000, 20
03 and 2005),

in
which
they
proposes that knowledge is distributed within the
enterprises,
first
,

face to face between two
persons;

go to groups
;

then to
departments
;

later

to
divisions
;

and finally
, all over
the organization. They
consider
that this dist
ribution describes an
increasing

spiral within
the enterprise
.

This
reasoning
appears attractive, since if it were possible to
follow the
track
to
knowledge
t
hat somehow emerge or enter in activities
of the company, perhaps on their way
indicate or allow a

glimpse of some useful guidelines to find a form of measurement.
8


However, there were found empirical evidences on theoretical speculation
outlined

proposal. It seems that Nonaka, et al, part of the classification of tacit and explicit
knowledge
made by Polany to explain the characteristics of each type and function of
these specific forms of dissemination. Thus, explicit knowledge is characterized mainly
because they can be expressed in words or numbers in the form of data or scientifically
formu
lated or specific technical languages
in books, research

reportes, manuals,
instructions and other similar forms of individual character, formal or systematically.

Tacit knowledge is highly personal, hard to formalize, making it difficult to
communicatio
n and sharing them with others. Signs are subjective and intuitive, lucky
breaks, "beats me", which come from individual actions, personal experiences,
involved or entangled with ideals, values, emotions, usually identified with "knowing
how" (know how) th
at shares very slowly through the joint work "shoulder to
shoulder."


However, given the knowledge from this perspective, almost natural, can more easily
visualize the evolution of knowledge and dare even more of the
processes

of
socialization, externaliza
tion, combination and internalization of

process
es

knowledge
diffusion, Figure 1.






-------------------------------------------------




Insert here, approximately, figure 1


-------------------------------------------------


The importance of the diffusion process and the identification of the
processes,

consist
in making evident their
own existence and
above all
tacit knowledge,
its ends, and
appl
ications in the enterprise
. These
characteristics and
functions

or impacts
, perhaps
in the research could lead to findings of measurable knowledge, and
approximation
to
potential scaling parameters.

However, tacit knowledge, offers difficulties of identify
ing
specific knowledge communicable among other causes, undetermined degree of
contamination of other knowledge with those generally works to be seen, which would
cause distorted to follow
-
up observations in
processes

or stages of work through which
passes

within the company.

On the other hand
,

there are
explicit knowledge, already
identified by the operators of the
diverse

systems and work stages
along
where

they
advance on

the spiral
systems
proposed
by
Nonaka, et al, which can facilitate
observations and
follow

up
of
routes

tak
en

by
the selected
knowledge
, in
the
reality, in
such a way
, that the data from observations,

will provide o
f the guidelines

that have
potential for measuring knowledge.


Method.



Intellectual capital management

it could be to implicate and consider
its structure and
components: human capital, structural capital and relational capit
al, according to the
structural

conception,

the more

traditional
,

known and
diffused
(Euroforum,
1998;
Erickson, Rothberg, and Werz, 2002, Moo and Hyo, 2006, Sanchez 2009, Stewart
1998), or work with morphological theory
,
which states that the components of the
IC
are
:

innate intelligence, knowledge and technology (
Reseno
s, Pineda and Gonzalez,
2008)
,

and emotional intelligence,

memory, reasoning, values, imagination,

and other
items that
could be,
still unknown.

In order to carry out this study, it was necessary to elaborate the theory about IC
components with morphological approach, offer more conve
nience and compatibility
with Nonaka’s theory, in order to following of knowledge into enterprises. Structural
theory is suggesting the following of knowledge through human capital, structural
capital and
relational capit
al in enterprises.

9


It was accepted

that,

it is unknown as provide knowledge, no rules, default systems
and procedures. The companies possess, use, and used the knowledge of people.

