Knowledge Management: An Annotated Bibliography

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

Annette Hester Hoffman


Knowledge Management:

An Annotated Bibliography


Introduction and Scope


The following bibliography covers current topics of interest in the
relatively new
field of Knowledge
Management

(KM)
. Articles touch upon varied definitions

of
knowledge and knowledge management, evolution of phases or focuses within
the field,
varied approaches to its implementation and m
easurement of success, higher education
programs and

perspectives
from Library
and Information Science
(LIS)
professionals
.
Due to the
emerging quality and
quickly changing nature of Knowledge Management
, the
articles us
ed were published from 2005 to 2010

to reflect the most current research
.

KM

has a world
-
wide appeal

and touches on a variety of disciplines. As a result,

articles were
submitted from authors
located
in: Australia, Denmark, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of
China

(
Taiwan
)
, South America,
United Kingdom and

Unites States
.

An effort was made
to remain wit
hin the bounds of LIS literature, thus t
he majority of articles originated

from
Library Science databases. D
ue to the cross
-
disciplin
e nature of KM such as to provide a
slightly wider perspective a few articles have been included outside of that realm.

H
owever, many articles were excluded due to this constraint.





Description


Knowledge
is information in our mind and is also tested in practice

(Tripa
t
h
y,
Patra & Pani, 2007, p. 66)
. It

can be, “intangible, fluid, personal, elusive, invisible,
immeasurable and ever evolving” (Gorelick & Tantawy
-
Monsou, 2005, p.126).
Knowledge can be segmented into two categories, tacit or explicit (Christensen, 2007, p.
38).
Explicit knowledge can be codified and includes databases, documents and software
code
s. Tacit knowledge cannot be codified and remains in the mind. It includes insights
and techniques from personal interactions and exp
eriences (Tripa
t
h
y et al.
, 2007, p. 66).
Although knowledge can be intangible
it also has worth in our post
-
capitalistic

society
and has
been described as
the most meaningful resource

(Wu & Li,
2
006, p. 275). Due to
the high value

of knowledge
,

a movement came

into being
in the 1990s to manage this
2


asset,
creating the field of Knowledge Management.

The inherent properties

of
knowledge pose challenges to its management. However, there are other intangible and
tacit assets that are effectively
and positivity
managed such as customer
loyalty
,

reputation and brand (Gorelick & Tantawy
-
Monsou, 2005, p. 127).

A definitive
defini
tion of Knowledge Management has not been accepted, in part because the
definition varies according to the need of organization that is using it. However, a
broad
definition is offered by Bishop, Bouchlaghem, Glass and Matsumoto (200
8) is:

The processes a
ssociated with the creation of new knowledge, the sharing and
transfer of new knowledge and existing knowledge, the capture, storage,
exploitation

and measurement of the impact of knowledge, in such a way that it
benefits the unit of adoption, which can be

the organization (p. 22).








Summary of Findings


Despite the new emerg
ence of the KM

discipline
,

there has been

some debate
within the LIS

com
munity that KM

is a new name for what information professionals and
librarians have been doing for years (Roknuzzaman & Umemoto, 2010, p. 267
-
8).

This
school of thought has led some within the LIS community to discredit the validity of KM
,
dismissing it as a “hollow sh
ell”

(Hazeri & Martin, 2009, p. 256). S
till others within LIS
want
to claim
it
as their own

due to similarities in KM compe
tenc
ies with existing LIS
curriculum

(Hazeri,

Sarrafzadeh & Martin, 2007, p. 169)
.

Due to the
multidisciplinary

aspects

of KM, there are
other fields
competing

to
claim it as their own. Many business schools offer KM courses and degrees because KM
is primarily practiced within businesses. Additionally, many IT schools offer KM
courses and degree
s

because many
aspects

of
KM rely heavily on the use of IT.

With this
interdisciplinary competition and lack of definition for KM, there are no agreed upon
course requirements and the course content in master level programs are skewed to
feature the discipline offering the program

(
Roknuzzaman & Umemoto, 2010, p.267).







Although there is some reluctance within LIS to add KM courses to an already
burgeoning catalog, there are also challenges to launching a KM program such as
locating qualified professors with
skills pertaining to KM and students who are aware of
the discipline (
Hazeri & Martin, 2009, p. 257). Despite these challenges there are those
who see an incredible opportunity for information professionals and librarians to use KM
3


to increase their marke
table skills and the perceived value of their skill
-
set
(Tripa
t
h
y et
al., 2007, p. 69).

Other benefits seen
within the LIS community include ability to better
deal with management issues, a broader understanding of the profession and gaining
competitive a
dvantage in newly developing KM positions (Hazeri, Martin & Sarrafzadeh,
2009, p. 10).


Ownership of the discipline
and its benefits
aside,
KM

is still designed to manage
the asset
of
knowledge.

