UNIT IV - Ncce

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B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2010
-
11






































B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

1

MARKS DISTRIBUTION

(ACCORDING TO AUTONOMY)

FOR ALL THEORY COURSES:
-






























1.

On semester evaluation of all theory courses total:


100 marks





I. Mid semester exam:


20 marks

II. Mid semester exam:

20 marks

Continues Evaluation Test (CET):

20 marks

Attendance:

20 marks

Teacher’s assessment:


㈰慲歳


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a氠數a浩湡瑩潮⤠o映f汬⁴桥潲y⁣潵牳o猠


呯瑡氺


㄰〠浡N歳

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楳映㨠


㈰〠浡O歳

㐩⁔漠灡獳⁡⁴桥ory⁣潵牳e⁳瑵摥湴⁳桯畬搠潢瑡楮d


䵩湩浵m㨠
-

㐰慲歳⁩渠潮⁳o浥獴m爠rva汵慴楯渮



††

-

㌵慲歳⁩渠n湤⁳nm
e獴敲⁥癡汵a瑩潮o



呯瑡氺
-

㠰慲歳畴映㈰〮


C物瑥物潮⁦潲⁰o獳sng⁡湤n晡楬楮i⁴桥⁴桥ory⁣潵牳e:
-




If students fails in on semester evaluation despite passing in aggregate one will have to
repeat that course.

b)

If student pass in on semester evaluat
ion but fails in end semester exam he/ she will be
permitted to appear in supplementary examination.

c)

If student is pass both in on semester evaluation and end semester evaluation but fails in
total then He/ she would have to appear in supplementary exam.

d)

I
f attendance in a course is below 75%, the student shall not be permitted to appear in the
End
-

Semester Examination.







Distribution

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

2

FOR ALL PRACTICAL (LABORATORY) COURSES:
-


FOR ALL PRACTICAL (LABORATORY) COURSES:
-


















CALCULATION OF SEMESTER GRADE POINT AVERAGE:
-


Semester grade point average (SGPA)

is the weighted average of the grade for the subjects
registered
in a Semester

and is computed as follows:









i
i
i
i
i
C
G
C
SGPA

i
C
denote
s the Credits (or Units) assigned to the ith subject and
i
G
denotes the Grade Point
Equivalent to the Letter Grade obtained for the ith subject.


Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)

is the weighted average of the grades of the
subjects

for the registered in the semester.

I) On semester evaluation of all practical (laboratory) courses would be of total:

120 marks.




Performance of class practical:


60 marks

Reports of practical:

60 marks


II) End semester evaluation (final lab exam + oral or viva test)


Total:


80 marks

III) Total of on semester evaluation final lab examination + end semester evaluation is of :

200 marks

IV) To pass a lab course student should obtain


Minimum:
-


48 marks in on semester evaluation.





28 marks in end semester evaluation.


Total
-


80 marks

out of
-
200

Criterion for passing and failing the lab course is just like theory cour
se.












Distribution

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

3

N. C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ISRANA

SCHEME OF STUDIES AND EXAMINATION

DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

BIOTECHNOLOGY (SEMESTER

III) 2011
-
12



Sr. No.

Course no.

Subjects


Teaching
Schedule

Contact

Hours


Credits


L

T

P

1

NC
-
MGT
-
201

Basics of Management

3

-

-

3

3

2

NC
-
BT
-
203

Biostatistics

3

1

-

4

3

3

NC
-
BT
-
205

Cell Biology

3

-

-

3

3

4

NC
-
BT
-
207

Microbiology

3

-

-

3

3

5

NC
-
BT
-
209

Genetics

3

-

-

3

3

6

NC
-
BT
-
211

Structure and Function of
Bio
-
molecules

4

-

-

4

4

7

NC
-
BT
-
213

Cell Biology & Genetics
Lab.

-

-

3

3

2

8

NC
-
BT
-
215

Biochemistry lab.

-

-

4

4

2

9

NC
-
BT
-
217

Microbiology Lab.

-

-

3

3

2



TOTAL

19

1

10

30

26

















B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

4

N. C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ISRANA

SCHEME OF STUDIES AND EXAMINATION

DEPARTMENT

OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

BIOTECHNOLOGY (SEMESTER

IV) 2011
-
12


Sr. No.

Course no.

Subjects


Teaching
Schedule

Contact

Hours


Credits


L

T

P

1

NC
-
BT
-
202

Thermodynamics of
Bioprocesses

3

-

-

3

3

2

NC
-
BT
-
204

Molecular Biology

3

-

-

3

3

3

NC
-
BT
-
206

Immunolog
y

3

-

-

3

3

4

NC
-
BT
-
208

Industrial Microbiology
& Biotransformations

3

-

-

3

3

5

NC
-
BT
-
210

Applied Analytical
Techniques

3

-

-

3

3

6

NC
-
BT
-
212

Industrial Microbiology
Lab.

-

-

3

3

2

7

NC
-
BT
-
214

Molecular Biology Lab.

-

-

3

3

2

8

NC
-
BT
-
216

Applied ana
lytical
Techniques Lab.

-

-

3

3

2

9

NC
-
BT
-
218

Immunology lab.