It
consider the possibility that the generation of knowledge innovation follow two
patterns of reproduction a
nd socialization of knowledge so that he sees a pattern of the
knowledge measurement
.
According the Nonaka theory the knowledge describes an
upward spiral that starts between two people and concludes with the socialization of
the CI of the company, this ca
used a rethinking to find a mathematical model to
describe some guidelines for measuring the progress of knowledge in the companies
.
Was proposed a spiral directed by the growth in cubes three
-
dimensional vectors that
represent the knowledge, time and inve
stment in each of the stages
.
The spiral is
always growing as the three dimensions will be cumulative for each additional stage.

Spirals can occur for each of the innovations of each company, although in this paper
for reasons of confidentiality came alone

joined the model where all the values
of each
dimension of the firms interviewe
d

(
Figure 2)





-------------------------------------------------


Insert here, approximately, figure 2


-------------------------------------------------


The
dates
come from research called "
Pautas para medir la distribución del
conocimiento en las empresas (
Guidelines for measuring the distribution of knowledge
in
enterprises)
" that was registered and supported by the
Instituto Politécnico
Nacional,
project

k
ey: 20080747, which was to search for clues that allow a glimpse
possible ways and methods to measure knowledge.
B
efore the Knowledge universe
took the following decisions:



• Observe the knowledge of the
enterprise

are used to set and achieve their goals,
concrete, observable easily at first glance, that their
pass

over
within the company
will
should
be visible.


• Knowledge enterprises
are

another universe
,

i
m
measurable, highly dynamic. Were
selected
the relatives

to the innovations made by companies over the past five years,
which are held in memory of the IC was involved in its implementation, which
facilitates ex post facto observations.


The
first interpret
ation

refer to the guidelines that have allowed some ways approaches
that provide opportunities to understand the behavior, interactions and effects of
knowledge, but definitely, these results do not correspond to
measurements, but
guidelines.


And follow
-
up observations were made using knowledge
,

face to face interviews at the
facilities of the companies with the primary responsibility of innovations
,

that allowed
the original knowledge perceive
,

the innovations brought into play other knowledge for
adapt
ation
,
modifications, alterations or uses different
,

combinations used in other
tasks, "it also serves to", " tested and proved otherwise" IC that intervened, they
acquired new knowledge obtained during the course of the stages of innovation. A
summary

is

shown

in

Table

1
.



--------------------------------------------------


Insert here
approximately

Table 1
.

--------------------------------------------------



Moreover, it was also possible to observe that the applied knowledge that support the
10


expectations of innovation projects, to achieve the proposed goals, sometimes far
beyond the dream, benefits that enrich the goals sought, some and other tangible
or
intangible, but also, curiously grouped together to form new systems and subsystems
consis
t of tangible and conceptual elements, Table 2.


--------------------------------------------------



Insert

here, approximately
Table2

--------------------------------------------------



Perhaps, when these benefits are interwoven together with pr
evious to lead others and
higher profits, also move in the form of growing spiral, in groups

or systems
constituted autopoye
tica
ly, as

fractal structures.


Finally,
it was observed too

the impact of knowledge in the added value to the
products (goods or services; tangible or intangible),
since
conceptual added value
,
until
added value
measured in money.

I
n the current economic envi
ronment, the goal
with a higher
degree of preference, us
ually in the field of business, innovations show
high profitability, at times, very top of what offers the speculation in the stock
markets. And it
seems that because of its high a
ssociation to the enrichment of
knowledge and conceptual benefits, monetary
enrichment can enjoy the same
characteristics of the elements of the IC, table 3.


--------------------------------------------------



Insert

here, approximately,
Table

3


--------------------------------------------------


It seems that is observed

it is clear that enrichment responds correctly to meanings
more compressive or holistic and symbiotic
relationships
between knowledge, benefits
and profitability associations
,
and
,

is the
enterprises
I
C

of the, including knowledge, as
an element of the IC
, which generates the wealth of
them, societies and countries
,
suggesting further study and development of rich technologies
, and carefully

to
management

IC and its components
,
innate intelligence, knowledge, technology
(Resenos,

et al

2008), and emotional intelligence
,

memory, reasoning, values,
imagination,

and other items
,

in
looking for
new social, economic
al

and philosophical

equilibriums
, which already are demanding early this Millennium.


