Business Management Senior Syllabus 2013 - Queensland Studies ...

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Business Management
Senior Syllabus 2013
Queensland Studies Authority

ISBN

Print version:

978
-
1
-
921802
-
23
-
2

Electronic version:

978
-
1
-
921802
-
24
-
9

Business Management
Senior Syllabus

2013

© The State of Queensland (Queensland Studies Authority)
2013

Queensland Studies Authority

154

Melbourne Street, South Brisbane

PO Box 307

Spring Hill

QLD

4004

Australia

Phone:

(07) 3864 0299

Fax:

(07) 3221 2553

Email:

office@qsa.qld.edu.au

Website:

www.qsa.qld.edu.au

Contents

1

Rationale

................................
................................
....................

1

2

Dimensions and objectives

................................
.....................

2

2.1

Dimension 1:
Knowing and
understanding business management

............

2

2.2

Dimension 2:
Applying and analysing

management

strategies

..................

3

2.3

Dimension 3:
Evaluating
and communicating

management

strategies

......

3

3

Course organisation

................................
................................
.

4

3.1

Course overview

................................
................................
........................

4

3.2

Advice, guidelines and resources

................................
............................

10

4

Assessment
................................
................................
.............

12

4.1

Principles of exit assessment

................................
................................
...

12

4.2

Planning an assessment program

................................
............................

14

4.3

Special provisions

................................
................................
....................

15

4.4

Authent
ication of student work

................................
................................
.

15

4.5

Assessment techniques

................................
................................
...........

15

4.6

Verification folio requirements

................................
................................
..

22

4.7

Exit standards

................................
................................
..........................

22

4.8

Determining exit levels of achievement

................................
....................

22

5

Glossary

................................
................................
..................

26



Queensland Studies Authority

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1

1

Rationale

Businesses are complex and dynamic entities that continually change to meet the demands of
consumer markets. Business managers work to meet market demands and reach business goals
by formulating strategies concerning marketing,

operations, human resources, finance, and
business development activities. At the same time, business managers strive to develop ethical
business strategies that consider the concerns of all stakeholders while achieving profitability.
Business managers en
gage and communicate with all parties, including team members and
stakeholders, when working to meet business objectives.

Business Management builds students’ understandings of the important role that managers play
in businesses that vary in size and natur
e. Students develop knowledge and understanding of
business management as they explore the main functions of businesses. Learning through case
studies in authentic local, national and global business contexts, students apply their knowledge
to business
sit
uations in order to identify issues.

Students analyse and interpret business
information and management strategies, evaluating the success of these in meeting business
outcomes. Simulating the role of business managers, students formulate and justify manag
ement
strategies and recommendations that impact on business objectives.

Students apply their knowledge and understanding of the main functions of businesses to
practical and authentic situations as they develop innovative and creative feasibility studies
or
undertake business ventures. Working in teams, students develop communication and
management strategies. By considering the views of a range of stakeholders, students determine
the implications of business management strategies on individuals, businesse
s and society.

A course of
study in Business Management can establish

a basis for further education and
employment in the fields of small
-
to
-
medium enterprise, business management, human resource
management, financial management, commerce, marketing and op
erations management and
corporate systems management.



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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

2

Dimensions and objectives

The dimensions are the salient properties or characteristics of distinctive learning for this subject.
The dimensions are described through their objectives and it is these tha
t schools are required to
teach and that students should have the opportunity to learn. The objectives describe what
students should know and be able to do by the end of the course of study.

Progress in a particular dimension may depend on the qualities an
d skills developed in other
dimensions. Learning through each of the dimensions must increase in complexity to allow for
greater independence of the learner over a four
-
semester course of study.

Schools must assess how well students have achieved the objec
tives. The standards have a
direct relationship with the objectives, and are described in the same dimensions as the
objectives.

The dimensions for a course of study in this subject are:



Dimension 1:
Knowing and understanding business management



Dimension
2:
Applying and analysing management strategies



Dimension 3:
Evaluating and communicating management strategies.

2.1

Dimension 1:
Knowing and understanding business
management

The dimension
Knowing and understanding business management

involves the definition
and
use of business management terms, concepts and theories, and the explanation of management
processes as students describe business situations.

2.1.1

Objectives

By the conclusion of the course of study, students should:



define and use business management term
s, concepts and theories



describe business situations using examples



explain management processes and strategies.

When students define and use business management terms, concepts and theories, they state
the meaning of these and employ them in business sit
uations.

When students describe business situations, they use examples to provide an account of the
features of these situations. Business situations may include case studies, examples or business
ventures. Features of business situations may include inter
nal and external environmental
factors.

When students explain management processes and strategies, they use their knowledge of
business management to determine which processes and strategies are relevant to a business
situation, and provide additional info
rmation about these that demonstrates a depth of
understanding. Management processes and strategies include the underpinning practices of
communication strategies and management strategies.


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3

2.2

Dimension 2:

Applying and analysing

management

strategies

The dime
nsion
Applying and analysing management strategies

involves students using their
knowledge to identify issues in business situations, and analyse business information and
management strategies to interpret trends, patterns and relationships.

2.2.1

Objectives

By
the conclusion of the course of study, students should:



select and organise business information from primary and secondary sources



apply knowledge to identif
y issues in business situations



analyse business information and management strategies, and interp
ret tren
ds, patterns and
relationships.

When students select business information, they determine the relevance of information gathered
from primary sources (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, interviews) and secondary sources (e.g.
texts, publications). When s
tudents organise, they sequence business information in an order that
helps analysis.

When students apply their knowledge to business situations, they relate management terms,
concepts, theories, processes and strategies to these situations to identify the

key issues
impacting upon businesses.

When students analyse business information, they examine it to identify trends, patterns and
relationships. When students interpret these trends, patterns and relationships, they make
meaning of the effects of these o
n business outcomes. Students may analyse and interpret
strategies that they enact when running business ventures.

2.3

Dimension 3:

Evaluating and communicating

management

strategies

The dimension
Evaluating and communicating management strategies

involves stu
dents
evaluating the effectiveness of management strategies to formulate and communicate
recommendations.

2.3.1

Objectives

By the conclusion of the course of study, students should:



evaluate management strategies to formulate recommendations



justify recommendati
ons using evidence



communicate using language conventions to suit audiences and purposes.