-

3

3

2

10


NC
-
BT
-
220

OR

NC
-
BT
-
222

Departmental elective
-


3

-


-


3

3



TOTAL

18


12

30


26


Departmental Elective:

Animal Cell Science and Technology (NC
-
BT
-
220)

OR





Pharmaceutical B
iotechnology (NC
-
BT
-
222)








B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

5

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

BIOSTATISTICS

NC
-
BT
-
203


L

T





End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

3

0






On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks


Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions
carry
equal marks.


2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers
the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units











UNIT
-
I

Definition of statistics its scope and importance, sampling, data c
ollection, presentation of data,
Measures of central tendency, arithmetic/geometric and harmonic means, median mode,
measures of dispersion, standard deviation and standard error.


UNIT
-
II

Probability: Probability and its distribution, binomial, poisson an
d normal distribution and their
properties, relationship between binomial, poisson and normal distribution


UNIT
-
III

Introduction, Hypothesis and Null
-
hypothesis, Level of significance, Decision about H
0
, One
-
tailed test and two
-

tailed test, rejection o
f hypothesis; Chi
-
Square test: Introduction,
Definition, assumptions and conditions for use o
f χ
2

test, Procedure and Applications.



UNIT
-
IV

Analysis of variance, Principle of ANOVA, Assumptions underlying ANOVA, Applications of
ANOVA; Correlation: Introduction, Mutual dependence, Types of correlation: Positive,
Negative and curvilinear correl
ation, Methods of study of correlation.
Regression analysis:
Least square method, Straight line of best fit.





Text/ Reference Books:

1.

An Introduction to Biostatistics, Second Revised Edition, N. Gurumani, MJP
Publishers, Chennai
-
600005

2.

Introduction

to Biostatistics. Glovar T. Mitchell K. (2002). MacGraw Hill, New York.

3.

Introductory Applied Biostatistics, Sr. Ralph D’Agostino, Lisa Sullivan, Alexa Beiser
ISBN: 053442399X, Publisher: Brook Cole



B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

6

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

CELL BIOLOGY

NC
-
BT
-
20
5


L

T





End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

3

0





On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks










Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compul
sory which covers
the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units


UNIT
-
I

Cell: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cell and organization of nucleus, cell membrane
-
its structure
and function, fluidity of membrane components, membrane as d
ynamic entity, transport across
biomembranes


UNIT
-
II

Structure and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments.

Structure and Function of cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes,
vacuoles and microbodies, r
ibosomes,

mitochondria,

plastids



UNIT
-
III

Extra cellular matrix, composition, molecules that mediate cell adhesion,

Cell Division: Meiosis and mitosis, regulation of cell cycle, Role of mutagens in cell division


UNIT
-
IV

Composition of cell: Macromol
ecules, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins in cytosol and nucleoplasm,
conduction of nerve impulse and muscle contraction, energetics of muscle contraction



Text/ Reference Books:

1.

Molecular Biology of cell, 4
th

ed. Alberts, Bruce,
(2002)
Garland Science Pub
lishing, New
York..


2.

Cell Biology
-

Smith and Wood by Chapman and Hall.

3.

Cell Biology: Organelle structure and function, Sadava, D E.(2004) Panima Publication, New
Delhi.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

7

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

MICROBIOLOGY

NC
-
BT
-
207


L

T





End Semester Examinatio
n

: 100 Marks

3

0





On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks


Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.


2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers
the whole syllabus.
Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units

UNIT


I

Discovery of microbes and their types, Branches of microbiology and their applications in
emerging area of biotechnology, construction and working principle of different types of
microscopes


compound, dark field phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microsope.

Landmark events and contributions of scientists in development of microbiology, scientific
nomenclature, characters used in bacterial identification, molecular characters used in
id
entification, microbial phylogeny & current classification of bacteria.

UNIT


II

Diversity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Cellular structure of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa
and viruses. Methods of isolation, Purification and preservation, Maintenance
of microbes in
pure culture and sterilization methods.


UNIT


III

Definition of growth, physical and chemical requirements for growth of microbes, Growth
curve (normal and biphasic) and generation time, Synchronous, batch and continuous cultures.

Sexual
and asexual reproduction with example from each group, Bacterial recombination,
transformation, transduction and conjugation and Formation of endospores

UNIT


IV

Normal and contaminating microflora of water, soil and air, Study of water, soil and air
pol
lution. Important fermented foods and beverages curd, yogurt, cheese, bread, beer and wine,
bacterial and viral disease


Text/Reference Books:

1.

Microbiology 5
th

Edition. Prescott, L.M.; Harley, J.P. and Klein, D.A. McGraw Hill,

USA.

2.

Microbiology. Pelc
zar Jr., M.J.; Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. Tata McGraw Hill, New


Delhi.

3.

Food Microbiology, Adam, M. R. and Moss Panima Pub, New Delhi.

4.

The Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology Ed. Mara, D. and Horan, N.


Academic Press.

5.

Moder
n Food Microbiology. Jay, J.M. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

6.

Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers 2
nd

Edition. Doyle, M.P. Beuchat; L.R.

and Montville, T.J. ASM Press Washington D.C.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

8

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

GENETICS

NC
-
BT
-
2
09


L

T





End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

3

0





On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks











Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.


2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is com
pulsory which covers
the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units


UNIT

I

Basic concept and terminology of genetics, Genotype and Phenotype, Mendelian laws of
heredity, principle of segregation, independent assortment, monohy
brid and dihybrid crosses,
Incomplete dominance, codominance and multiple allele.