Spirals, tangible or intangible, genera
lly adopt a conical

form
, three
-
dimensional
shape, the knowledge is assumed conceptual or intangible. To adapt the form of the
spiral
, was support

by
three
vectors
:


1.

It is unknown how knowledge
arrived to

enterprise, has been accepted.


The
exceptions

were discarded for most general situations, in this discussion.


In knowledge system,
was accepted that there is

no rules or procedures default.

The enterprises

as social beings,
constituted

and
framed structure

by persons
and IC
,
they have, possess, use

and enjoy the usufruct their
knowledge
.
Therefore, the c
onstitution of enterprise knowledge is according to the specific
nature of the social bodies or organizations.

It was c
onsider
ed

the possibility of reproduction of knowledge i
n organizations
and enterprises to follow patterns of
wild
reproduction, so perhaps the
sequence of Fibonacci numbers or golden
number

could auxiliary observation of
dissemination, reproduction or socialization of knowledge within companies

and
a

glimpse

a
ny
guideline

measurement of knowledge.


11


2.

In the of Nonaka
,

et al

theory

the it is postulated that the distribution of
knowledge within companies describes a growing spiral
,

which starts between
two people and ends when all has socialized it the intellectua
l capital of the
company.
But do not show
empirical evidence for this theory. However
their

logic is
stimulating to look for

the possibility of the mathematical model
of this
phenomenon
; perhaps the model parameters thrown some guidelines for
measuring the

course of knowledge, at least.


3.

The vector selection was carrying out on observation of the main subjects at
each innovation stage, were:
knowledge, time and investment
.

The knowledge used in each innovations stage was chosen as the main object
of observ
ation;
the time
and money
invested in every stage of the innovations.

In most cases was achieved information on investments for each stage of the
innovations in monetary units. Data in monetary units of the total profits of
every innovation and the
intangible benefits that won each company made
innovations were also obtained

too
.


The applied observation method was direct interviews, face
-
to
-
face, with the


executives r
esponsible

for the
innovations. The sample was

obtained
by indu
ced


selection under the criterion of exclusive selection of
enterprises

in the past five



years made an innovation, at least.
Got
eleven

enterprises to
interview
.


.


The interview guide framed structure taking care of the follow
ing methodological
requirements:

a)

Offering strict confidentiality of the information obtained during the
realized
observations, both managerial and technical and the identity of the
enterprises
.

b)

Theoretically and methodologically oriented verification of
the Nonaka, et
al
theory, basically.

c)

Observations of the innovations were carried out following the next innovation
stages:

Conception

of the
idea
,

generates one or more people working together,

Approval of the idea


Planning of the idea


Performance
and implementation of the idea

To set it up operation of the idea.


d)

The interviewer should enrich the observations with pertinent questions.



RESULTS.



The quantifiable results were obtained on selected vectors to carry out observations
through the interviews were: knowledge, time and investment; using the more generic
stages of innovation, enabling both the contrast theory Nonaka, et
al,

against the
appr
oximate realities
displayed by

the observations that are shown in table 1
.


--------------------------------------------------


Insert here
approximately

Table 1

--------------------------------------------------



Interpretation of findings and
conclusions
.


O
bservations were
carried

out in
11
enterprises

through interviews face
-
to
-
face
selected under the criterion of having
realized

innovations in the last five

years, in
12


order to concretely

observe the
journey of the knowledge that support the
i
nnovation
or that emerge during this process. Are accepted as new in the following cases:



C
omes from a scientific discovery
:


a)

New
elements,

which consists of tangible or intangible with their own
characteristics, properties and interactions, or processes with other
elements
;

b)

new
processes

between the new elements, which are being discover
;

or

c)

already known elements of which certain processes
, were not known until
now;

d)

an unknown
property
, at least for interaction or process specified that had
not been used as a base for innovations and that it is possible to experiment
methodologically;

e)

elements, processes, knowledge applied

by other enterp
rises in any
form or modality that have stimulated creativity or facilitate
d

an original
application in the particular case at that it is working in that time.