When students evaluate management strategies, they make judgments about the strategies
employed by existing businesses or competitors, including whether or not they a
lign with the
objectives of the business. Students use these judgments to formulate recommendations, which
provide advice on the most suitable options for future success. Recommendations include future
management strategies or a determination of the feasib
ility of a business idea.

When students justify recommendations, they use evidence to support these. Evidence may be
drawn from the analysis, interpretation or evaluation of business information and management
strategies.

When students communicate, they se
lect and use language conventions to convey meaning to
audiences for a particular purpose. Language conventions include spelling, punctuation,
grammar, pitch, pace, timing, paragraphing, genre and referencing conventions.



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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

3

Course organisation

3.1

Course overvie
w

The minimum number of hours of timetabled school time, including assessment, for a course of
study developed from this syllabus is 55 hours per semester. A course of study will usually be
completed over four semesters (220 hours).

Business Management inv
olves learning experiences that enable students to apply management
understandings to authentic business management contexts.

A four
-
semester course of study includes:



four to eight units of work, ranging from 20 to 55 hours in duration



the development of
the two underpinning practices through learning experiences
(see

Section

3.1.1
)



coverage of the six areas of study (see Section
3.1.2
)



at least two
contextualised units
of work
, each of which draws on a
t least two areas of study
(see

Section
3.1.3
).

3.1.1

Underpinning practices

The underpinning practices of Business Management can be developed through teaching and
learning experiences
in units of work.

The underpinning practices of this syllabus are:



communication strategies



management strategies.

Communication strategies

Effective communication between team members, and between team members and external
parties, is essential for the im
plementation and achievement of business goals and plans.
Learning in partnerships, small groups and teams enables students of Business Management to
develop communication strategies. Communication strategies include those employed when
listening, writing,

speaking and presenting.

Teaching and learning experiences that foster the development of communication strategies may
include students working in partnerships, groups and teams to:



negotiate group membership and ground rules



support and contribute to ach
ieve outcomes



negotiate mutually beneficial outcomes



learn and use conflict management



actively listen to others



work effectively with others, share ideas and encourage participation



speak persuasively to express views



research the ideas and views of other
s



accept responsibility and experience different roles within a group



understand diversity and show tolerance/empathy to other points of view.


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5

Management strategies

Effective management involves decision making that integrates goals, team views, stakeholde
rs’
views, ethical implications of business activities, and the strategic management of businesses.
Participating in short
-

and long
-
term individual and team projects enables students of Business
Management to develop management strategies.

Teaching and le
arning experiences that foster the development of management strategies may
include students working individually or in groups to:



set, implement and monitor goals



identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the achievement of goals



determ
ine task allocation and resource requirements



develop and manage time frames and plans



identify and test alternative strategies



practise making decisions by considering the effect of management strategies (social,
environmental, political and human) on sta
keholders.

3.1.2

Areas of study

There are six areas of study in Business Management (
see

T
able
1
):



Management practices



Marketing management



Operations management



Human resource management



Financial management



Business development
.

Each area of study has a focus. The focus of each area of study is core to Business Management
and is taught through suggested subject matter. Suggested subject matter is neither prescriptive
nor exhaustive.



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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

T
able
1
: Areas of study

Area

of study: Management practices

Focus

Management practices

involve business structures, the impact of internal or
external environments on businesses, and the roles of business managers who
plan, organise

and lead businesses.

Suggested subject matter



Business managers plan, organise, lead and communicate
to achieve business
objectives.



Strategic business management includes the analysis of marketing, operations,
finance and human resources to ensure the e
ffective and efficient use of human
and physical resources.



Production efficiency and the creation of profit are primary goals of business
managers, but

they are not the only criteria of business success.



Business managers consider the views of stakeholde
rs, risks, resources, and the
internal and external environment as they make decisions to achieve business
goals and objectives.



Different levels of management fulfil specific roles and functions, with
communication between managers and professional networ
ks bei
ng crucial to
business success.



Business management decisions and behaviour often involve ethical
considerations, which may conflict with profit considerations and corporate culture.



Businesses must comply with legal and registration requirements ap
propriate to
legal structures

pertaining to the business
.



Businesses undertake audits to determine corporate social responsibility and
develop codes of conduct.

Area of study: Marketing management

Focus

Marketing management

involves businesses researchin
g consumer markets and
tailoring products, ideas
or

services to satisfy the changing needs
or

wants of
consumers and society.

Suggested subject matter



Marketing involves activities designed to identify and satisfy consumer wants and
needs, responding to
changes in consumer behaviour.



Business managers select an appropriate marketing orientation suitable to their
target market.



Management decisions in marketing are impacted by legislation, societal and
ethical considerations.



Effective marketing is a com
petitive advantage that business managers use to
achieve objectives.



The marketing mix is a generally accepted set of marketing variables


price,
product, promotion and place.



The marketing strategy involves analysis, selecting a target market and creati
ng
an appropriate marketing mix.



Marketing planning is a systematic way of assessing marketing opportunities and
determining marketing strategies.



Marketing research follows a process that provides primary and secondary data to
help identify marketing opp
ortunities.



Changing technologies provide alternative marketing opportunities and affect
marketing strategies.


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7

Area of study: Operations management

Focus

Operations management

involves businesses efficiently and effectively
converting inputs into quality

products or services desired by customers.

Suggested subject matter



Operations managers make strategic decisions involving planning, developing and
controlling the activities required to create a product and supply a service.



Operations management inclu
des strategic and operational planning.



Operations decisions are made based on purchasing, dispatching, inventory
control, scheduling, maintenance (corrective and preventative) and quality control.



Operations management is influenced by production philosop
hies and scheduling
techniques that ensure materials are
in
the right place at the right time (e.g. just
-
in
-
time, total quality management).



Organisational tools, such as Gantt charts, are useful for planning and scheduling
operations.



Technology plays an
increasing role in operations and impacts on the nature of
work with issues such as outsourcing and deskilling arising.



Ethical issues such as conservation, environmental concerns and offshore
production affect operations management decisions.

Area of stu
dy: Financial management

Focus

Financial management

occurs through the analysis and interpretation of financial
records and is necessary when achieving business goals.

Suggested subject matter



The role of financial management is to ensure that financial
decisions allow the
business to survive, grow and achieve its goals and objectives.



The objectives of financial management are liquidity, profitability, risk minimisation
and growth, which may conflict at times.