Sex determination theories and mechanism, Sex
-
linked inheritance, sex
-
limited and sex
-
influenced inheritance.



UNIT
-

II

Eukaryotic chromosomes, structure and chemical comp
osition, nucleic acids histone and non
-

histone protein, Types of chromosomes
, numerical and structural variation in c
hromosome and
their effects
-
euploidy, aneuploidy, polyploidy.

Classification of mutations, different types of mutations, point mutation, m
utagenic agents,
Techniques to detect the mutations, mechanisms of DNA damage repair.


UNIT


III

Linkage and recombination of genes in a chromosome, Early studies of genetic linkage with
Drosophila,

Coupling and repulsion hypothesis of linkage, crossing o
ver, mechanism and
factors affecting crossing over.

Gene mapping with recombination frequencies, linkage map, two
-
point test crosses and three
-

point test crosses, calculating the recombination frequencies.


UNIT


IV

Qualitative and quantitative inheritan
ce, Quantitative trail loci (QTL) and their inheritance
.


Hardy
-
Weinberg law, gene and genotypic frequencies, Change in allelic frequencies Mutation,
migration, natural selection, random drift, Inbreeding and genetics of diseases.


Text/ Reference Books
:

1.

G
enetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes. Hartl, D.L. and Jones, E.W., Jones and
Bartlet Publishers, Boston.

2.

Genetics Russell, P.J., Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., California.

3.

Genetics: Analysis and Principles. Brooker, R.J. McGraw Hill, New York.

4.

Basic Genet
ics, Miglani, G.S., Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.

5.

Genetics a conceptual approach, 2
nd

Benjamin A. Pierc W. H. freeman and company,
New York.

6.

Genetics A molecular approach 2
nd

Peter J. Russell Pearson.


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

9

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

STRUCTURE AND FUNC
TION OF BIO
-
MOLECULES

NC
-
BT
-
211


L

T





End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

4

0





On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks



Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.


2.

Attempt five questions in all.

FIRST question is compulsory which covers
the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units









UNIT I

Water, weak interactions in aqueous systems, ionization of water, weak acids and weak bases,
buffering against pH changes i
n biological systems

Carbohydrates: Introduction and biological significance.

Definition and classification: Monosaccharides, families of monosaccharides simple aldoses
and ketoses, configuration and conformation, stereoisomerism/asymmetric centers, Fisch
er and
Haworth projection formula, pyranose and furanose ring forms, reducing and non
-
reducing
sugars, sugar derivatives viz. sugar alcohols, amino sugars, deoxy sugars, acidic sugars,
glycosidic bond

Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides: Definition structur
e and function of important di and
oligosaccharides viz. lactose, Sucrose, Maltose, rafffinose, stachyose, verbacose etc.

Polysaccharides: Homo and Heteropolysaccharides, Storage polysaccharides: Starch and
Glycogen, Structural Polysaccharides: Cellulose
and Chitin., A brief account of structure and
function of Mucopolysaccharides/ Glycosaminoglycans


Hyaluronic acid, Heparin Chondriton
Sulphate, Keratan, Glycoproteins, Proteoglycans and Glycolipids, Carbohydrates as
informational molecules
-

Lectins, Sele
ctins, Lectin
-

Carbohydrate interactions.


UNIT II

Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins: Classification and structure of Amino acids, Essential
amino acids, rare and non
-
protein amino acids, Acid Base behaviour/ Zwitter ions; pKa value
and Titration curve.

P
eptide Bond: Nature and Characteristics. Definition; Structure and Function of some
biologically important peptides.

Classification based on structure and function, Structural Organization of Proteins: Primary
structure.

Secondary struct
ure: α
-
helix, β
-
pleats and β
-

turns, Supersecondary structures, Protein motifs
as basis for protein structural classification

Tertiary structure: Myoglobin and Lysozyme.

Quarternary Structure: Hemoglobin.

Forces Stabilizing Protein Structure, protein inte
ractions modulated by chemical energy: actin,
myosin and molecular motors

Amino acid analysis/ N
-
terminal amnio acid analysis


Sanger’s Method, Edmann’s
degradation, Dansyl Chloride and dabsyl Chloride.


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

10

UNIT III

Lipids: Introduction and Classification


Simple and Complex Lipids.

Fatty acids


Structure and nomenclature, Saponification number, Acid value, Iodine number,
rancidity, Essential fatty acids.

Structure and function of Triacylglycerols, Phospholipids, Sphinolipids, steroids, bile acids,
bile sal
ts, Eicosanoids, Waxes and terpenes.

Cholesterol and its biological functions.

Lipids as signals and Cofactors.


UNIT IV

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Building Blocks : Nitrogen bases, sugars and phosphates.

Structure and nomenclature of nucleosides and Nu
cleotides, polynucleotides.

DNA (A, B, Z
-

DNA) and RNA (mRNA, rRNA and tRNA)

Properties of DNA


absorption, denaturation, renaturation, Hybridization, Tm/Cot values,
sequence dependent structural variations
-

palindromes, hairpins and cruciforms

Biologica
lly important nucleotides and their functions
-

ATP, GTP, Coenzyme A, NAD, FAD,
cAMP and cGMP.