Knowledge is an intangible asset and nearly 70 percent of the
value of a
firm

consists of intangible assets (Calabrese & Orlando, 2006, p. 239).

To gain
competitive advantage a firm can focus on developing its idiosyncratic resources that
make them unique

in the marketplace. There are two types of resources or assets that can
be developed, tangible assets that competitors can purchase and intangible assets, such as
employee knowledge that are not consumed in usage (April, 2002, p. 446).

Unfortunately, it

is difficult to demonstrate tangible returns on the resources expended on
a KM and a definitive measurement tool has yet been accepted (Chen & Chen, 2005, p.
382).


However,
the sharing of that knowledge does

not occur automatically or naturally.
Current
ly there are two prevailing approaches to introducing a KM system to an
organization. The first is with policies and procedures and the second is to have it
integrated within daily activities and projects. Regardless of the approach used, there is
genera
l consensus on the aspects of a successful KM system such as commitment from
senior management, allocation of funding, a dedicated KM champion and personal
recognition of participants (Bishop et al., 2008, p. 20). One of the most significant
barriers to s
uccessful knowledge sharing is centered on
conflicting
power issues within
an organization. If the power relationships are traced and strategies put into place to
remedy these barriers then the KM strategy will be greatly strengthened (Hall & Goody,
2006,

p.
182).




Since knowledge is stored within people, an aspect of KM is in studying the
human perspective and how it pertains to the sharing of knowledge and attitudes
regarding KM. Historically, KM has loosely been divided between human
-
oriented
sys
tems and system
-
oriented systems. Firms that focus on a human
-
oriented KM system
have more success with promoting
feelings of caring and mutual trust. While firms that
4


focus on the system
-
oriented

side of KM, are more successful with moderate feelings of

anxiety for motivation (Wu & Li, 2006, p. 277).





Much of the literature within KM is based upon “best practices” which is a focus
on closing performance gaps by building stocks
or entities
of knowledge in
a successful

department

within a firm
to

share
it with

a department that is lacking (Holdt Christensen,
2007, p. 39). However, there
are some who are

expanding the
concept of
knowledge
sharing from units in a formal KM framework to a flow
or process
within the
organization.

Th
ey

propose a four

phase stage in the evolution of KM as a discipline.
The first phase was highlighted by a dependence on IT and the knowledge was for
decision makers. The second phase focused on converting tacit knowledge to explicit
knowledge for public knowledge. The
third phase focused

on the management of
knowledge as a stock or a process. The fourth and current phase incorporates aspects of
the previous three (Gorelick & Tantawy
-
Monsou, 2005, p. 127).


There is agreement with the suggestion of movement from the “
soft” KM
approaches to an approach that incorporates all approaches. This enables an IT
mechanism to ensure a connection for the transfer of knowledge while providing a trigger
to create and share knowledge (Barber, Munive
-
Hernandez & Eldridge, 2006, p. 1
54). It
can
also
provide organizations that have limited resources with soft
-
ware that provide
knowledge sharing tools that combines knowledge sharing from personal, social and
community components (Cartelli, 2010, p. 42).


Much of the negativity regardin
g the discipline of KM

centers on ambiguity
surrounding its definition, the umbrella it belongs under, how to implement it and how to
measure its success. However, it is a new and rapidly evolving field that has a place in
today’s completive business envi
ronment.

















5






Bibliography

Entry 1:


April, K.A. (2002). Guidelines for developing a k
-
strategy.
Journal of Knowledge
Management,
6
(5), 445
-
456.


Abstract:

As companies start to engage with the knowledge economy, they have
to
shift their mindsets to understanding knowledge management more holistically and,
more importantly, understand the role of knowledge management as it pertains to
sustainable competitive advantage. It requires companies to think of age
-
old concepts in
n
ew ways, and necessarily requires deep insight into the enablers of business success
within the company, and then creative insight is required to reveal the new possibilities.
This paper, drawing on resource
-
based theory, provides some guidelines for comp
anies
to develop business strategies, critically dependent on knowledge management
initiatives. A chain of sustainability is introduced and three insightful concepts are
highlighted (complementary resource combinations, strategic architecture and pool of
resources); however, they do not tell companies specifically what to do, but robustly
explain what the requirements of a knowledge strategy are, if they want to attain, and
sustain, competitive advantage.”


Annotation:
This article is very effective in
explaining how different pieces of
knowledge management are used to d
evelop a k
-
strategy and states its objective is to
maintain a firm’s

competitive advantage. This is done by focusing on their idiosyncratic
resources that differentiate them for their co
mpetitors

and can’t be purchased
, such as
know
-
how, learning, knowledge and exp
erience.
Another
well
-
illuminated
point
is that
k
-
strategies need to be sustainable and sustainability is not based upon a calendar, but by
the marketplace and how it evolv
es.