Financial management is influenced by the le
gal structure of the business, ethics
and the external environment in which it operates.



Financial management involves sourcing and managing the risks of finance.



Finance can be short term, long term, internal, external, local or global.



Financial managers

use tools such as financial ratio analyses to make financial
management decisions and for information disclosure.



Financial management involves the analysis and interpretation of financial
statements in decision making.



Financial managers develop investme
nt strategies based on the evaluation of
financial risk in order to meet business goals.



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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

Area of study: Human resource management

Focus

Human resource management
involves using the principles of job design, and
managing people and employment cycles.

Sug
gested subject matter



Human resource management involves attracting, motivating, developing, training
and retaining the appropriate mix of human resources.



Human resource managers design and implement strategies to manage the
employment cycle, including pe
rformance appraisal, to achieve business
objectives.



The effective management of human resources requires an understanding of the
theories of management and leadership.



The relative bargaining power
of a human resource manager or business
is
affected by va
rious factors such as the extent of unionisation, government
regulation, and supply and demand.



Human resource managers facilitate communication and cooperation between
management and employees to achieve personal and business goals, which may
differ at ti
mes.



Human resource managers work within ethical and legal boundaries to achieve
business, individual and societal goals and objectives.



Understanding individual and cultural diversity, showing tolerance to other points
of view, and encouraging consensus a
nd collaboration enables the negotiation of
mutually beneficial outcomes.



Forming strategic alliances, supporting others and contributing to team efforts
enables employees to achieve personal and business goals.

Area of study: Business development

Focus

Business development

involves entrepreneurship as students develop and test
ideas, preparing feasibility studies
to

determine the viability of those ideas.

Suggested subject matter



Entrepreneurship requires innovation
,
creativity, initiative and
an unders
tanding of
processes for testing the viability and ethical nature of new ideas.



Intrapreneurship is encouraged in business through building a flexible and
supportive environment that encourages free thinking and the sharing of ideas.



Entrepreneurial ideas
use evolving technologies to generate ideas, increase
market share and achieve business goals.



Entrepreneurial ideas come to fruition through the development of clear business
feasibility studies.



Business proposals consist of a business profile, competiti
on analysis,
recommendations and an evaluation of the proposal to determine the viability of
the proposed business idea.



A competition analysis should incorporate marketing, human resources, financial
and operational considerations.



Analysing and comparing

competitors are useful techniques for formulating
recommendations for a proposed business.



An evaluation of the business proposal provides a test of feasibility and viability of
the proposed business allowing decisions for future action to be made.


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9

3.1.3

Deve
loping units of work using areas of study

When developing units of work, areas of study may be taught discretely or in combination. Units
of work are developed by selecting relevant areas of study and devising learning experiences that
involve a range of b
usiness situations.

These learning experiences are developed by drawing together:



objectives from the dimensions



relevant subject matter that develops understanding of the focuses of the selected areas of
study



a range of business situations, such as case
studies, examples or business ventures



underpinning practices: communication strategies and management strategies.

For example, a unit of work devised to teach the focus of operations management may include
local and international business case studies fro
m small
-
to
-
medium enterprises and large
businesses.

3.1.4

Developing contextualised units of work

Contextualised units of work involve students engaging with the areas of study through authentic
and relevant business situations. Each contextualised unit of work
integrates at least two areas of
study.

Schools devise contexts suited to student interests, school location, resource availability and
teacher expertise. A school could devise a course of study that delivers all areas of study through
contextualised unit
s of work.

A context may include:



business types (e.g. local, national and inter
national business
es, s
mall
-
to
-
medium

enterprises,
large business
es)



organisations and institutions (e.g. not
-
for
-
profit organisations, governments, universities)



industries (e
.g. sports, agriculture, marine, hospitality, tourism)



a specific business (e.g. an extended case study of Dick Smith Electronics)



a
business ventu
re



issues affecting businesses (e.g. global financial crisis, change, technological developments).

To develop

a contextualised unit of work, schools identify:



a suitable context



at least two relevant areas of study and their focuses



relevant subject matter from selected areas of study



suitable learning experiences which draw together objectives, contextualised su
bject matter
and underpinning practices.

For example, small
-
to
-
medium enterprise management may be developed as a contextualised
unit of work. The focuses of management practices, human resource management and business
development are taught in the context

of small
-
to
-
medium enterprise management. A specific
small
-
to
-
medium enterprise could be selected provided sufficient information is accessible.



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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

3.2

Advice, guidelines and resources

The following advice, guidelines and resources support the implementation of
the syllabus.
Where indicated further information may be obtained from the Business Management subject
page of the QSA website <
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20320.html
>.

3.2.1

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persp
ectives

The Queensland Government has a vision that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Queenslanders have their cultures affirmed, heritage sustained and the same prospects for
health, prosperity and quality of life as other Queenslanders. The QSA is co
mmitted to helping
achieve this vision and encourages teachers to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
perspectives in the curriculum.

The Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) recognises Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples, their tradition
s, histories and experiences from before European settlement and
colonisation through to the present time. To strengthen students’ appreciation and understanding
of the first peoples of the land, opportunities exist in the syllabus to encourage engagement
with
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander:



frameworks of knowledge and ways of learning



contexts in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples live



contributions to Australian society and cultures.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander businesses

operate around Australia, with small
-
to
-
medium
enterprises and large businesses engaged in a variety of activities (e.g. making, selling, exhibiting
and exporting artefacts, conducting tourism operations and providin
g services, both paid and
not
-
for
-
profi
t). The components of business management could be considered in relation to
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander businesses.

Subject
-
specific resources are available on the Business Management subject page of the QSA
website

<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20320.html
>.

In addition, guidelines about Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander perspectives and resources for teaching are available on the QSA website
<
www.qsa
.qld.edu.au/577.html
>.

3.2.2

Composite classes

This syllabus enables teachers to develop a course of study that caters for a variety of ways to
organise learning, such as combined Years 11 and 12 classes, combined campuses, or modes of
delivery involving period
s of student
-
managed study. This resource provides gui
delines about
composite classes
.

3.2.3

Embedding e
ducational equity

in the course of study

Equity

means fair treatment of all. In developing work programs from this syllabus, schools need
to provide opportuni
ties for all students to demonstrate what they know and what they can do.
All

students, therefore, should have equitable access to educational programs and human and
material resources.

