Natural Gas 101

aboundingdriprockUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Presented by:

Cal Macy Project Director

Pete Sparks Project Coordinator

Natural Gas 101

CNG vs LNG what is the difference?

Why study natural gas?

None of my friends drive one….



Presented by:


Cal Macy
-
Long Beach City College


ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION

TECHNOLOGY CENTER

Green Port Program


Ports of LB and LA are going green

ATTE has been teaching

green


before it was a term

What will be the
propulsion for the new
Millennium??

NGV

Fuel Cell


Emerging

Alternative

Energies

Diesel

Engines

Gasoline

Engines


Hybrid

Cars


Direct

Injection

Lean

Burn

Common

Rail Direct

Injection

NGV

Natural


Gas


Vehicle


FCEV

Fuel Cell

EV

Series/

parallel

Hybrid


EV

Electric

Vehicles






CNG

Hybrid

Motor



Heavy
-
Duty

Cng/Lng

NGV

Natural


Gas


Vehicle


Natural gas is today

s key to a healthier tomorrow

Gaseous/
alcohol
based
fuels

What will be the
propulsion for the new
Millennium??

Range and Reliability are the two biggest
challenges for Alternative Fuels


Cost of fuel and availability are the

operator

s concerns


Where can I get CNG/LNG
for my car or truck?


Natural gas is today

s key to a healthier tomorrow



Clean Energy
announced plans to
install LNG/CNG

fueling stations
across the nation at
existing Pilot/Flying
J Truck Stops in 33
states



Phase 1

150

new stations



70 in 2012

80 in 2013


$2.79/DGE
LB
1/25/2012

Where can I get

my car or truck serviced?

The ATTE Centers have trained over 5000 fleet
technicians from all over the US, Canada, and
Mexico

We can train the next generation of fleet technicians

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION

TECHNOLOGY CENTERS

ALTERNATIVE

FUELS

TRAINING
PROGRAMS

ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION

TECHNOLOGY CENTERS


Long Beach was the first Clean City in California


LBCC provided initial CNG & LNG Training for City fleets



10 ATT Centers were established in 1993



ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION

TECHNOLOGY CENTERS

ATTE is a Consortium of 8 Regional Colleges Statewide

Providing Alternative Fuels Training since 1995

ATTE is the Statewide Training Solution

We make the complicated Simple!

Computerized Engine
Management


Cummins John Deere Detroit Caterpillar


We have decades of experience on CEM systems

Electronic Engine Fuel
Management Systems

DETROIT DIESEL

DDEC& GFI SYSTEMS


ATT provided training for the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta



Customized Training Programs:

In
-
Center seminars held in a manufacturer
-
style

classroom environment with an attached lab



Customized Training Programs:



OEM trainers for Kenworth & Peterbilt LNG drayage trucks

We WROTE the program!!

Live Engine Training on CNG & LNG
Demonstrators:







Hands
-
on Training with Heavy Duty electronics training engines


Cummins ISL G CNG/LNG


Cummins/Westport GX LNG


DDEC IV series 50/60G


John Deere



We WROTE the
programs!!

Natural Gas Safety


We stress safety

&
regulations


Cylinder Safety Inspection

Natural Gas Properties


Odorless


Odorant (Ethyl Mercaptan) added


Colorless


Lighter than air


Flammability range: 5
-
15%


Compare with: diesel 1
-
6%, propane 2.2
-
9.5%,
hydrogen 4.1
-
74%


High auto
-
ignition temperature


900
-
1170
°
F


Non
-
toxic


Displaces oxygen


Natural Gas Vehicle Storage


Compressed Natural Gas: CNG


Up to 3600
-

5000 psi


High pressure storage vessel


200:1 STP storage volume


Liquefied Natural Gas: LNG


Cryogenic temperatures (
-
250
°
F) up to 230
psi


Well insulated storage vessel


600:1 STP storage volume

Compressed Natural Gas

Considerations


Fueling infrastructure


Strong


Engine type


SI or dual fuel


Vehicle range


Cylinder quantity and configuration


Fast fill or slow fill


Compressed Natural Gas


High pressure gas cylinders


Flexible sizes and configurations


Light weight (relative to LNG tanks)