That allows their follow
-
up from the conception moment of innovation, up to the
observation of
the effects of its sale in the markets where it competes with their
products
,

against products of its competitors.



That it is feasible to evaluate

the return on investment
,

and tangible
or
intangible benefits of the effects of knowledge
,

that is
support
in
g

the
innovation.



That it offers the possibility to surmise
future innovations.


The information provided by respondents was that ke
pt in the historical memory of
them
, in any case offered information on formal records, which implies that
achieved
innovations in the Mexican environment
are carried out in a strictly te
c
h
ni
cal
-
operativ
e

environment, with minimal involvement of the
administrative
-
accountancy

areas, so
that the most probable is that
they
are part of the great secret, "top secret" and
there
are no
t

administrative historical records or accounting of innovations,

or well, this
kinds of records are “top secret” too,

For this reason,

the information provided has an
undetermined ran
k

of
accuracy;

or
there exist

strong
policies
that prohibit

to
show

them to anyone. This situation could also be caused by the zeal with which
they are
managing
the innovations
confidentiality
, "big secret" that
supports

the
excusive
success of their business. Whatever the reason or motive, research in these subje
cts
and environments
should

be accomplished with the available information
,
if
there are
wishes

to
advance

in the search for contributions to science and technology of
management
.

This first attempt,
it was tested that
knowledge
distribution
within ent
erprises
,

it

start
first between

persons
, passes
on

groups,
after
departments, divisions and
finally
to
all
the

enterprise
. This
journey

looks like
the

growing spiral as proposed by Nonaka,
et al
.

It was possible to graphitize
with conventional procedures
from considering the vector
s

and
the stages of the innovation
,
as the dominant vector
the stages were selected
versus the vectors relating to knowledge, time and financial investments; The increase
in earnings and profits during the development of research

became necessary to
include the vector of the stages of the innovation, annex 1.


--------------------------------------------------


Insert here
approximately

Table 1

--------------------------------------------------




S
ome tangible and intangible ef
fects were not considered:



T
hose relating to the processes of innovations incremental or radical, whose
stages of implementation are not so

much equidistant
,
above all,
investments
13


in resources, when
at
less
,

time and money, that obey little foreseeable
conditions
;

they are unique situations
,

unrepeatable,

still more, into achieves
processes the first prototype; many

lacks
among
implementation stage

and
their innovation processes, about
of
unpredictable

propor
tions of

physical and
conceptual

resources, know how, know what, know that, of
the innovations

projects
, e.g. which is or should be the proportions of financial investment in
the stage of realization of the idea,

or

i
n the stage of conception of the idea.




When they become scaling at the industrial level and achieved mass production,
the vast majority of their processes are highly repetitive and therefore
programmable. These stages or the following until the sale to the customer are
not included in the obs
ervations made.



Also by the nature of the applied research that will be occurring during its
implementation, it has a high degree of experimentation of "trials and errors"
because in many cases, it is the first time it tries to, there is no background or

experiences of how it works, nor the nature of the unexpected reactions.



The natural processes of enrichment of knowledge, benefits and profits
increased; that it arises from the
evolutions and

developments towards
complexity;
improving or conceptual
fu
lfillment derived from the flexibility
of
the changing conditions of functioning that sometimes
propitiate
changes in
paradigms.



Technologies that are used.



From the follow up

of the knowledge distribution or dissemination
, it is possible
to appreciate

in
a
more tangible and vivid way, as common persons manifest
the
mselves as intellectual capital
that generates different kind wealth:
economic, knowledge, experiences, capacities, skills, competence; and also in
science, technology; of the
ecological

pr
otection,
better and
cleaner products
and processes, each time; the improvement in all senses of the human quality;
enrichment values that humans cultivate; and each time the human being
farther away from the ape
that
he was.