In addition to the subject
-
specific resource
s

available on the
Busines
s Management

subject page,
guidelines about educational equity and resources for devising an inclusive work program
are
available on the QSA website
<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10188.html
>.


Queensland Studies Authority

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11

3.2.4

Language education in

Business Management

It is the responsibility of t
eachers
to

develop and monitor students’ abilities to use the forms of

language appropriate to their own subject areas.
T
his

involves

provid
ing

opportunities for the
development of students’

abilities in
:



s
election and sequencing of information required in various forms (such as reports, essays,
interviews and seminar presentations)



use of technical terms and their definitions



use of correct grammar, spelling, punctuation and layout.

3.2.5

Learning experiences and

sample resources

This resource provides guidelines for learning experiences and sample resources, which may
include unit/s of work.

3.2.6

Mathematical concepts in
Business Management

It is the responsibility of teachers to
develop

and monitor

students’ abilitie
s to use mathematical
concepts appropriate to their own subject areas.
This involves providing opportunities for the
development of students’ abilities
to:




comprehend basic concepts and terms underpinning the areas of number, space, probability
and statis
tics, and measurement



extract, convert or translate information given in numerical forms, or as diagrams, maps,
graphs or tables



calculate and apply procedures



use skills or apply concepts from one problem or one subject to another.

3.2.7

Reference materials

Thi
s resource provides links to reference materials, text and reference books, websites,
newspaper reports, periodicals, electronic media and learning technology, and organisations and
community resources for the subject.

3.2.8

Work program requirements

A work prog
ram is the school’s plan of how the course of study will be delivered and assessed,
based on the school’s interpretation of the syllabus. It allows for the special characteristics of the
individual school and its students. Work program requirements are ava
ilable on the Business
Management subject page of the QSA website
<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20320.html
>.

Instructions
for online submission of work programs are available from
<
https://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/wponline/login.qsa
>.



12

|

Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

4

Assessment

Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process. For Years 11 and 12 it is the
purposeful, systematic and ongoing collection of information about s
tudent learning outlined in the
senior syllabuses.

In Queensland, assessment is standards based. The standards for each subject are described in
dimensions, which identify the valued features of the subject about which evidence of student
learning is colle
cted and assessed. The standards describe the characteristics of student work.

The major
purposes

of assessment in senior Authority subjects are to:



promote, assist and improve learning



inform programs of teaching and learning



advise students about their o
wn progress to help them achieve as well as they are able



give information to parents
, carers

and teachers about the progress and achievements of
individual students to help them achieve as well as they are able



provide comparable levels of achievement in
each Authority subject which may contribute
credit towards a Queensland Certificate of Education



provide base data for tertiary entrance purposes



provide information about how well groups of students are achieving for school authorities and
the State
Minis
ter
responsible for
Education
.

4.1

Principles of exit assessment

All the principles of exit assessment must be used when planning an assessment program and
must be applied when making decisions about exit levels of achievement.

A standards
-
based assessment pro
gram for the four
-
semester course of study requires
application of the following interdependent principles:



i
nformation is gathered through a process of continuous assessment, i.e.
continuous
assessment



b
alance of assessment is a balance over the course of

study and not necessarily a balance
over a semester or between semesters, i.e.
balance



e
xit levels of achievement are devised from student achievement in all areas identified in the
syllabus as being mandatory, i.e.
mandatory aspects of the syllabus



a
sses
sment of a student’s achievement is in the significant aspects of the course of study
identified in the syllabus and the school’s work program, i.e.
significant aspects of the course
of study



s
elective updating of a student’s achievement is undertaken over

the course of study, i.e.
selective updating



e
xit assessment is devised to provide the fullest and latest information on a student’s
achievement in the course of study, i.e.
fullest and latest

information
.

4.1.1

Continuous assessment

Judgments about student ach
ievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on an
assessment program of continuous assessment.


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13

Continuous assessment

involves gathering information on student achievement using
assessment instruments administered at suitable intervals over t
he developmental four
-
semester
course of study.

In continuous assessment, all assessment instruments have a formative purpose


to improve
teaching and student learning and achievement.

When students exit the course of study, teachers make a summative judg
ment about their levels
of achievement in accordance with the standards matrix.

The process of continuous assessment provides the framework in which the other five principles
of exit assessment operate:
balance
,
mandatory aspects of the syllabus
,
significa
nt aspects of the
course of study
,
selective updating
, and
fullest and latest information
.

4.1.2

Balance

Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on a
balance of assessments over the course of study.

Balance
of assess
ment is a balance over the course of study and not a balance within a semester
or between semesters.

Balance of assessment means judgments about students’ achievements of the dimensions and
objectives are made a number of times using a variety of assessmen
t techniques and a range of
assessment conditions over the developmental four
-
semester course of study.

See also Section
4.6
,
V
erification folio

requirements
.

4.1.3

Mandatory aspe
cts of the syllabus

Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on
mandatory aspects of the syllabus.

The
mandatory

aspects are:



the
dimensions

Knowing and understanding business management
,
Applying and analysing
management strategies

and
Evaluating and communicating management strategies



the focus of each area of study covered in Year 12.

To ensure that the judgment of student achievement at exit from a four
-
semester course of study
is based on the mandatory aspec
ts, the exit standards for the dimensions stated in the standards
matrix must be used (see
Section
4.8.2
,
Awarding exit levels of achievement
).

4.1.4

Significant aspects of the course of study

Judgments about student achievement made at exit from a course of study must be based on
significant aspects of the course of study.

Significant aspects

are those areas described in the school’s work program that have been
selected from the choices permit
ted by the syllabus to meet local needs.

The significant aspects must be consistent with the objectives of the syllabus and complement
the developmental nature of learning in the course of study over four semesters.

4.1.5

Selective updating

Judgments about stude
nt achievement made at exit from a course of study must be selectively
updated throughout the course of study.

Selective updating

is related to the developmental nature of the course of study and works in
conjunction with the principle of fullest and lates
t information.

As subject matter is treated at increasing levels of complexity, assessment information gathered
at earlier stages of the course of study may no longer be representative of student achievement.


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Business Management

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Therefore, the information should be selectivel
y and continually updated (
and
not averaged) to
accurately represent student achievement.

Schools may apply the principle of selective updating to the whole subject

group or to individual
students.