Search Strategy:

I read through,
A contingency approach to incorporate
human, emotional and social influence into a TAM for KM
programs
,

and thought the direction of the reference used
was intriguing. I checked the references for the citation

and fou
nd the article. I then

went to the library website and
searched the
ProQuest database by title. I was able to
access the full text of the article there.


Database:

N/A


Method of Searching:

Footnote chasing


Search String:

Referenced in:

6



Wu, W., & Li,
C. (2007). A contingency
approach to
incorporate human, emotional and social influence into a
TAM for KM programs
.
Journal of Information Science,
33
(3), 275
-
297.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted
the Journal of Information Science
website. According to the journal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.




Entry 2:


Bishop, J., Bouchlaghem, D., Glass, J., & Matsumoto, I. (2008). Ensuring the
effectiveness of a knowledg
e management initiative.
Journal of Knowledge
Management, 12
(4), 16
-
29.


Abstract:

Purpose



The purpose of this paper is to identify a set of critical success
factors, which ensure the effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives, with
particular focus on the effect of people
-
oriented success factors.
Design/methodology/approach



A comp
rehensive review of knowledge management
literature, substantiated by ten qualitative interviews with leading academics and
industrial representatives in the field of knowledge management in the construction
industry.
Findings



The research suggests that

organizations need to consider several
key areas, in particular, the processes and practices undertaken to understand and define
knowledge management, the implementation of dedicated champions, the integration of
the
initiative

into the business, and effe
ctive communication of its benefits to member of
staff. Each of these factors will have a direct bearing on the level of effectiveness
reached by an organisation’s knowledge management initiative.
Research
limitations/implications



The industry
-
based
in
terviewees

were all strategic
-
level
managers. This means that, in relation to the application of knowledge
management
initiatives, they adopt primarily managerial roles. Further interviews with the
practitioners of these initiatives would be beneficial i
n reflecting the more “hands
-
on”
perspective of knowledge management implementation.
Originality/value



A holistic
overview of the best
-
practice for maximizing the effectiveness of a knowledge
management initiative by addressing the issues, which concern

the people involved with
its implementation.”




Annotation:
This article is unique becaus
e i
t identifies the critical factors that ensure
effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives before, during and after
implementation. It also focuses on the

importance of staff members recognizing the
value of KM for it success as well as commitment from senior management, allocation of
sufficient funding and resources, a dedicated champion and meaningful recognition of

those who are involved. Among the indu
stry KM experts
were two diverging approaches
to integrating knowledge management: with policies and procedures or with integration
in daily and project activities.

7



Search Strategy:

I selected Library & Information Science Abstracts because
of
the numerous articles it contains on topics related to
information science. This was an initial search using this
database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:



Library & Information Science Abstracts


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Searc
h String:

knowledge management or km and best practice date range
2006
-
2011, English.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the a
rticle through the above steps, I
ensured it was located under the “Peer
-
Reviewed
Journals” tab. I also
consulted the Jo
urnal of
Information Science website. According to the
journal’s
website, it “
adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing policy”.







Entry 3:


C
alabrese, F.A., & Orlando, C.Y.

(2006). Deriving a 12
-
step process to create and
implement

a comprehe
nsive knowledge management system.
VINE: The journal
of information and knowledge management systems, 36
(3), 238
-
254.


Abstract:


Purpose



Enterprises are supportive of knowledge management (KM)
activities if they result in “actionable information” that relates

to achieving strategic and
operational goals and improved performance. KM individuals and corporate practitioners
have evolved mu
ltiple approaches to creating the discrete steps required to design,
implement and measure knowledge management systems (KMS) that meet the
“actionable information” expectation of organizations. However, there is no universally
acclaimed standard or best
practice readily embraced, the purpose of this article,
therefore, is to investigate a process for a comprehensive KMS.
Design/methodology/approach



This article describes and analyzes five such
approaches to an effective KMS; two are derived from academ
ic sources and three from
name recognizable practitioner corporations. The five use eight
-
, nine
-
, and ten
-
step
constructs for their KMSs.
Findings



The study found many similarities but were also
able to project a 12
-
step hybrid approach which combines

all the best features of the five
analyzed. Furthermore, the 12 steps are then logically distributed among the George
Washington University “Four Pillar Framework” promulgated in 2000 and reflecting the
four domains of leadership


organization


technol
ogy


learning which have
consistently shown the capability to encompass all aspects of effective knowledge
sharing and collaborative cultures. The 12
-
step process is then put through a
sensitivity/realism assessment using an actual configuration manageme
nt application to
demonstrate the utility of the process for future users.
Originality/value



Ultimately,
8


the various groupings and process steps described also lend themselves to the creation of
an analysis and auditing instrument which can be applied t
o organizational environments
to ascertain what exists and what is lacking for an effective KMS.”


Annotation:
This article i
s unique since it outlined that businesses need to see actionable
information that improves performance and achieves strategic and operational goals. It
proposes that successful KM does not grow out of databases, but evolves over time with
experience and
people
should be
placed before technology.