DNA sequencing
-

Sanger method, Maxam
-
Gilbert method, Automated DNA Synthesis.




Text/ Reference Books:

1.

Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry, 4
th

edition, by Dav
id L. Nelson and M.M. Cox (2000)
Maxmillan/ Worth publishers.

2.

Biochemistry, 4
th

edition, by G. Zubay (1998). Wm.C. Brown Publishers.

3.

Biochemistry, 2
nd

edition, by Laurence A. Moran, K.G. Scrimgeour, H. R. Horton, R.S. Ochs
and J. David Rawn (1994), Neil P
atterson Publishers Prentice Hall.

4.

Biochemistry, 2
nd

edition, by R.H. Garrett and C.M. Grisham (1999). Saunders College
Publishing, NY. Sons, NY.

5.

Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith G Voet (1999), John Wiley & Sons,
NY.


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

11

3
rd

Semester (B
iotechnology)

CELL BIOLOGY& GENETICS LAB

NC
-
BT
-
213


P






End Semester Examination

: 80 Marks

3




On Semester Examination

: 120 Marks







LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1.

Microscopy:

2.

Microtomy, Fixation
: Histological study of rat Liver and Intestine.

3.

Histological study of rat Kidney and Heart.

4.

Study of different stages of mitotic cell division in onion root tip.

5.

To study and count Ovariole number from insect gonads/ovary.

6.

Squash preparation of polyten
e chromosomes from insects’ salivary gland.

7.

To study some adult mutant phenotype of insects.

8. To differentiate male and female larvae/pupae of insects.



Text/ Reference Books
:

1.

An introduction to Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer (1988),
McGraw
-

Hill, Book
company, UK.

2.

Essential Techniques in Cell Biology by Prof. V.C. Shah ( 1988), Educational Publishers,
Ahmedabad




B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

12

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

BIOCHEMISTRY LAB

NC
-
BT
-
215


P






End Semester Examination

: 80 Marks

4





On Semester Examination

: 120 Marks


.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:


1.

Qualitative tests for amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates.

2.

Quantitative estimation of proteins by Biuret, Lowry and UV absorbance method

3.

Quant
itative estimation of carbohydrates by Anthrone method

4.

Detection of Free fatty acids in Lipids

5.

Estimation of Acid value of fats and oils

6.

To study the time course of an enzymatic reaction

7.

Effect of pH on enzyme activity.

8.


Effect of temperature on enzyme ac
tivity.

9.

Effect of enzyme concentration on enzyme activity.

10.

Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity.

11.

Determination of K
m

and V
max

of any commonly occurring enzyme.




Reference Books
:

1.

Principles and techniques of Practical Biochemistry: K. Wil
son and J. Walker (1994),
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

2.

Introductory practical Biochemistry by S.K. Sawhney and Randhir Singh (2000), Narosa
Publishing House, New Delhi.

3.

An introduction to Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer (1988), McGraw
-

Hill, Book
company, UK.











B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

13

3
rd

Semester (Biotechnology)

MICROBIOLOGY LAB

NC
-
BT
-
217


P






End Semester Examination

: 80 Marks

3




On Semester Examination

: 120 Marks



LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:


1.

Microscopy: Identification of
microorganisms by microscopy examination.

2.

Micrometry: Measurement of microorganisms.

3.

Staining method: Gram positive and gram
-
negative bacteria.

4.

Preparation of culture media: Liquid and solid media and cultivation of microbes.

5.

Isolation and enumeration of
microorganisms from different sources.

6.

Pure culture techniques
-

Streak plate, pour plate, spread plate.

7.

Measurements of growth and study of effect of various factors on growth of
microorganisms
-
temperature, pH.

8.

Biochemical tests useful in bacterial taxonom
y.

9.

Water Microbiology
-

BOD, multiple
-
tube fermentation test.

10.

Milk Microbiology
-

SPC, testing the quality of milk.



Reference Books:


1.

Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology, Aneja, K.R. New

Age International Publishers, New Delh
i
.

2.

Microbiology
-

a laboratory manual, Cappuccino J. and Sheeman N. Addison Wesley,
California.

3.

Environmental Microbiology


A Laboratory Manual Pepper. I.L.; Gerba, C.P. and
Brendecke, J.W. Academic Press, New York.




















B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

14

3
rd

Semester (B
iotechnology)

BASICS OF MANAGEMENT

NC
-
MGT
-
201


L

T





End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

3

0





On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks


Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.


2.

Attempt five ques
tions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers
the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units


UNIT
-
I

Meaning, Characteristics and Principles of Management, Management as an Art, Science and
Profession, Functions of Man
agement, Corporate Social Responsibility

Communication
-
Process and Barriers.



UNIT
-
II

Marketing management
-
Meaning, Nature, Scope and Functions of marketing Management,
Marketing Research, Marketing Mix, Ma
rketing Information system

International Marketing Management
-

Meaning, Nature and Scope.



UNIT
-
III

Financial Management
-
Objectives, Scope and Functions of financial management, Capital
Structure, Sources of Finance, Project Management
-

meaning, Feasibili
ty study of Project,
Social Cost Benefit Analysis.







UNIT
-
IV

Human Resource Management
-

Meaning, Nature, Scope and Functions of Human Resource
Management, Difference between Personal management and Human Resource Management ,
Job Analysis
-
meaning and p
rocess, Performance Appraisal


Suggested Readings


1.