Whole subject
-
group

A school develops an assessment progra
m so that, in accordance with the developmental nature
of the course of study, later assessment information based on the same groups of objectives
replaces earlier assessment information.

Individual student

A school determines the assessment folio for veri
fication or exit (post
-
verification). The student’s
assessment folio must be representative of the student’s achievements over the course of study.
The assessment folio does not have to be the same for all students; however, the folio must
conform to the s
yllabus requirements and the school’s approved work program.

Selective updating must not involve students reworking and resubmitting previously graded
responses to assessment instruments.

4.1.6

Fullest and latest information

Judgments about student achievement m
ade at exit from a course of study must be based on the
fullest and latest information available.



Fullest

refers to information about student achievement gathered across the range of
objectives.



Latest

refers to information about student achievement gather
ed from the most recent period
in which achievement of the objectives is assessed.

As the assessment program is developmental, fullest and latest information will most likely come
from Year 12 for those students who complete four semesters of the course of

study.

The fullest and latest assessment information on mandatory and significant aspects of the course
of study is recorded on a student profile.

4.2

Planning an assessment program

To achieve the purposes of assessment listed at the beginning of this section
, schools must
consider the following when planning a standards
-
based assessment program:



dimensions and objectives (see Section

2
)



co
urse organisation (see Section
3
)



pr
inciples of exit assessment (see Section
4.1
)



variety in assessment techniques and conditions over the four
-
semester course of study
(see

Section

4.5
)



verification folio
requirements, i.e. the range and mix of assessment instruments necessary to
reach valid judgments of students’ standards of achievement (see Section
4.6
)



post
-
verification assessment (see Section
4.6.1
)



exit standards (see Section
4.7
).

In keeping with the principle of continuous assessment, students should have opportunities to
become familiar with the assessment techniques that
will be used to make summative judgments.

Further information can be found on the Business Management subject page of the QSA website
<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20320.html
>
.


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4.3

Special provisions

Guidance about th
e nature and appropriateness of special provisions for particular students
are
described in

QSA’s
Policy on Special Provisions for School
-
based Assessments in Authority and
Authority
-
registered Subjects
(2009),

<
www
.qsa.qld.edu.au/2132.html
>.

This statement provides guidance on responsibilities, principles and strategies that schools may
need to consider in their school settings. Reasonable adjustments to students with specific
educational needs must be pl
anned and negotiated as early as possible so that students can be
provided with appropriate support in order to commence, participate and complete course of
study requirements. The special provisions might involve alternative teaching approaches,
assessmen
t plans and learning experiences.

4.4

Authentication of student work

It is essential that judgments of student achievement be made on genuine student assessment
responses. Teachers should ensure that students’ work is their own, particularly where students
hav
e access to electronic resources or when they are preparing collaborative tasks.

The QSA’s

A

Z of Senior Moderation

contains a strategy on authenticating student work
<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html
>. Thi
s provides information about various methods teachers
can use to monitor that students’ work is their own. Particular methods outlined include:



teachers seeing plans and drafts of student work



student production and maintenance of evidence for the developm
ent of responses



student acknowledgment of resources used.

Teachers must ensure students use consistent accepted conventions of in
-
text citation and
referencing, where appropriate.

Further advice on drafting of student assessment responses is available on
the
Business
Management

su
bject page of the QSA website <
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/20320.html
>.

4.5

Assessment techniques

The assessment techniques relevant to this syllabus are identified in
Figure
1

below, and
described in detail in Sections
4.5.3
,
4.5.4

and
4.5.5
.

Figure
1
:
Business Management

assessment techniques




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Schools design assessment instruments from the assessment techniques relevant to this
syllabus. For each assessment instrument, schools develop an instrument
-
specific standards
matrix by selecting the syllabus

standards descriptors for the dimension/s to be assessed. The
matrix is used as a tool for making judgments about the quality of students’ responses to the
instrument and is informed by the syllabus standards descriptors. Assessment is designed to
allow s
tudents to demonstrate the range of standards (see Section
4.8.2
,
Awarding exit levels of
achievement
). Teachers give students an instrument
-
specific standards matrix for ea
ch
assessment instrument.

Where students undertake assessment in a group or team, instruments must be designed so that
teachers can validly assess the work of individual students and not apply a judgment of the group
product an
d processes to all individual
s.

The assessment instruments students respond to in a Year 11 assessment program should
support those included in Year 12.

The conditions of assessment, possible modes for assessment and supporting evidence are
identified and described below.

4.5.1

Conditions o
f assessment

Over a four
-
semester course of study, students are required to complete assessment under a
range of conditions (see Section
4.1.2
,
Balance
).

Conditions may vary

according to assessment. Conditions should be stated clearly on
assessment instruments and may include:



whether
supervised or unsupervised



indicating individual, group or team



stating time allowed (with perusal time as needed)



stating length required



usi
ng seen or unseen questions



using sources or technologies.

Where support materials or technologies
(e.g. notes, calculators or computers)
are used under
supervised conditions, schools must ensure that the purpose of supervised conditions (i.e. to
authentic
ate student work) is maintained.

4.5.2

Modes of assessment

Assessment techniques may be presented in a variety of modes, e.g. written, spoken
/signed

and
multimodal. An assessment response is communicated to an audience for a particular purpose
which may influenc
e the type of text, language features and other textual features used in the
response. Purposes may include analysing
;
persuading
;

arguing
;

informing
;

presenting
investigative, experimental or field
-
based findings
;

creating
;

performing
;

showcasing
;

reviewi
ng a
text or situation
;

completing calculations or solving problems.

Referencing conventions must be followed regardless of the mode of assessment.

Written responses

Written responses require students to communicate a written assessment response to an
audi
ence for a particular purpose.

Spoken responses

Spoken responses require students to present a spoken assessment response to a live or virtual
audience (i.e. through the use of technology) for a particular purpose.


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Multimodal responses

A multimodal respons
e uses a combination of at least two modes to communicate an assessment
response to a live or virtual audience for a particular purpose.

Modes include:



written



spoken/signed



nonverbal, e.g. physical, visual, auditory.

Each of the selected modes contributes

significantly to the multimodal response.

Different technologies may be used in the creation or presentation of the response. Replication of
a written document into an electronic or digital format does not constitute a multimodal response.

When making jud
gments about multimodal responses, teachers apply the standards to the entire
response


that is to all modes used to communicate the response.