It

makes a good point about
the lack of a universally accepted best practice
.



Search Strategy:

I selected Library & Information Science Abstracts because
of the numerous articles it contains on topics related
to
information science. This was an initial search using this
database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:



Library & Information Science Abstracts


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:

knowledge management or km and best pract
ice date range
2006
-
2011, English.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
ensured it was located under the “Peer
-
Reviewed
Journals” tab.



Entry 4
:


Cartelli, A.

(
2010). Frameworks for the benchmarking of digit
al and knowledge
management best practice in SME and organizations.
International Journal of
Digital Literacy and Digital Competence, 1
(2), 39
-
47.


Abstract:
“The paper discusses the impact of IT/ICT on society by analyzing the effects
it has on subjects
and organizations. The recent proposal of frameworks for digital
competence assessment and the construction of suitable instruments helping students in
the acquisition of this competence assessment and the construction of suitable
instruments helping stud
ents in the acquisition of this competence are the main reason for
the transfer to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). In this paper, the author compares
knowledge phenomena in subjects with the strategies of knowledge management in the
organizations. A

framework for benchmarking best practices in SME and organizations
is also given on the basis of the results obtained in virtual campuses. The author presents
instruments for the acquisition of further information from all stakeholders, and possible
inte
rventions toward the improvement of digital processes in SMEs and organizations are
discussed.”


9


Annotation:
This article is unique because it shares an Information Technology (IT)
side of knowledge management and offers a solution to enable Small and Med
ium
Enterprises (SMEs) to participate in KM where previously due to budget and personnel
constraints they haven’t been as

able.
It defines the traditional process of benchmarking
and how it usually focuses on measuring quality, time

and cost
.


Sear
ch Strategy:

I selected Library & Information Science Abstracts because
of the numerous articles it contains on topics related to
information science. This was an initial search using this
database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:



Library &
Information Science Abstracts


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:

knowledge management or km and best practice date range
2006
-
2011, English.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
ensured it
was located under the “Peer
-
Reviewed
Journals” tab.

I also consulted the International
Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence
website. According to the website, “
All
manuscripts undergo a double
-
blind peer
-
review
process
”.




Entry 5:


Che
n, M.Y.,

& Chen, A.P.

(2005) Integrating option model and knowledge management
performance measures: an empirical study.
Journal of Information Science, 31
(5),
381
-
393.


Abstract:

The knowledge
-
based economy is coming, and knowledge management
(KM) has rapidly disseminated in academic circles as well as in the business world.
While an increasing number of companies have launched into knowledge management
initiatives, a large propor
tion of these initiatives are limited to a technical focus. The
problem with this type of focus is that it
excludes

and neglects the true potential benefits
that can be derived from knowledge management. This paper develops a new metric,
knowledge manage
ment performance index (KMPI), for evaluating the performance of a
firm in its KM at a point in time. We therefore suggest that a KMPI can be used to
determine KM activities from the following perspectives: knowledge creation, knowledge
conversion, knowle
dge circulation and knowledge completion. When KM activities
efficiency is increased, KMPI will also be expanded, enabling firms to become
knowledge intensive. This paper makes three important contributions: (1) it provides a
formal theoretical grounding

for the validity of the Black
-
Scholes model that might be
applied to KM; (2) it proposes a measurement framework to enable knowledge assets to
10


be leveraged effectively and efficiently; and (3) it presents the first application of the
Black
-
Scholes model t
hat uses a real
-
world business situation involving KM as its test
bed. The results prove the option pricing model can act as a measurement guideline to
the whole range of KM activities.




Annotation:
This article is unique because it is the first to uti
lize the Black
-
Scholes
model that is traditionally used to evaluate options on securities traded in the financial
market and modifies it to evaluate the performance of a business’ KM performance. This
is important because it is difficult to demonstrate ta
ngible returns on resources expended
on KM. Previous measures of KM performance only centered on simple cost
-
benefit
analysis that does not capture the other facets that KM brings to an organization.


Search Strategy:

I read through,
A contingency approac
h to incorporate
human, emotional and social influence into a TAM for KM
programs,

and thought the direction of the reference used
was intriguing. I checked the references for the citation
and found the article. I then went to the library website and
sea
rched the ProQuest database by title. I was able to
access the full text of the article there.


Database:

N/A


Method of Searching:

Footnote chasing


Search String:

Referenced in:


Wu, W., & Li, C. (2007). A contingency
approach to
incorporate human,
emotional and social influence into a
TAM for KM programs
.
Journal of Information Science,
33
(3), 275
-
297.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted the Journal of Information Science
website. According to

the journal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.




Entry 6:


Gor
elick, C., & Tantawy
-
Monsou, B.

(2005). For performance through learning,
knowledge management is
the
critical practice.
The Learning Organization, 12
(2),
125
-
139.