Philip Kotler.(2003). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and
Control. Prentice Hall of India

2.

Michael, J.E.,Bruce, J.W. and William, J.S. (13
th

Edition,2004). Marketing
Management. Tat
a McGrawHill, New Delhi.

3.

Aswatthapa, K.; Human Resource and Personnel Management, TMH, 1997

4.

C.B.Gupta Management Theory and Practice, Sultan Chand and Sons

5.

D. Cenzo, D.A. & Robbins S.P. : Human Resource Management, 5
th

ed, NY, 1994

6.

Pandy I.M Financial Mg
t, Vikas Publication

7.

Parsana Chandra, Financial Mgt, Tata McGraw New Delhi

8.

Khan M.Y and Jain P.K Financial Mgt, Problem and Cases, Tata McGraw Hill,New
Delhi


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

15

4
th

Semester (Biotechnology)

THERMODYNAMICS OF BI
O
-
PROCESSES

NC
-
BT
-
202



L

T







End Seme
ster Examination: 100 Marks


3

0





On Semester Examination: 100 Marks






Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt f
ive questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the
whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units










UNIT
-

I


Concept of Open, Closed, adiabatic and isolated systems with suitable examples. Biological
Syst
em as open systems. Thermodynamic parameters

internal energy, enthalpy; their
relationship and their significance. First law of thermodynamics. Kirchoff’s Equation. Heat
capacity at constant pressure and volume and their relationship. Concepts of Free e
nergy
and Entropy, Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy changes for reversible and
irreversible processes.Third Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy & life processes.


UNIT

II


Basic concept of Equilibrium and steady state conditions, Free energy and its

relation


with equilibrium constant, Chemical potential, Gibbs
-
Duhem equation and their


application, . Structural transition in biological macromolecules and molecular


processes. Binding


independent and non
-
cooperative binding, Co
-
operative


binding and its biological significance.


UNIT

III


Biological application of thermodynamics. Concept of coupled reactions and group transfer
potentials. Thermodynamic analysis of some important metabolic pathways.


Concept o
f flux and forces. Non
-
equilibrium thermodynamics and its biological


applications. Coupled flows and Onsager’s phenomenological co
-
efficients and


reciprocal relations.

UNIT
-

IV


Prigogine and Prigogine
-
Curie law. Thermo analysis of oxi
dative phosphorylation.


Stability of non
-
equilibrium stationary state. Biological significance of the


thermodynamic Properties of water.Biochemical oscillations and Biological clocks.



Text/Reference Books :

1.

Kinetics and Thermodynamics in

Biochemistry : Bray & White.

2.

Biophysical chemistry Vol. I : Edsall and Wyman

3.

Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Biophysics : Katchalasky and Curran; Harvard



University Press.

4.

Physical Biochemistry : Van Holde

5.

Physical basis of biochemistry : Foundations
of molecular biophysics, Bergethan,
P.R.(2000) NY, Springer.

6.

Introduction to the thermodynamics of biological processes : Jou D.& Llebot J.E., Prentice
Hall, New Jersey.

7.

Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, 2
nd

ed., Bailey J.E.; Ollis D.F.(1986) MGH,
Ne
w York.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

16

4th Semester (Biotechnology)

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

NC
-
BT
-
204


L

T






End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3

0








On Semester Examination: 100 Marks









Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions
carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which
covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four
Units











UNIT

I

The chemical nature of the Gene: DNA as a source of gen
etic information, RNA as genetics
material, Super coiling and periodicity of DNA, Cis
-

acting sites and trans
-
acting sites,
Nucleosomes model, Organelle DNA
-

Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.

DNA Replication: Semiconservative replication, Modes of replic
ation, DNA polymerases the
DNA replicating enzymes, Mechanism and regulation of DNA replication in prokaryotes and
Eukaryotes.


UNIT


II

RNA molecules and processing: Various RNA species and their properties, Processing of pre
-
mRNA to mature mRNA, RNA sp
licing, Lariat formation, spliceosome, self splicing introns.

Transcription: Synthesizing mRNA from a DNA template, Transcription unit, substrate for
transcription, transcription apparatus, prokaryotic transcription, RNA polymerases, Mechanism of
transcrip
tion
-

initiation, elongation and termination. Role of sigma factor in transcription,
Eukaryotic transcription, Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, Promoters and Enhancers.


UNIT


III

Genetic Code and Protein folding: The genetic code, Properties of genetic code,

Wobble
hypothesis, Molecular chaperones.

Translation: The process of Protein synthesis Structure of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ribosome’s
and their role in protein synthesis, Mechanism and regulation of translation in Prokaryotes and
Eukaryotes including

initiation, elongation and termination.


UNIT


IV

Regulation of Transcription: DNA
-
binding motifs, General principles of gene regulation in
bacterial cells, Operon structure, negative and positive control, the
lac

Operon of
E.coli
, The
trp

Operon

of

E.co
li
, attenuation: the premature termination of transcription.

Gene Organization: Split Genes, Transposones, Transposition, Transposition by replicative and
non
-
replicative mechanisms.



Text/Reference Books:

1.

Genes VII, Lewin, Benjamin OUP, Oxford.

2.

Cell and
Molecular Biology 8
th

ed, Robertis, EDP De & Robertis, EMF Delippincott
Williams & Wilkins international student edition, Philadelphia.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

17

3.