Supporting evidence

Supporting evidence is required to substantiate decisions made on spoken and multimodal
resp
onses for monitoring,
verification

and exit purposes. Evidence to support spoken or
multimodal responses may include:



research



notes or annotations



summary of findings



seminar brief or conference paper



a recording of the response (as appropriate).

When st
udents present feasibility studies as a spoken or multimodal response, supporting
evidence must be provided to substantiate teacher judgments. Supporting evidence should
demonstrate students’:



selection and organisation of business information



analysis and

interpretation of business information and management strategies



eval
uation of management strategies



formulation and justification of recommendations
.



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4.5.3

Feasibility study

Assessment technique: Feasibility study

Purpose

This technique assesses the applicat
ion of higher

order cognition (analysis, evaluation, and formulation
and justification of recommendations) to a feasibility study of an existing (real or simulated) business or
start
-
up business. Through the analysis of existing or competing businesses, fe
asibility studies seek to
determine the viability of a business idea or the viability of a start
-
up business.

Dimensions to be assessed

The dimensions to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments.
This assessment
technique

is best us
ed to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimensions:



Knowing and understanding business management



Applying and analysing management strategies



Evaluating and communicating management strategies.

Feasibility studies



Feasibility studies
are central to the strategic management of existing businesses or the strategic
development of a start
-
up business.



Developing feasibility studies may involve the:



use of business management terms, concepts and theories



description of the business situatio
n



explanation of management processes and strategies



selection and organisation of business information



identification of issues in the business situation



analysis and interpretation of business information and management strategies



evaluation of managemen
t strategies in the existing business and/or competitor’s business



formulation and justification of recommendations for the existing or start
-
up business.



Feasibility studies may use bullet points and diagrams/charts as appropriate.



It is not appropriate f
or terms to be defined within this technique or for appendices to be included.



Where one area of study is included in an assessment instrument, the feasibility study should be
named accordingly (e.g. Marketing feasibility study).



Business feasibility studi
es include two or more relevant areas of study. The task should be designed
to allow students to complete all aspects within the assessment conditions.

Possible assessment instruments

Assessment instruments that may be developed to assess
the assessment
technique

feasibility
study include:



m
arketing feasibility study



o
perations feasibility study



f
inance feasibility study



h
uman resources feasibility study



b
usiness feasibility study (including two or more areas of study).

Assessment conditions

Year 11

Year

12

Written:

800

1000 words

1000

1500 words

Spoken:

3

4 minutes

4

5 minutes

Multimodal:

3

5 minutes

5

7 minutes

Further guidance

When a feasibility study is presented as a spoken or multimodal response, supporting evidence must be
provided. Evidenc
e gathered from each feasibility study may only contribute once to the student profile.


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4.5.4

Examination

Assessment technique: Examination

Purpose

This technique assesses the application of a range of cognition (knowledge, understanding, application,
analysi
s, evaluation and formulation and justification of recommendations) to responses completed under
supervised conditions.

Dimensions to be assessed

The dimensions to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique
is best used to determine student achievement in objectives from the dimensions:



Knowing and understanding business management



Applying and analysing management strategies



Evaluating and communicating management strategies.

Types of examination

Short res
ponse test



Short response tests typically consist of a number of items, which involve students responding to
questions or business situations.



Short response tests occur under supervised conditions as students produce work individually and in
a set time t
o ensure authenticity.



Items will be in response to questions or statements

which

are typically unseen. If seen, teachers
must ensure the purpose of this technique is not compromised.



Stimulus materials may also be used and may be seen or unseen.



Unseen qu
estions, statements or stimulus materials should not be copied from information or texts
that students have previously been exposed to or have directly used in class.



Items may include activities that require:



explanations longer than one sentence



ideas ma
intained, developed and justified



full
-
sentence responses, constructing a piece of prose that may have one or several paragraphs.



Items may require students to construct, use, interpret or analyse primary or secondary data, graphs,
tables, diagrams or fina
ncial information.



Items may include
multiple
-
choice and

sentence answers. These types of questions, while useful for
assessing content knowledge, are difficult to construct if trying to elicit
meaningful
higher order
cognitive
responses.

Extended respons
e test



Extended response tests require students to demonstrate sustained analysis, interpretation and
evaluation to answer a question fully or deal with issues in a business situation.



Extended response tests occur under supervised conditions where studen
ts produce work individually
in a set time to ensure authenticity.



Students respond to stimulus (e.g. case studies, scenarios, sources) that may be seen or unseen, and
a seen or unseen question or statement.

Assessment conditions

Year 11

Year 12

Recommen
ded duration:

1

1.5 hours

1.5

2 hours

Short response test:

50

250 words per response

50

250 words per response

Extended response test:

400

600 words per response

600

800 words per response

Further guidance

Teachers who wish to offer an extended respon
se but not as a test (i.e. not under supervised conditions)
should refer to the assessment technique:
Extended response

(see Section
4.5.5
).




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Business Management

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4.5.5

Extended response

Assessment t
echnique: Extended response

Purpose

This technique assesses the sustained application of higher order cognition (analysis, evaluation, and
formulation and justification of recommendations) in responding to research or stimulus materials.
Students may res
pond to business situations and analyse, interpret and evaluate business information
and management strategies to formulate and justify recommendations. Students may apply knowledge to
the development of a business venture to formulate, enact and evaluate
the impact of management
strategies in business situations.

Dimensions to be assessed

The dimensions to be assessed should be clearly stated on assessment instruments. This assessment
technique is best used to determine student achievement in objectives
from the dimensions:



Knowing and understanding business management



Applying and analysing management strategies



Evaluating and communicating management strategies
.

Types of extended response

Extended research response



An extended research response invol
ves students collecting, selecting, organising and using
information that goes beyond the data students have been given and the knowledge they currently
possess.



An extended research response occurs over a set period of time. Students may use class time an
d
their own time to conduct research and develop a response.



An action research (business venture) is a specialised extended research response used to
demonstrate the practical application of business management strategies to a business venture.
Action res
earch may involve students:



planning a course of action for running a business venture, enacting and evaluating the
management strategies



developing the underpinning practices of communication strategies and management strategies
through working in partner
ships, groups or teams to enact the business venture



defining and/or using business management terms, concepts and theories relevant to the business
venture



describing the business venture



explaining the management processes and strategies implemented in t
he business venture



selecting and organising business information gathered through the business venture



identifying issues relevant to the business venture



analysing and interpreting business information and management strategies relevant to the
business v
enture



formulating and justifying recommendations for the business venture



evaluating management strategies enacted in the business venture.