Abstract:

Purpose



This paper proposes that knowledge management is a system that
integrates people, processes and technology for sustainable results by increasing
performance through learning. Definitions of knowledge, knowledge management and

performance serve as a foundation.
Design/metholody/approach



The model for the
11


knowledge era proposed in this paper is that sustained results require learning to be
integrated in every activity, and that event
-
based training does not, by definition, re
sult in
integrated learning. As an equation, it is a multiplicative function: Results = Performance
X Learning. In this model, if learning is eliminated over time, results will become zero.
Alternatively, if direct effort is
p
ut into creating conditions

for learning, results can
increase exponentially, creating competitive advantage.

Findings



The paper concludes
that knowledge management is not done. It proposes that for sustainable performance it
is not sufficient to measure economic results. Perfo
rmance seen through the lens of the
triple bottom line (profit, people, and planet) will require significant investment in
learning to create intellectual capital.
Originality/value



Theory is demonstrated in
practice, describing a successful large
-
scale
/high
-
impact change initiative at Unilever that
did contribute to Unilever’s goals and results.”


Annotation:
This article contributes important information regarding the definitions of
knowledge, knowledge management and how KM is the foundation for a KM

framework
and system. It points out that in today’s business environment continuous learning
enables growth and learning should happen at three stages within a project: before, during
and after.



Search Strategy:

While looking at the full
-
text
option for, G
uidelines for
developing a k
-
strategy
, in ProQuest, I looked on the right
side where there was an option to see More Like Items.
The first five produced did not meet my requirements, but
in the offering for the following five, I found this ar
ticle. I
was able to access the full text of the article there.


Database:

ProQuest


Method of Searching:

Browsing


Search String:

Referenced when searching
:

April, K.A. (2002). Guidelines for developing a k
-
strategy.
Journal of Knowledge Management,
6
(5),

445
-
456.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted The Learning Organization

website.
According to the journal’s website,
if
it “
is judged
suitable two reviewers are selected and a double
blind review pro
cess takes place.”




Entry 7:


12


Hall, H., & Goody, M.

(2007). KM, culture and compromise: interventions to promote
knowledge sharing supported by technology in corporate environments.
Journal
of Information Science, 33
(2), 181
-
188.


Abstract: “
The theme o
f knowledge sharing is discussed extensively in the knowledge
management literature. Such work tends to focus on the barriers that impede knowledge
sharing activity. Of these ‘culture’ is commonly cited as a major obstacle. This article
examines wht is
meant by the term ‘culture’. In the context of efforts to promote good
practice I knowledge management, it is argued that straightforward reference to culture as
a barrier to knowledge sharing is in adequate. Rather, firms should be looking at power
issu
es and, in particular, organizational politics to explain success and failure in attempts
to motivate knowledge sharing. The domain of sociotechnical studies is considered as a
means of unpicking cultural issues at work in specific environments through th
e
deployment of actor
-
network theory to identify shifting organizational power
relationships.”


Annotation:

This article is important because it explains that internal power bases can
be mapped out to trace power relationships and strategies implemented that allows
working around deficiencies.
Additionally, it explains how networks compete against
others for
members and resources. It also outlines that if a company is solely focused on
gaining funds by charging for services they will not want to divert time that could be
spent on that on knowledge sharing.


Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and

Information Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an initial search
using this database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted the Journal of Information Science
website. According to the jour
nal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.


Entry 8:


Hazeri, A., & Martin, B.

(2009). Responding to the challenges of KM education in the
LIS sector: some academic and professional perspectives.
The
Australian Library
Journal
, 58
(3), 250
-
268.

13



Abstract:


As a newly emerging field of study, KM education is faced with significant
challenges which continue to evolve. Informed by wider organizational perspectives, this
paper presents the findings of recent research into this fie
ld. The first part of the research
was in the form of an online survey canvassing the views of the wider LIS community on
the responsibility of LIS schools for KM education; the second consisted of a collection
of in
-
depth interviews with LIS academics wh
o were engaged in education for KM. It is
clear that the main challenges associated with KM education in the LIS discipline
concern people’s perceptions of KM and the place of KM in LIS education. Changes
need to be made, both to these perceptions and to

have the ways in which LIS schools
market and package their KM offerings.



Annotation:
This article is included

because it outlines the si
gnificant challenges within
schools of
higher educat
ion
teaching KM
, including

integrating different disciplines
within programs, competing for resources and difficulty in locating both students and
staff for courses. It also bri
ngs to light a gap in marketing the
courses and
skills learned
within
KM and Library and Information Sci
ences that needs to be closed to increase

their
value within

the job market. Lastly, it provides insight into opposition against the
discipline of KM.



Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Information Science
because of the number and
scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an initial search
using this database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search

String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through
the above steps, I
located the journal under the “Peer
-
Reviewed
Journals” tab.
According to the journal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous
double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.