Increasing utilities does not
constitute a vector in the cumulative models, is a
final result of the cumulative processes of the observed phenomenon.
In the

specific
case
of knowledge distribution, the phenomenon is observed as a
cumulative process, not as a process of cause effect, th
us the vectors, with
quantifiable characteristics that are cumulative processes were:

a)

The
knowledge
that originated

the concept
ion

of innovation, more
knowledge that
were generated in sequentially of
innovations processes
until the operation;

b)

The time
invested in development processes of innovation;


c)

Money invested in the realization of innovations


Tangible effects observed in the processes of innovation are investments in physical
goods such as
technological

tangible

materials
, machinery, instruments, tools,
installations that have contributed to increased earnings,
which is
another tangible

good.
These combined, mixed in an inseparable harmonious

manner, involving
knowledge and time
,

constructs of human rationality
,

constitute

a unity of creation and
work to produce the intangible effects, increase in revenue; also, combined inseparably
with tangible effects, it constituting another unit, results, goods or services, purposes,
objectives, goals, tangible or intangible technology
,
or a combination of both; thereby
creating
wealth
, in the broadest sense of the concept.


--------------------------------------------------


Insert here
approximately

Figure 2

--------------------------------------------------


14




It also detected that
knowledge have different aspects depending on the degree of
rarity or both it away from the common domain into the domain of
specificity of
scientific knowledge of recent discovery, abstraction level required for their
understanding, comprehension and doma
in, it is difficult to handle with simple criteria,
generally appear to be amorphous, multifaceted, multidimensional, difficult to observe
with unique criteria. Therefore it seems that it is not feasible to observe them with
traditional criteria, by what i
s suspected are required different parameters so far
untested, perhaps derived from the facets, dimensions, characteristics, their impacts,
its complexities, their natures. It is likely that the techniques developed in decision
making, called "
multicriteri
a index
"
in
operations research could be useful to start new
attempts at valuation and measurement of knowledge.
It may be probable that as
it
advance

forward in the valuation and measurement
; it

w
ill

advance

in dissection and
conventional separation of any of its aspects and dimensions for the purposes of
further study more specific or concrete of any knowledge functions.


Another aspect that attract

attention and which emerged during the work on
knowledge
,

are
the
undefined
and
amorphous structures
that they
adopt.
Although

the
type

of knowledge of the innovations in tangible assets tend to guide the methods of
research and innovations in methods and procedures more rigid, less flexible working,
it seems t
hat when working on innovations from manufacturing processes methods
and procedures more elastic or broader tolerance ranges
,

which, however, ensure
compliance with the specifications requirements for the production of goods
, tangibles
or intangibles, and
their elaboration pro
ce
sses
.
Consequently
, the specific structures of
knowledge
,

to different innovation
types,

above all, in intangibles products innovations
and the production processes
innovations

of these intangible
products
. Probably
,
these
knowledge
structures

am
orphous and undefined, they are
corresponding to the so
-
called fractal structures.


Future research



This research,
in addition to,
provid
e

the first guidelines for measuring knowledge
,
allow to
view

a field

new and rich research
activities
dealing with scientific and
technological knowledge for the engineering, the tec
h
no

scien
c
es, the social sciences
and consequently for the
management
in general
,

and specifically
,
knowledge and
IC

management
to produce knowledge, instruments, pr
ocedures and systems to support
practices
, that heretofore
unknown
, and to start

the search to resolve the new
problematical about IC management;

scaling of the prototypes of products (goods or
services), processes, procedures at the industrial level

too
; the reorganization of
functions, jobs, tasks and responsibilities; the research of marketing of innovations;
the problems and financial solutions

also
;
as well,

searc
h requires more research work
on

parameters and scales to measure knowledge, science a
nd technology, its impact
on particular technologies and own Sciences where move innovations, and specifically
in science and technology
,
management of markets where they
are commercialized
and compete.