Extended response to stimulus



An extended response to stimulus involves students in applying management understan
dings to case
studies and issues.



Stimulus materials are known or provided materials/sources and concepts. This may include case
studies, scenarios, media articles, statistics, financial accounts or images/diagrams.



An extended response to stimulus occurs
over a set period of time. Students may use class time and
their own time to develop a response.



While research may occur in the writing of the extended response to stimulus, it is not the focus of this
technique.



Students respond to a seen question or sta
tement using data, researched information, primary and/or
secondary sources.


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Assessment t
echnique: Extended response

Possible assessment instruments

Assessment instruments that may be developed to assess extended response include:



essay, e.g. analytical, persuasive/argumentative, informative



r
eport, e.g. investigative



action research report, e.g. business venture



article, e.g. magazine or journal, may be analytical, persuasive, informative



speech, e.g. analytical, persuasive/argumentative or informative



interview or debate



news segment or docum
entary



webcast or podcast



a presentation combining speaking with data presentation or slide show



a seminar combining speaking with visual prompts, e.g. posters, brochures, handouts



a digital presentation or documentary combining images, sound bites, blog e
ntries and embedded
videos.

Assessment conditions

Year 11

Year 12

Written:





extended research response

800

1000 words

1000

1500 words



extended response to stimulus

600

1000 words

800

1200 words

Spoken:

3

4 minutes

4

5 minutes

Multimodal:

3

5 minut
es

5

7 minutes

Further guidance

Teachers who wish to offer an extended response as a test (supervised conditions) should refer to the
assessment technique:
Examination

(see Section
4.5.4
).



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4.6

V
erification folio

requirements

A verification folio is a collection of a student’s responses to assessment instruments on which
the interim level of achievement is based. For students who are to exit after four semesters, each
folio s
hould contain the range of assessments for making summative judgments as stated below.

Students’ verification folios for Business Management are to contain a minimum of four and a
maximum of six assessment instruments and the relevant student responses. Ea
ch folio must
include:



evidence of student work from Year 12 only



evidence of all dimensions being assessed at least three times



one feasibility study assessing all three dimensions (see Section
4.5.3
)



one supervi
sed extended response test responding to an unseen question
, and

assessing all
three dimensions (see Section
4.5.4
)



a student profile completed to date.

For information about preparing monitoring and verification
submissions, schools should refer to
QSA’s
Moderation handbook for Authority subjects
, <
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html
>.

4.6.1

Post
-
verification assessment

In addition to the contents of the verification folio,

there must be at least one subsequent
summative assessment in the exit folio completed after verification. For this syllabus, students are
to complete an assessment response that assesses all three dimensions.

4.7

Exit standards

Exit standards are used to

mak
e judgments about students’ levels of achievement at exit from a
course of study. The standards are described in the same dimensions as the objectives of the
syllabus. The standards describe how well students have achieved the objectives and are stated
in
the standards matrix.

The following dimensions must be used:



Dimension 1:
Knowing and understanding business management



Dimension 2:
Applying and analysing management strategies



Dimension 3:
Evaluating and communicating management strategies
.

Each dimensio
n must be assessed in each semester, and each dimension is to make an equal
contribution to the determination of exit levels of achievement
.

4.8

Determining exit levels of achievement

When students exit the course of study, the school is required to award each

student an exit level
of achievement from one of the five levels:



Very High Achievement (VHA)



High Achievement (HA)



Sound Achievement (SA)



Limited Achievement (LA)



Very Limited Achievement (VLA).


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All the principles of exit assessment must be applied when
making decisions about exit levels of
achievement.

Exit levels of achievement are summative judgments made when students exit the course of
study. For most students this will be after four semesters. For these students, judgments are
based on exit folios p
roviding evidence of achievement in relation to all objectives of the syllabus
and standards.

For students
who
exit

before
complet
ing

four semesters,
judgments are made based on the
evidence of achievement to that stage of the course of study and the princ
iples of exit
assessment.

4.8.1

Determining a standard

The standard awarded is an on
-
balance judgment about how the qualities of the student’s
responses match the standards descriptors in each dimension. This means that it is not
necessary for the student respon
ses to have been matched to every descriptor for a particular
standard in each dimension.

4.8.2

Awarding exit levels of achievement

When standards have been determined in each of the dimensions for this subject
,
Table
2

below

is used to award exit levels of achievement, where A represents the highest standard and E the
lowest. The table indicates the minimum combination of standards across the dimensions for
each level.

Table
2
:
Awarding exit levels of achievement

VHA

Standard A in any two dimensions and no less than a B in the remaining dimension

HA

Standard B in any two dimensions and no less than a C in the remaining dimension

SA

Standard C in any two
dimensions and no less than a D in the remaining dimension

LA

At least Standard D in any two dimensions and an E in the remaining dimension

VLA

Standard E in the three dimensions

Further information
is available in the
QSA’s

Moderation handbook for Auth
ority subjects
,

<
www.qsa.qld.edu.au/10773.html
>.




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Queensland Studie
s Authority

4.8.3

Standards matrix


Standard A

Standard B

Standard C

Standard D

Standard E

Knowing and understanding business
management

The student work has the
followi
ng characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:



thorough definition and
di
scerning use of relevant
business management
terms, concepts and
theories



detailed definition and
appropriate use of business
management terms,
concepts and theories



definition and use of
business management
terms, concepts and
theories



simple definition a
nd use of
some business
management terms,
concepts or theories



use of some business
management terms,
concepts or theories



thorough description of
business situations using a
comprehensive range of
relevant examples



detailed description of
business situa
tions using a
range of examples



description of business
situations using examples



simple description of
business situations using
few examples



statement of elements of
business situations



comprehensive explanation
of complex management
processes and stra
tegies.



detailed explanation of
management processes
and strategies.



explanation of management
processes and strategies.



cursory explanation of
simple management
processes and strategies.



statement of management
processes or strategies.