Essentials of Molecular Biology 4
th

ed, Malacinski, G. M. Jones & Bartlet Publishers,
Boston

4.

Cell and Molecular Biology:

concepts and experiments 3
rd

ed Karp, Gerald John Wiley and
sons, New York.

5.

Genetics a conceptual approach, 2
nd

Edition Benjamin A. Pierc W. H. freeman and
company, New York.

6.

Genetics A molecular approach 2
nd

Edition Peter J. Russell Pearson.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

18

4th Semest
er (Biotechnology)

IMMUNOLOGY

NC
-
BT
-
206


L

T





End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3

0






On Semester Examination: 100 Marks




Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.


2. Attemp
t five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the
whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units





UNIT
-

I

Introduction to immune system: Innate and acquired immunity, Immune cells, cells and organs of
immune

system
-

B
-
Lymphocytes and T
-
Lymphocytes, primary and secondary lymphoid organs,
humoral and cell mediated immune response.

Immune System: Antigens, Immunoglobulins
-

structure and function, antigenic determinants,
Monoclonal antibodies, Hybridoma technolog
y, Antibody engineering.

UNIT
-

II

Antibody Diversity: Organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes, generation of
antibody diversity; class switching.

Generation of B
-
Cell and T
-
Cell Responses: Major histocompatibility complex. Antigen
processing

and presentation.

Cell mediated immunity: T
-
cell receptor, T
-
cell maturation, activation and differentiation.

UNIT
-

III

Immunological techniques: Immunoprecipitin reactions, agglutination reactions, complement tests,
ELISA, RIA, Immunofluorescence.

Immun
e effector responses: Cytokines. Complement system.

UNIT
-

IV

Immune System in Health and Disease: Hypersensitive reactions. Auto immunity and immune
response to infectious diseases. Tumor immunity. Immune response to transplants. Vaccines.


Text / Refere
nce Books:

1.

Kuby’s Immunology, 5
th

ed. Goldsby, R A Kindt, T.J, Osborne, B.A.(2003) W. H. Freeman
and company, New York.

2.

Essential Immunology, 10
th

ed Roitt, Ivon; Delves, Peter (2001) Blackwell Scientific
Publications Oxford.

3.

Fundamentals of Immunology: Pa
ul W.E. (Eds.) Raven Press, New York.

4.

Immunology by Presscot.







B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

19

4th Semester (Biotechnology)

INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGYAND BIOTRANSFORMATIONS

NC
-
BT
-
208


L

T





End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3

0






On Semester Examination: 100 Marks




Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the
whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units



UNIT
-

I

Industri
al Microbiology: Introduction, objectives and scope of Industrial microbiology.

Industrially important microbes: Sources, isolation, preservation and maintenance of
industrially important microorganisms, Improvement of industrially important microorganis
ms,
selection of mutants, use of rDNA technology.


UNIT


II

Process for the Production of commercially important products: Primary metabolites ethanol,
acetone, butanol, citric acid, vinegar, Production of alcoholic beverages wine and beer.

Production of
secondary metabolites: Antibiotics and their production of penicillin,
streptomycin and tetracycline.


UNIT


III

Vaccines and Biopesticides: Types of vaccines, production of vaccines, application of
vaccines, Characteristics of biopesticides, Important
biopesticides
-

Bt
-
toxin, Kasugamycin,
Beauverin, Devine and Collego.

Biofuels and biofertilizers: Basic concepts and important types of biofuels and biofertilizers


UNIT


IV

Biotransformation:

Definitions, Introduction,
Biotransforming enzymes and chemi
cal
reactions,
Biodegradation of oil,
Modifiers of Biotransformation,

Microbial production of
industrial enzymes Cellulose, amylase and protease.

Microbial fermentation technology and its types: Principle, range and component of
fermentation processes, Typ
es of fermentation, Purification of fermentation products.


Text/Reference Books
:

1.

Industrial Microbiology. Casida Jr., L.E. New Age International (P)Ltd. New Delhi.

2.

Prescott & Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology. Ed. E.G. Reed CBS Publishers, New Delhi.

3.

Biotech
nology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology 2
nd

Edition. Crueger, W. and
Crueger, A. Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.

4.

Enzymes: Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Clinical chemistry. Palmer, T. Horwood
publishing Colphon.

5.

Process engineering in biotech
nology. Jackson, A.T. Prentice Hall.

6.

Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology Edition. Ed. Arnold L. Demain
and Julian E. Davies ASM Press Washington D.C.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

20

4th Semester (Biotechnology)

APPLIED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

NC
-
BT
-
210


L

T






End Semes
ter Examination: 100 Marks

3

0







On Semester Examination: 100 Marks




Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
paper. All questions carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which covers the
who
le syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other four Units







UNIT
-

I

Microscopy: Light, electron (scanning and transmission), phase contrast, fluorescence microscopy,
atomic force microscopy, freeze
-
fracture techniques, enzymes marker and the
ir application..

Centrifugation: Techniques and their applications, differential centrifugation, zonal, density
gradient and ultracentrifugation techniques

and their application.


UNIT
-

II

Electrophoresis: Paper and gel electrophoresis, immunoelectrophor
esis, isoelectric focussing, two
-
dimensional electrophoresis and their application..