Additionally, Ulrich’s lists it as a scholarly
journal and that it’s refereed.


Entry 9:

Hazeri, A., Martin, B., & Sarrafzadeh, M. (2009)
. Exploring benefits of KM for LIS
professionals.
Education for Information, 27
(1),
1
-
20.

14


Abstract:

It is to be expected that in a new and emerging discipline like knowledge
management (KM) there still will be ambivalence among both LIS educational
institutions and their students, as to the need to have KM courses. Investigating the
be
nefits of engaging with these programs might help to clear up this ambiguity. The
present paper seeks to shed light on this is
sue, based on the result of a research study
completed in 2008 on the implications of KM for LIS education. The research sought
perceptions of the LIS international community and in particular LIS academics. From
the findings it was clear that the LIS community has a positive view of the potential
outcomes of KM education for LIS students. Notable benefits are the potential
broad
ening of professional perspectives to wider areas, and enhancement of the image of
LIS professionals both within and outside the professions. Participants in this research
also acknowledged the cultivation of additional competencies among KM learners, as
a
contribution to the improved professionalism of corporate librarians, and the provision of
new career options for LIS graduates.


Annotation:
This article is unique because it f
ocuses on the
benefits of including KM
programs to the LIS profession, for p
rograms and for graduates.
It states regardless if a
student goes into KM, c
ourses in KM
provide

graduates a broader view of the profession,
a different theoretical study and prepares them for manageri
al iss
ues later in their work.
A majority of study pa
rticipants felt inclusion of KM curriculum would result in moving
LIS from a service
-
oriented to a value
-
oriented profession and reduce the chance of a LIS
education becoming irrelevant.





Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Informati
on Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an initial search
using this database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of

Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
located the article under the “Peer
-
Reviewed
Journals” tab.
Additionally, Ulrich’s
lists it as a
scholarly journal and that it’s refereed.


Entry 10:


Hazeri, A., Sarrafzadeh, M., & Martin, B. (2007). Reflections of information
professionals on knowledge management competencies in the LIS curriculum.
Journal of Education for Library and
Information Science, 48
(3), 168
-
186.

15



Abstract:
“Knowledge management (KM) has provided library and information science
(LIS) professionals with a wide variety of new career opportunities. As a multi
-
dimensional discipline, knowledge management requires
an expanded breadth of
knowledge with a mix of different skills. Considerable efforts have been made to
compile KM competency profiles for LIS based on an analysis of market needs and on
the perspectives of the many groups involved. Drawing on the findin
gs of two research
projects, and on these earlier studies, this paper presents a range of professional
perspectives on the competencies required for the practice of knowledge management by
LIS professionals and the strength of current curricula in this are
a.”


Annotation:
This article is unique because it makes a strong argument that KM
education belongs under LIS because the connection between Information Management
(IM) and KM and the competencies found therein. It encourages LIS to become relevant
stak
e holders in this new discipline rather than its competitors in the business and
Information Technology (IT) arenas.


Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Information Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the fi
eld of information science. This was an initial search
using this database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and
km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps
, I
located this information from the journal’s
website,
“conscientious

selection of peer reviewers for
articles; careful monitoring of the peer review
process
.


Add
itionally, Ulrich’s lists it as a
scholarly journal and that it’s refereed.


Entry 11:


Holdt Christensen, P.

(2007). Knowledge sharing: moving away from the obsession with
best practices.
Journal of Knowledge Management, 11
(1), 36
-
47.


Abstract:

Purpose



How companies can become better at knowing
what they know,
and share what they know have in recent years become dominant fields of research within
knowledge management. The literature focuses on why people share knowledge, or why
they fail to share kno
wledge, whilst the discussion of what they actually
share

has been
pinned down to the concept of best practices. In this paper it is argued that there is more
16


to knowledge sharing than the sharing of best practices.
Knowledge

sharing is more than
the clo
sing of performance gaps and the sharing of stocks of knowledge


knowledge
sharing is also about bridging situations of organizational interdependencies and thereby
supporting ongoing organizational activities.
Design/methodology/approach



The
paper is
both theoretical and empirical. Theoretically, the concept of organizati
onal
interdependence is applied to create a conceptual framework encompassing four types of
knowledge to be shared. The theoretical framework is applied on a case company to
empirica
lly illustrate how knowledge sharing encompasses different types of knowledge.
Findings



The paper indentified four types of knowledge that are pivotal to share:
professional knowledge, coordinating knowledge, object
-
based knowledge and know
-
who. Hence,

the paper expands the common belief that knowledge sharing is solely
about sharing best practices.
Practical implications



Since knowledge sharing
encompasses at least four types of knowledge, the practice of facilitating knowledge
sharing must necessar
ily focus on different channels enabling the sharing of knowledge.
The practical implications of the paper, hence, direct attention to not solely sharing best
practices but also knowledge bridging organizational interdependencies.
Originality/value



The

paper argues that best practices have dominated the discourse on
what knowledge is to be shared but, to become better at understanding and practicing
knowledge sharing, states that one must expand one’s view on what knowledge is being
shared.”