Applying and analy
sing management strategies

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has
the
following characteristics:



purposeful selection and
organisation of business
information from a
comprehensive range of
valid primary and
secondary sources



purposeful selection and
organisation of business
information from a range of
valid primary and

secondary sources



selection and organisation
of business information
from primary and
secondary sources



partial organisation of
business information from
sources



statement of business
information



discerning and systematic
application of knowledge in
bus
iness situations to
identify a comprehensive
range of issues



systematic application of
knowledge in business
situations to identify a
range of issues



application of knowledge in
business situations to
identify issues



simple application of
knowledge in busi
ness
situations to identify issues



statement of issues



thorough and discerning
analysis of business
information and
management strategies,
and accurate interpretation
of a comprehensive range
of trends, patterns and
relationships.



detailed and informed
a
nalysis of business
information and
management strategies,
and accurate interpretation
of a range of trends,
patterns and relationships.



analysis of business
information and
management strategies,
and interpretation of trends,
patterns and relationships.



p
artial analysis of business
information or management
strategies, and identification
of some trends, patterns
and relationships.



statement of trends,
patterns or relationships.



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Standard A

Standard B

Standard C

Standard D

Standard E

Evaluating and communicating
management strategies

The student work has the
fo
llowing characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:

The student work has the
following characteristics:



thorough and insightf
ul
evaluation of management
strategies to formulate valid
and purposeful
recommendations



detailed evaluation of
management strategies to
formulate valid
recommendations



evaluation of management
strategies to formulate
recommendations



simple evaluation of
m
anagement strategies to
state recommendations



description of management
strategies or statement of
simple recommendations



well
-
reasoned justification
of recommendations using
relevant evidence



valid justification of
recommendations using
relevant evidenc
e



justification of
recommendations using
evidence



simple justification of some
recommendations



statement of opinions



coherent communication
with discriminating use of
language conventions to
suit audiences and
purposes.



clear communication with
appropria
te use of
language conventions to
suit audiences and
purposes.



communication using
language conventions to
suit audiences and
purposes.



communication using
inconsistent language
conventions.



communication that
impedes meaning.



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Business Management

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5

Glossary

T
erm

Explanation

accurate

precise and correct

analyse

dissect to ascertain and examine constituent parts and/or their relationships;
consider in detail for the purpose of finding meaning or relationships, and
identifying patterns, similarities and differences

apply

emplo
y knowledge and skills in a particular situation

audience

the intended group of readers, listeners or viewers that the writer or speaker is
addressing

basic

fundamental; elementary or simple

case study

a real or simulated business situation or example

clear

plain and open, without ambiguity

coherent

rational with parts that are harmonious, well
-
structured and that make sense

communicate

convey information about, make known, clearly reveal or make known

compare

display recognition of similarities an
d differences and recognise the significance of
these similarities and differences

comprehensive

of broad scope or content

concepts

in the context of this subject, a concept is a basic or fundamental idea, notion or
element

conclusion

a judgment based o
n evidence

considered

thought about or decided upon with care

context

a framework for the development of meaningful learning experiences which provide
students with opportunities to learn in circumstances that are relevant and
interesting to them and ar
e used to bring aspects of the areas of study together in
real
-
world scenarios

contrast

display recognition of differences by deliberate juxtaposition of contrary elements

data

the measurement of an attribute; not necessarily a single measurement; data c
an
be qualitative or quantitative

decision

a choice or determination formed following the consideration of alternatives

describe

provide an account of features

detailed

containing numerous facts or aspects

discerning

showing good judgment; selected for

value or relevance

effective

meeting the assigned purpose

explain

provide additional information that demonstrates understanding and reasoning;
present a meaning with clarity, precision, completeness, and with due regard to the
order of statements in t
he explanation

evaluate

examine and judge the merit or significance of something, including processes,
descriptions, relationships or data, according to criteria

impede

hamper, limit, block or decrease the action or function of



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27

T
erm

Explanation

inconsistent

lacking in h
armony between the different parts or elements; discrepant;
incongruous

information

knowledge or data gained from primary and secondary sources

insightful

clearly or deeply perceptive; judged to be fitting for a purpose

interpret

explain the meaning of
information or actions

investigation

a process of answering a question, exploring an idea or solving a problem

issue

a point in question or a matter that is subject to debate

justify

provide sound reasons or evidence to support a statement; soundness r
equires
that the reasoning is logical and, where appropriate, that the premises are likely to
be true

language
conventions

the features of language that support meaning and assist in conveying meaning,
e.g. spelling, terminology, vocabulary, grammar, punc
tuation, sentence structure,
paragraphing, referencing, text type, mode

logical

rational and valid, internally consistent

obvious

easily seen, recognised, or understood; lacking in subtlety

organise

arrange methodically to form an ordered whole

primary

data

information created by the person or persons directly involved in a study, mainly
generated through the gathering of first
-
hand experiences, e.g. surveys, interviews

problem

a question proposed for solution

provided

given

purpose

the reason for wh
ich something is done, to achieve an intended result

range

a number of different things of the same general type; breadth

reasoned

logical and sound thinking

recall

remember information, ideas or experiences

recommendation

a proposal for an appropriate

course of action

relationship

the connection or association between ideas, information or components of
concepts and theories

relevant

applicable, important and correct

representation

words, images, symbols or signs used to convey meaning

scenario

an
account or summary of a future situation, event or a projected course of action;
used to determine different ways that future events might unfold

secondary data

information that has been compiled from primary sources by a person or persons
not directly in
volved in the study, collected through researching the studies and
works of others, e.g. journal and newspaper articles, reports

select

choose in preference to another or others

sequence

determine the arrangement of constituent parts

significant

importa
nt in effect or meaning



28

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Business Management

Senior Syllabus
2013

T
erm

Explanation

simple

easy to understand and deal with, may concern a single or a basic aspect, few
steps, obvious data/outcomes, limited or no relationships

superficial

apparent and sometimes trivial

synthesise

assemble constituent parts into
a coherent, unique and/or complex entity; the term
―entity‖ includes a system, theory, communication, plan or set of operations

system

groups of interacting concepts or processes that form an integrated whole

term

a word, name or expression used in a spe
cialised field of knowledge

theory

a group of general propositions that can be used to explain and predict
occurrences; a system of rules or principles for conducting activities

thorough

demonstrating depth and breadth, inclusive of relevant detail

va
lid

applicable, legitimate and defensible

well
-
chosen

carefully selected to produce a desired effect






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