Chromatography: Paper, TLC, adsorption, ion
-
exchange, gel filtration, gas chromatography, High
Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their application.



UNIT
-

III

Spectrophotometry: Basic concepts and brief description of applications of UV/visible, IR, NMR,
Raman, Mass spectroscopy (LC
-
MS, MALDI
-
TOF, ES
-
MS) X
-
ray diffraction (diffraction by
fibrous proteins, globular proteins and molecular crystals) and their appl
ication..

Calorimetry: Differential scanning calorimetry, titration calorimetry and their application..



UNIT
-

IV

Radioisotope Techniques: Nature

of radioactivity, properties of

,


and

-
rays, measurement of
radioactivity,
In vivo

and
in vitro

la
belling techniques, instruments for monitoring radioactivity,
quenching, internal standard, channel ratio, external standard ratio, emulsion counting, radioactive
decay, autoradiography, radio
-
immunoassay and their application..


Text/ Reference Books:

1.

Bi
ological Spectroscopy: Campbell and Durek

2.

Physical Biochemistry, 2
nd

edition, by D Friefelder (1983). W.H. Freeman & Co., U.S.A.

3.

Introduction to instrumental analysis: Robert D. Braun (1987) Mc Graw Hill International
Editions, Chemistry Series.

4.

Analytical

Chemistry for technicians : John Kenkel (1994), Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton.

5.

Principles and techniques of Practical Biochemistry: K. Wilson and J. Walker (1994),
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

6.

Biophysical Chemistry: Principles and Techniques, 2
nd

edition by A. Upadhyay, K. Upadhyay
and N. Nath. (1998). Himalaya Publishing House, Delhi.

7.

Physical Biochemistry, 2
nd

edition, by K. E. VanHolde (1985), Prentice Hall Inc, New
Jersey.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

21

4th Semester (Biotechnology)

INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY LAB

NC
-
BT
-
212


P










On Semester Examination: 120 Marks

3








End Semester Examination: 80 Marks


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:











1.

Sterilization Techniques ( Media, air & water)

2.

Identification of industrially important microorganisms e.g. molds, yeasts and
bacteria.

3.

Production of various products in the lab. Alcohol, cellulase, amylase,and bread.

4.

Isolation of antibiotic producing microorganisms from the soil.

5.

Isolation of fungi from soil.

6.

Isolation of Rhizobium from soil/root nodules.

7.

Testing of microbial e
nzyme activit y in the lab.

8.

Determination of cell growth.


Reference Books:


1.

Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. Aneja,
K.R. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

2.

Fermentations & Biochemical Hand Book: Principles, Process
Design and
Equipment. HC Vogel and Noyes.

3.

Microbiology Labortary Manual. Cappuccino, J. and Sheeman, NAddison
Wesley, California.

4.

Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Ed. Arnold L.
Demain and Julian E. Davies ASM Press Washington D.C.


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

22

4
th

Semester (Biotechnology)

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LA
B

NC
-
BT
-
214



P






On Semester Examination: 120 Marks



3







End Semester Examination: 80 Marks










LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:


1.

Isolation of genomic DNA from eukaryotic cells.

2.

Gel electrophoretic separation of DNA.

3.

Isolation of RNA from eukaryotic cells.

4.

Gel electrophoretic separat
ion of RNA..

5.

Isolation of proteins from eukaryotic cells.

6.

Restriction and digestion of plasmid DNA: This experiment involves single and double
digestion of the plasmid with restriction enzymes.

7.

Molecular wt. determination.

8.

PCR amplification of DNA: Visual
ization by gel electrophoresis.





Text/Reference Books:


1.

Molecular Cloning


A laboratory manual: 3
rd

Edition Vol. 1
-
3. Sambrook J and
Russell D.W. (2001). Cold Spring Harbor laboratory Press, New York.


B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

23

4th Semester (Biotechnology)

APPLIED ANA
LYTICAL TECHNIQUES L
AB

NC
-
BT
-
216


P








On Semester Examination: 120 Marks

3








End Semester Examination: 80 Marks








LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:











1.

Verification of Beer
-
Lambert’s law.

2.

Separation of amino acids by paper chromat
ography.

3.

Separation of sugars by paper chromatography.

4.

Lipids separation using Thin Layer Chromatography.

5.

Absorbance Curve study of different dyes.

6.

Gel filtration chromatography of proteins.

7.

Determination of molecular weight of an enzyme by gel filtration.

8.

Separation of proteins by SDS
-
PAGE.



Reference Books:


1.

Principles and techniques of Practical Biochemistry: K. Wilson and J. Walker (1994),
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

2.

Introductory practical Biochemistry by S.K. Sawhney and Randhir Singh (2000
), Narosa
Publishing House, New Delhi.

3.

An introduction to Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer (1988), McGraw
-

Hill,
Book company, UK.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

24

4
th

Semester (Biotechnology)

IMMUNOLOGY

NC
-
BT
-
218


P







On Semester Examination: 120 Marks


3







En
d Semester Examination: 80 Marks



LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:







1.

Enzyme Immunoassay in Plates (
ELISA
)

a.

Conjugation of antibody with enzyme.

b.

OD vs. Antigen conc. plot and its analysis.

2.

Membrane based assays

a.

Dipstick based assays

b.

I
mmunoelectrophoresis

3.