Annotation
:

This article is included

because it argues against the best practices model
of KM that most articles focus on because it does not fully embrace complete knowledge
sharing. It outlines that most firms focus on best practices because they focus on up
-
fr
ont
costs rather than the benefit of full knowledge sharing.
Another aspect is that this article
champions the notion that KM and knowledge sharing should not be the focus of a
distinct organization, but incorporated in all levels of every
-
day interaction
s.





Search Strategy:

I selected Library & Information Science Abstracts because
of the numerous articles it contains on topics related to
information science. This was an initial search using this
database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:



Library & Information Science Abstracts


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:

knowledge management or km and best practice date range
2006
-
2011, English.


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted the Journal of Information Science
website. According to the journal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.




17



Entry 12


Barber, K.D., Munive
-
Hernandez, J.E., &

Eldridge, S. (2006).
Designing a knowledge
management

tool to support knowledge sharing networks.
Journal of
Manufacturing Technology Management, 18
(2), 153
-
168.


Abstract:

Purpose



The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge management
(KM) tool which has been designed to support the creation of virtual knowledge sharing
networks (KSNs). It is a software
-
based application that enables the sharing of
knowledge related to t
he implementation of manufacturing excellence (ME) best
practices an improvement tools.
Design/methodology/approach



A survey of SMEs
was carried out to investigate the implementation of best practices, quality models and
improvement tools is a lack of k
nowledge about these initiatives due to the resource
constraints experienced by SMEs. This led to the development of a KM tool to support
the creation of virtual networks to enable SMEs to manage improvement projects and
share effectively the generated kn
owledge. The KM tool is currently at the stage of
validation and its future implementation is also under consideration.
Findings



The KM
tool supports the creation of KSNs through an explicit KM approach to share ideas,
experiences and knowledge about i
mplementation of best practices and improvement
tools; helping SMEs to become more competitive.
Practical implications



This
research has demonstrated that is possible to provide a KM tool that is suitable for use by
a KSN of SMEs. This approach allows
transferring some of the tacit and explicit
knowledge generated during the implementation of improvement initiatives into
electronic documents for future consultation by KSN members.
Originality/value



The
KM tool works not only as an electronic reposito
ry for knowledge, but it also drives users
to apply and share knowledge through its capability to help managing improvement
projects.”


Annotation:
This article is important because i
t is a return to the earlier IT
-
based
solutions to KM, but with a new g
eneration approach that enables SMEs to p
artake in the
new people
-
based
KM approaches
. With the movement to more people
-
based
approaches the article addresses concerns around a connection for knowledge transfer
and a trigger to capture this knowledge.



S
earch Strategy:

I selected ProQuest because the numerous articles it
contains and the ability to search full
-
text articles. I knew I
wanted to include an article that had a more IT base and
this database would provide scholarly and full
-
text options.
Thi
s was an initial search using this database so I chose a
keyword approach.



Database:



ProQuest


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching

18



Search String:

"knowledge manage
ment" or km and "best practice", 2006
-
2011, full text, scholarly, English.



Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted the Journal of Manufacturing Technology
website. According to the journal’s website, “
Each
paper is reviewed by the editor and, if it is judged
suitable for this pu
blication, it is then sent to two
referees for double blind peer review.




Entry 13:


Roknuzzaman, M., & Umemoto, K. (2010). KM education at LIS schools: an analysis of
KM master’s programs.
Journal of Education for Library and Information
Science, 51
(4),

267
-
280.


Abstract:
“ LIS embraced

knowledge management (KM) during the mid 1990s, and in
the context of the adoption of KM, this study explores the current state of KM education
offered by LIS schools. The study conducted a surevey

of homepages of 600 LIS schools
world
-
wide, followed by an analysis of selected LIS
-
based KM master’s programs. Data
were also collected from the
World Guide to Library, Archive and Information Science
Education

(Schniederjurgen, 2007) and from the Inter
net. The survey shows that 17.7%
of LIS schools adopted KM education in 140 different degree programs. The diffusion of
KM education was high in master’s degree programs, offering 65% of the KM programs
of courses. The ananysis of KM master’s programs i
ndicates that LIS schools
concentrated more on IT and information than on business and human perspectives of
KM. Implications of the study are to define the boundaries of KM and to integrate major
perspectives of KM in designing KM education programs for
LIS.”


Abstract:
This article is unique because it illustrates the
competition for students
due to
the multidisciplinary aspect of KM with educational offerings from business, IT and LIS

schools
.

It also focuses that the focus on courses and competencies

varies from school to
school; depending upon which philosophy they embrace.


Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Information Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an

initial search
using this database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


19


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
located this information from the journal’s website,
“conscientious selection of peer reviewers for
articles; careful monitoring of the peer review
process.”
Additionally, Ulrich’s lists it as a
schola
rly journal and that it’s refereed.


Entry 14:

Tripathy, J.K., Patra, N.K., & Pani, M.R. (2007). Leveraging knowledge management:
challenges for the information professional.
DESIDOC Bu
lletin of Information
Technology, 27
(6), 65
-
72.

Abstract: “
Knowledge m
anagement (KM) is a very rapidly developing area in which
the library and information professionals have a critical role. Significant changes are
required in their role, skills, education and training so that they can confidently face the
challenges of KM

in the changing digital environment. The paper describes the process
and various information and communication technology tools involved in KM and
discusses the transformation of information management to KM. The paper also
highlights the role, skills a
nd challenges library and information professionals need for
managing knowledge.”

Annotation:
This article is important because it provides a step
-
by
-
step definition of
KM processes. It also highlights the changing role of librarians and information
pro
fessionals in light of the discipline of KM.



Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Information Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an initial search
using this
database so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article
through the above steps, I
located this information from the journal’s website,
“All papers received for publication in the
Journal
20


are subjected to refereeing by eminent peers active
in the relevant fields of research.”


Entry 15:

Wu, W.Y., & Li, C.Y. (
2007). A contingency approach to incorporated human, emotional
and social influence into a TAM for KM programs.
Journal of Information
Science, 33
(3), 275
-
297.

Abstract:

In our dynamic environment with its accelerating technological progress,
knowledge h
as become a very important asset through which firms can acquire
competitive advantages. Most previous studies have focused on the influence of the
technological perspective of knowledge management (KM) programs, neglecting the
influence of the human side

of the situation. The study aims to incorporate human,
emotional and social influence variables into a technology acceptance model (TAM) and
then to empirically test the model’s feasibility. Through a series of expert interviews in
conjunction with a que
stionnaire survey, our study results yield three conclusions. First,
a contingency fit between KM orientation and emotional factors will enhance employees’
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward using a specific KM program. Second, intrinsic
motivatio
n will not only serve as a mediation variable to influence perceived usefulness,
but also a direct influential variable on attitude and intention toward using a KM
program. Third, the social influence factors, including internalization and identification,

will serve as both direct and moderating effects on employee’s attitude and intention
toward using a KM program. Since none of the previous studies have simultaneously
incorporated human, emotional and social influence factors into a TAM, the results of
this study have provided a very useful reference for scholars and managers to identify the
relevant issues of KM program implementation.”

Annotation:
This article is unique because it described and combined several other
studies and combined them to creat
e their model. It delved into two categories of
emotional variables, care and anxiety and how managers need to eliminate causes of KM
resistance.

The study took place in Taiwan and the majority of
participants were male,
which may limit its generalizatio
n in a female dominated discipline.





Search Strategy:

I selected Library Literature and Information Science
because of the number and scope of articles it contains in
the field of information science. This was an initial search
using this database
so I chose a keyword approach.


Database:

Library Literature and Information Science [Dialog]


Method of Searching:

Keyword searching


Search String:


ss knowledge()management and km/2007:2011

21


Scholarly/Refereed Status:

After locating the article through the above steps, I
consulted the Journal of Information Science
website. According to the journal’s
website, it

adheres to a rigorous double
-
blind reviewing
policy”.




























22


Conclusion and Personal
Statement


I learned a tremendous amount about KM in researching for this project.
Before last
class term I had never heard of the phrase before and only ran across it in passing.
Soon I
will need to consider which courses to take outside of my core and
KM was an intriguing
choice.
The biggest surprise was the negativity within LIS towards KM and also the
feeling in the business world that it was merely a fad of the 1990s. I also learned what
valuable asset knowledge is and how difficult it can be to ma
nage it since it resides in
people.

I was surprised to learn that there is no solid definition or approach in
implementing KM.


I learned a lot about searching with this class and it helped tremendously in gathering
articles. Using Dialog I got numerous
search strings that gave discouraging results. I
finally had a successful search string and it wasn’t what I thought it would be, but it
produced good results. I also learned that some database systems I prefer greatly over
others because of their abilit
ies to select various search parameters and “play” with the
results.



This assignment taught me that I don’t ever want to do another annotated bibliography
again. It is a nearly overwhelming project with learning the search terms, locating
database
s, checking if a source is peer
-
reviewed, getting a full picture of the topic,
interpreting articles for annotation, then the laborious task of sifting it and referencing it
all with APA.
I learned how to sift through articles and choose what is valuable
and what
to discard. I also learned how to look for articles to fill in missing gaps within my
existing articles.



Information structure in the sense that
there is a partitioning of focus, background, topic
and comment was all new to me. It was very goo
d to learn about, but once again not
something I care to repeat. I learned it can be exacting and needs careful focus and
consideration.


23