Another methodological
area to
explore in the knowle
dge measurement
is the uses of multicriterios index given that it seems that knowledge
impacts
have

simultaneously

on
different aspects,
relationships
to the source
from
where
their
profits come; intangible benefits,

by

applic
ations,
use
s, and evolutions to
consumer
s
companies,
and societies,
which in turn enrich, modify, change or evolve.
So, also
exist the
possib
i
l
it
y
that
knowledge adopt

amorphous fractal structures,
then,

the
mathematical Fractals offer possibilities of providing some

methods or models of
measurement of knowledge (see annex 2)
in support of management praxis and their
study
. Since companies are a type of organizations, above may be applicable to all
15


organizations, in its proper dimension, depending on the specificities
of each type of
organizations and suggests reflections, new balances and restructuring of the
knowledge societies with renewed rational
iti
es
, and social equilibriums

consistent
future that are being built.



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19




Figure 1.

Spiral evolution of knowledge conversion


and self
-
transcending process
.



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“Ba”: building a foundation for


knowledge creation.
CMR 40 (3): 43













20




FIgure 2



















R & R SPIRAL MODEL

Source: Own elaboration.


21










T
ABLE 1. Results
from

obtained and processed data

22









Table 1. Summary of knowledge enriched





E t a p s

Enterprises
(n=11)
Innovations
10 gradual
processes
1 radical
product
Vectors
S T A G E S
Conception
of
idea
Approval of
innovation
Planning
organizing
Carry out
and
implementing
Operation of
innovation
Results
achieved
SUMMARY
Knowl
edge
34
23
25
30
23
4
Time
R= real
L=
laboral
R
1
year
11
months
1
week
126
days
16
hrs
.
R
15
years
4
months
9
weeks
140
days
4
hrs
.
R
2
years
21
months
3
weeks
18
days
90
hrs
.
R
3
years
20
months
8
weeks
37
days
7
hrs
.
R
13
months
20
days
41
hrs
Equivalence
Mean
n=
11
20009
hrs
2
years
3
months
2
weeks
20947
hrs
2
years
4
months
3
weeks
35338
hrs
.
4
years
43127
hrs
.
4
years
10
months
4
weeks
10017
hrs
.
1
year
1
month
1
week
1819
hrs
2
months
2
weeks
1904
.
3
hrs
.
2
months
2
weeks
3312
.
5
hrs
.
4
months
2
weeks
3922
.
5
hrs
.
5
months
2
weeks
1113
hrs
.
1
month
2
weeks
L
1
year
4
months
1
week
15
days
148
hrs
.
L
3
months
9
weeks
11
days
80
hrs
.
L
6
months
3
weeks
42
days
1333
hrs
.
L
2
years
9
.
5
weeks
50
days
720
hrs
.
L
3
months
7
days
107
hrs
Investment
n=
9
Mean
$
15
,
345
,
100
$
1
,
705
.
011
Increase
prof its
n=
9
Mean
prof its
relation
increase/
investmen
$
87
,
705
.
281
$
9
,
745
,
031
87705
/
15345
=
9745031
/
1705011
=
571
.
55
%
Benfits
New markets
Increase of contacts, new clients
Income increase
Redisigning
of machinery and equipment, cheaper manuf acturing
Sustitution
of imports, reduction of costs, producing in
pl
ant
Time reduction of production and management process
Volume increment of production
Costs reduction of production and management
Selling of product that was conf ined bef ore
Increment in ef f iciency, greater production
Permanence in the market
Greater economic income
Better organization
Installations expansion
More employment
More security in the job
Financial levering
Elimination or reduction of waiting times f or suppliers
Makes logistics more agile easier processes
Less complains
Increases rapidity and quality of service
More prestige and surplus value
Increase in control processes of operation costs and management
Increment of quality of service to external and internal clients
Decreasing of personnel and paper costs.
23