Safety


Extreme high pressures


Frequent CNG system inspections

Cylinder Type 1



All steel or aluminum construction



100% pressure is held by the metal



Vulnerable to rust and corrosion


Type 1 Cascade

Cylinder Type 2



Hoop
-
wrapped aluminum or steel



55% pressure is held by metal, 45% is held by
the wrap



Vulnerable to corrosion and wrap damage

Cylinder Type 3


Fully wrapped aluminum


80% pressure is held by the wrap, 20%
is held by the metal


Vulnerable to cuts and abrasion

Cylinder Type 4



All composite cylinder with a plastic liner



100% pressure is held by composite wrap



Liner sealed to metal domes used for valve
threads



Light weight, vulnerable to impact & cuts

Liquefied Natural Gas

Considerations


Fueling infrastructure


In development


Mobile units available


Engine type


HPDI, SI or duel fuel


Vehicle range


LNG tank weight and size


Vehicle utilization should be frequent


Liquefied Natural Gas


Cryogenic storage tank


Somewhat limited configurations and sizes


Safety


Extreme cold temperature


Down to
-

250
°
F


Pressures up to 230 psi


Robust design

Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks


Stainless steel construction


Vacuum insulation


Specialized valves and components


Sizing typically 50
-

150 gallons


Two distinct types


Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer


Pressure flow with external vaporizer


Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks


Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer


Utilization of any temperature LNG


Up to 5000 psi CNG output


Electronically regulated


HPDI equipped engines


Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks


Pressure flow with external vaporizer


Requires utilization of

warm


LNG


Up to tank pressure output


< 230 psi


Mechanical regulation


SI or dual fuel equipped engines


Natural Gas Engines


Westport HD15


CWI ISL G


CWI ISX12 G


Other engines/ options


John Deere


Detroit Diesel


CAP dual fuel

Westport HD15 Engine


15 liter compression ignition


Direct injection diesel pilot


Up to 475 HP, 1750 lb
-
ft torque


Active emissions aftertreatment system


CWI ISL G Engine


8.9 liter spark ignition


Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection


Up to 320 HP, 1000 lb
-
ft torque


Passive three way catalyst emissions system

CWI ISX12 G Engine


12 liter spark ignition


Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection


Up to 400 HP, 1450 lb
-
ft torque


Passive three way catalyst emissions system

How does Natural Gas

work in the Engine?


Operating Pressures and
Safety


Non
-
toxic


Lighter than air


CNG

can displace oxygen


CNG

highly flammable?


Must be contained to be dangerous


Window of flammability very narrow


No open flames in the shop


Safest fuel of all other fuels


Pressure in system must be respected





Major

Components

of a

Compressed

Natural Gas

System

Fill Valve and Coalescent Filter



NGV1 Fuel fill device needs to match pressure of cylinder


Must have dust cap installed after filling vehicle


Coalescing filter can be on fill inlet or supply line

One
-
Way Check Valve


Allows fuel to flow in one direction only


Usually on fill line to prevent leakage in case of drive
-
away

Fuel Storage Cylinders


High pressure storage


4 different types available


Several pressures available


Should

all be matching pressure


3600 PSI


Type 2


3000 PSI


Type 4

Cylinder Shut
-
Off
Valve


Caution:

pressure may still be present!


Isolates cylinder for servicing


Special tool needed to open dead electronic valves


Destroys seals in valve


Pressure Relief Device
(PRD)


Releases in case of excessive heat or pressure


Mounted on cylinder
IN DIRECT PRESSURE


One
-
time failure
---

vented to outside of vehicle


Cannot be removed and reused on another cylinder


Special design for type 4

all composite cylinders



Manual Shut
-
Off Valve

(Quarter Turn)


Shuts off fuel to engine compartment


Emergency shut
-
off accessible from outside

Stainless Steel Fuel
Lines


Seamless Stainless Steel Lines


Fittings and lines must be rated to withstand


3 times their system pressure


Relief loops to prevent vibration failures


Some vehicles use flexible lines with stainless weave

Pressure
Regulator(s)


Reduces cylinder pressure to system operating pressure


May have two regulators to drop pressure in stages


Pressure typically 120 psi or less depending upon system

Shut off Valves (Lock
-
Offs)

Prevents fuel flow unless engine RPM is present


Controlled
by
PCM



Introduces fuel to intake air stream

High pressure direct injection

Westport GX injector

Cummins ISL G Fuel Control Valve

Fuel Delivery to Engine

Powerplant & Fueling Options


Cummins/Westport ISL
-
G Natural Gas Engine


Cummins/Westport ISX12
-
G Natural Gas
Engine


Westport GX 15 liter Diesel/Natural Gas Hybrid
Engine

Powerplant & Fueling Options

ISL
-
G 8.9L Natural Gas Engine

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Cummins/Westport ISL
-
G


Type
-

4
-
cycle,
spark
-
ignited
, inline 6
-
cylinder, turbocharged


8.9 Liter, coil on plug ignition (300v primary)


Compressed Natural Gas (CNG


3600psi) or Liquefied Natural Gas
(LNG)


Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (105 parameters)


Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements


EGR and Catalyst (stoiciometric)


Advertised Horsepower 250

320 hp


Peak Torque 660

1,000 lb
-
ft


PM’s differ from diesel



Powerplant & Fueling Options

ISX12
-
G 11.9L Natural Gas Engine

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Cummins/Westport ISX12
-
G


Type
-

4
-
cycle,
spark
-
ignited
, inline 6
-
cylinder, turbocharged


11.9 Liter Compressed Natural Gas (CNG


3600psi) or Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG)


Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (stoiciometric)


Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements


Advertised Horsepower 330


400 hp


Peak Torque 1150


1450 lb
-
ft


First time available engine braking option


Available early 2013



Common
-
rail


diesel


fuel pump


Hydraulic


pump

(drives LNG Pump)


Fuel conditioning

module


Control units


(
firewall mounted)


LNG tank and pump


(chassis mounted)


Fuel injectors


(under valve cover)

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Westport GX 15 liter HPDI Diesel/NG Engine

Powerplant & Fueling Options

Westport GX HPDI Diesel/NG Hybrid


Type
-

4
-
cycle,
pilot ignition
, inline 6
-
cylinder, turbocharged


15 Liter


Proprietary Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) design


Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel


Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements


Advertised Horsepower 400


475 hp


Peak Torque 1450


1750 lb
-
ft


Proven reliability since 2006


Requires PM trap & SCR (urea) injection for EPA/CARB 2010


What Regulations Should I Be Training
my students to be aware of?






NFPA 52


-
Covers installations of cylinders and components



CHP Title 13


-
Covers state certification of installations and vehicles



CGA 6.4


-
Covers visual inspection and qualifications of inspectors



ANSI/NGV
-
2/FMVSS 304


-
Covers design, construction and testing of new cylinders



Manufacture

s Pr楮ted Gu楤e汩nes


-
Covers i
nspection, repair and condemnation



Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG

Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

NFPA 52

Vehicle Installation Guidelines







Covers proper installation and


system safety



Hard copy or downloadable




Industry st慮d慲d





California makes it a law



OEM

s 慤here t漠it



Fire Dept. recognized



Updated every few years


-

www.nfpa.org

NFPA 52 Sections

1.
Administration

2.
Referenced Publications

3.
Definitions

4.
General CNG Requirements
& Equipment Qualifications

5.
General GH2 Requirements &
Equipment Qualifications

6.
CNG Engine Fuel Systems

7.
Service & Maintenance of
GH2 Engine Fuels Systems

8.
CNG Compression, Gas
Processing, Storage, and
Dispensing Systems

9.
GH2 Compression, Gas
processing, Storage, Dispensing

10.
CNG Residential Fueling
Facilities

11.
LNG Engine Fuel Systems

12.
LNG Fueling Facilities

13.
LH2 Fueling Facilities

14.
LNG Fire Protection

15.
Installation Requirements for
ASME Tanks for LNG

16.
LNG and CNG on Commercial
Marine Vessels and Pleasure
Craft


CGA 6.4

Inspection Procedures



Inspection procedures and damage



assessment



Criteria for the acceptance or



rejection of containers



Qualifications of inspectors






Recommended minimum: inspection every 3
or
36,000 miles for life of container



Defines 3 levels of damage and appropriate


actions for each



Provides guidance on what the inspector must


look for and how to make service/disposal


determinations



Manufacturer

s instructions take precedence


Proper documentation and labels required




CGA 6.4

Inspection Procedures

Compressed Gas Association, Inc.


4221 Walney Road, 5
th

Floor


Chantilly, VA 20151

703
-
788
-
2700

www.cganet.com

Hard copy or downloadable



CGA 6.4

Inspection Procedures

In addition, CGA 6.4 will provide what you need to know about:



Brackets, straps, and mounting systems as recommended by the


container manufacturer



Labeling information



Appropriate inspection equipment


Facility Considerations


NO Open flames or spark emitting equipment


Sealed lighting


Ventilation requirements


Methane detectors and alarms




Local laws and regulations vary




Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey by a
company specializing in CNG facilities to determine what is
needed at that location

Facility Considerations


Local laws and regulations vary


Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey
by a company specializing in CNG facilities to
determine what is needed at that location





Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG

Vehicle Operation and Maintenance


Know the codes


Consult the experts

Questions? Contact one of the
Advanced Transportation Technology
& Energy Centers statewide


THANK YOU