Lateral flow assays

4.

Immunoprecipitation techniques.

5.

Agglutination techniques.
.

6.

Determination of blood group and Rh factor.

7.

Detection of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine.



Text/ References Books:


1.

Immunological Techniques Made Ea
sy. Cochet, et al.(1998)Wiley Publishers,Canada

2.

Antibodies: A laboratory manual. Harlow, Ed and Lane, David (1988) Cold Spring Harbor


laboratory Press.





















B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

25

4
th

Semester (Biotechnology)

ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Departmen
tal Elective)

NC
-
BT
-
220


L

T






End Semester Examination: 100 Marks

3

-







On Semester Examination: 100 Marks




















UNIT I

Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology primary and established cell and
culture. Introduction

to the simple growth medium Brief discussion on the chemical, physical
and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium.Role of growth hormones.
Role of physical parameters in cell culture.


UNIT II

Role of carbon dioxide. Role of seru
m and supplements. Serum & protein free defined media
and their application measurement of viability and cytotoxicity. Biology and characterization
of cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth. Clonogenic assays and its applications.
Basis techniques
of mammalian cell culture in vitro: disaggregation of tissue and primary
culture:


UNIT III

Maintenance of cell culture:cell separation. Scaling
-
up of animal cell culture, cell culture. Cell
cloning, micromanipulation and types of cloning. Cell transforma
tion. Application of animal
cell genetics. Stem cell culture, embryonic stem cells and their applications. Application of
Animal cell in Drug and Pharmaceutical Industry.


UNIT IV

Cell culture based vaccines. Somatic cell genetics. Organ and histotypic c
ultures. Measurement
of cell death. Apoptosis. Three dimensional culture and tissue engineering.. Implants and its
applications. Keratinocytes and fibroblast cells and its culture technology



Books

1.

Culture of Animal cells, (3
rd

Edition), R. Ian Froshny, W
iley
-
Liss.

2.

Animal cell culture
-

practical Approach, Ed. John R. W. Mesters,Oxford.

3.

Cell growth and Division: A practical Approach, Ed, R.Basega, IRL Press.

4.

Cell culture Lab Fax. Eds. M.Butler & M.Dawson, Bios Scientific publications Ltd.
Oxford.










B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

26

4
th

Semester (Biotechnology)

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
(Departmental Elective)

NC
-
BT
-
222


L


T







End Semester Examination

: 100 Marks

3


0







On Semester Examination

: 100 Marks



Note:
-

1.

There are NINE questions in a set of question
-
pape
r. All questions carry
equal marks.

2.

Attempt five questions in all. FIRST question is compulsory which
covers the whole syllabus. Attempt ONE question from each of the other
four Units








UNIT
-
I

Introduction: Development of drugs and pharmaceuti
cal industry, organic therapeutic agents
and their uses, economics of drug development.

Chemical processes and their applications: Chemical conversion processes: alkylation,
carboxylation, condensation and cyclisation; dehydration. esterification (alcoholy
sis),
halogenations, oxidation and sulphonation, Complex chemical conversions, Fermentation.


UNIT
-
II

Drug metabolism and Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism, half
-
life of drugs, physico
-
chemical principles, radioactive labeled compounds, pharmacokinetics an
d action of drugs on
human bodies.

Metabolomics: Metabolomics, pharmacogenesis, single nucleotide polymorphism, inborn
errors of metabolism, drug targets.


UNIT
-
III

Manufacturing principles: GMP, GLP and clean room concept, compressed tables, wet
granulati
on, dry granulation or slugging, direct compression, tablet formulation, coating, pills,
capsules, sustained action dosage form, parental preparations, oral liquids, ointments.

Pharmaceutical products, analysis and control: Vitamins, cold remedies, laxativ
es, analgesics,
non steroidal contraceptives, external antiseptics, antacids and others, antibiotics, biological
and hormones, Preservation of these products, Analytical methods and tests for various drugs
and pharmaceuticals, packaging techniques and qual
ity control.


UNIT
-
IV

Nutraceuticals: Water and fat soluble vitamins, functions and nutritional importance of
vitamins, deficiency diseases of vitamins. Estimation of vitamins from the sample, Evaluating
the nutritional status of vitamins

Recombinant prot
eins: Therapeutic proteins regulatory aspects, analytical enzymes, brief
account of applications of recombinant proteins, delivery and targeting of therapeutic proteins,
first generation and second generation therapeutic proteins, Future prospects of recom
binant
proteins.


References:


1.

Enzymes Technology for Pharmaceutical & Bio
-
technological Applications by Herbert
A. Kirst, Wu
-
Kuang Yeh, Milton J.

B.Tech (Bio
-
Tech.) 3
rd

& 4
th

Semester, Syllabus 2011
-
12

27

2.

Essential Cell Biology, 3
RD

Edition, Brice Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin
Raff, Keith Rober
ts, James D. Watson, garland Publishing, Inc., 1997.

3.

Basic Biotechnology by Colin Ratledge and B. Kristiansen, Cambridge.

4.

Physiological Chemistry by Harper, 22
nd

edition, 2003.

5.

Basic Biotechnology by S.Ignacimuthu, Tata McGraw
-
Hill Publishing Comp
any Ltd.,
2003.

6.

Essentials of Molecular Biology by George M.malacinski, Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 2002.