Company

Innovation

Conception
of the idea

Adoption of
innovation

Planning
organizing

Execution

Operation of
innovation



A

Making strategy
alliances



Change the priority
of the

offer of
services



Improve the
work of the
knowledge



Increase in
know
-
how



Behavio
r

of the
markets and new
market needs



Increased
understanding of
the behavior of
markets and sales
Protocol



B

Simplification of
equipment to
magnetize, and
technology to
repair easy



Reduction of
delays by faults.
Simplify the search
of faults

Place
protections.
Modification of
card that sends
shoot



Simplification
of equipment

Simplification
equipment
techn
ology to
magnetize

.







C

This decrease in
change time of
fusion furnace





Performance of the
team. Knowledge
of tools read



Change of
mentality of the
ICC. Approach
to expenditure
for the operation:
1 minute



SMED,

Lean
tools of
knowledge



Learn

more the
operation of the
machine and
security issues



SMD, to Lean tool.
Raise awareness
in the CI of the
importance of
using the shortest
possible time in a
work stoppage





D

Reuse of waste of
the steel
-
works
process of and
generation of the
by
-
product for sale

Information of the
processes





Internal logistics





Trial and error

Logistics

Sampling,
chemical analysis,
process control





Change of
paradigms,
operational
practices, and work
culture.







E

Ensure the peso
-
metro and
diminish

in the
second product

Control process,
basic statistics,
analysis of
information
(database), and
implementation of
the improvement.

Return on
investment
monthly utility

Work
procedures



Control of the best
real utility, control
of expenditure



Improvement of
processes, control
processes, work
tools, following
product detail.





F

Manufactured to
mixture of
synthetic slag for
use in the oven in
stainless steel





Knowledge to evict
faster in doing so,
the proper use of
this mixture





None





None





None

The production of
the common
mixture, use
correct mixture,
removal of carbide
of calcium as a part
of the mix







G

Accreditation to
the EMA







Management of
the equipment
more complex.
New knowledge for
the management
for the new
equipment





Organization,
control,
management of
equipment,
control of
processes, new
procedures.



Concept of
accreditation
and its
distance with
the
certification,
knowledge of
standards 045
follow
-
up and
077 unified
045
-
2006









Knowledge of
standard 17020

Culture of
certification,
knowledge of new
business using the
audit, improvement
of the process of
verification,
simplification of
operations,
complexity in
knowledge is now
the engineering of
sales on the teams
that were.





H



Remote
control of
inventories of flour
in area stores raw
material in plant 2
by the provider.



Vendor
Management
Inventory (VMI).

Strategic alliances.
Theory of inventory



Inventory
management,
logistics
processes with
suppliers,
inventory by an
external
management.



Financial
leverage,
queueing
theory, an
external of the
operation of
the plant
creates trust.



General concepts,
technology of
communication
and information of
the supplier,
transmission of
data via radio
frequency; use of
software for
reading levels

Programme from
the store provider,
knowledge
modified in
operations; form of
payment; the billing
is annual instead of
each delivery;
monitoring of the
behaviour of the
flour silos; practical
application of the
rules of storage
security;
com
munication
technologies,
programming of
production in
coordination with
the supplier.













Development of
products,






Knowledge of
the lack of
follow
-
up, the








Administration of
personnel, CI;
24


















Figure 3. Some
illustrations
fractals


I

Procedures
manual

procedures to give
follow
-
up to fines,
to the
requirements



No

Handbook of
procedimien
-
cough;
Conocimien
-
cough of laws
and
regulations.

Evolution of
continuous
improvement.

knowledge of legal
documents, tariff
certification,
Customs operation.









J

Gradual
innovation,
food
and beverages for
point of sale
software; the
waiters have more
opportunity to give
good service to
customers with
the issuance of
electronic
commands.





Make changes,
improvements in
service and the
growth in capacity
of facilities; more
sophisticated
services
management





Effective project,
which operates
the training;
different work,
personalized
attention
perception.





Manage
people, the
times, listen.





Knowledge of a
hotel system;
innovations in
learning.





Programming of
peri
pheral devices,
wirelessly
configuration
methods.









K





Combine the skills
and experience of
manufacturing,
with the floor of
packaging for
consumption









In this case the phases of conception, planning,
development of the project, adoption,
organization, were
carried out in parallel; the planning of the project was
released before approval. Knowledge of the capabilities of
installed production and operation; generated uses of new
technologies, automatic filtering of beer; Discover the
potenti
al of greater volume of this system use.

Learn about
dimensional
parameters,
structures and
trajectories.
Installation and
start
-
up of the
filter, laboratory
analysis, extraction
of land;
opportunities to
modify the
operation of the
filter;
improvements to

the process of
saving energy.



Filter concentrated
beer; prepare pipes
to receive beer;
modify or adjust
parameters;
processes for
recovery of the
investment; plant
evidence relating to
the purity of beer;
damage in
transfers.

Source: Own drawing







25














26


Table 2. Benefits

Company

Intangible

A.

New markets,
increase contacts, increase in revenue.

B

Obtaining of redesign of a rectifier, its manufacture was cheaper; maintenance time
is 20 minutes, was 1.5 hours

C

Was reduced from 3.5 to 2.33 changing time hrs. Change is performed once a week
which equates to
obtain 575 tons of production.

D

Reduction of cost of transformation. Sale of product that previously confined.

E

Increase in performance. Increased production at 1.2%

F

Costs were reduced to produce her on floor, avoiding the purchase abroad.

G

Stay
in the market, new customers, better organization, increased income.



H

It reduced the time of purchase orders. Appropriation of the flour (financial leverage).
The provider has no waiting times. It speeds up the logistics. Reduction of time of
administr
ation. An invoice is made per month. Management of the inventories by the
supplier. Possibility of replicating the system processes.

I

Decline of complaints. Decline in demand and reduction in cost.



J

Increase of speed and quality of the services. Incr
ease in sales from the 2nd year,
more prestige and added value. Increase in the control of inputs for the manufacture
of the products. Increase of the quality of the service. Increase of administrative
control. Decrease in costs of stationery. Decrease of
the CI template.

K

Increase in the volume of production. Reduction of production costs. Use of assets
and the capacity of the industrial IC.

Source: Own elaboration.





Cuadro 3. Beneficios Económicos
*


Empresas

n=9

Inversión

Utilidades

Relativos

Total

$15,345,100

$87,705,281

$571.55%**

Promedio


1,705,011


9,745,031

571.55%

*No se detalla por empresas
en

atención a la secrecía ofrecida a las
empresas participantes.

**Las cantidades fueron proporcionadas por los responsables principales

de
las innovaciones,

provenientes de su memoria, algunas fueron estimadas por
los autores, por la forma en que manejaban la información los entrevistados o
responsables de los programas de innovación. Tal vez los resultados se
aproximen con alto grado de
razonabilidad a las realidades de las empresas
que proporcionaron los datos.


Fuente: Elaboración propia










27



Figure 2.
Spiral evolution of knowledge in enterprise.


































28


Doctor Edmundo Science in Management Science from the National Polytechnic Institute,
Professor Senior Researcher at the School of Commerce and Administration Network
Management Science, Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Capital. ACACIA President
200
2
-
2004.


Angel Machorro. Doctor of Science in Management Science from the National Polytechnic
Institute, Director of the Technological Institute of Oaxaca, participates in the Network
Management Science, Innovation, Technology and Intellectual Capital. F
ounding Member
of Acacia.


Daniel Pineda. Doctor of Science in Management Science from the National Polytechnic
Institute, Professor Senior Researcher at the School of Commerce and Administration
Network Management Science, Innovation, Technology and Intel
lectual Capital.
Founding
Member of Acacia.