Microbial food colorants

zapuruguayanΒιοτεχνολογία

9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

267 εμφανίσεις


Philippe J. BLANC


Laboratoire

Ingénierie

des
Systèmes

Microbiens


et des
Procédés

INSTITUT NATIONAL DES SCIENCES APPLIQUEES

135
Avenue de
Rangueil

31077 TOULOUSE
Cédex

04

FRANCE




Primary

identification of
food


(
tomato

=
red
;
lemon

=
yellow
;
carrot

=
orange
)



Protection
against

consumption

of
spoiled

food



Experience
, tradition,
education
,
environment



Negative

assessment

of
synthetic

food

dyes




Strong

interest

in
natural

colouring

alternatives





An
example

of
traditional

food

colorant


Cochineal

carmine (
red
)


C
H
3
O
O
O
H
COOH
O
H
O
H
O
H
O
5
H
12
C
6

O
thers

traditional

food

colorant


Red

from

paprika,
beetroots
,
berries

or
tomatoes

Yellow

from

s
affron

or
marigold

Orange

from

annatto

Green

from

l
eafy

vegetables




Acceptability

on the
market



Regulatory

approval



Capital
investment

size



Carotenoids


Melanins


Flavins


Quinones

























Azaphilones


Violacein


Indigo


Monascus

pigments: an
old

story in
Asia

but
still

forbidden

in Europe and the USA



The
fungus

Monascus



Ang
-
Kak

=
Red Rice

Origin = China, Indonesia, Korea,
Japan

Discovered in France by Philippe
van
Tieghem

in 1884

Lack of toxicity studies

LD
50
(oral) = 33.3 g/kg (mice
)

Not approved in Europe and USA






The
chemical

structure of the
pigments


O
O
O
O
O
C
5
H
11
C
H
3
C
H
3
Rubropunctatine M = 354
O
O
O
O
O
C
7
H
15
C
H
3
C
H
3
Monascorubrine M = 382
O
O
O
O
C
5
H
11
C
H
3
N
H
C
H
3
Rubropunctamine M = 353
O
O
O
O
C
7
H
15
C
H
3
N
H
C
H
3
Monascorubramine M = 381
Structure of the free pigments of
Monascus

O
O
O
O
O
C
7
H
15
C
H
3
C
H
3
Ankaflavine M = 386
Monascine M = 358
O
O
O
O
O
C
5
H
11
C
H
3
C
H
3
O
O
O
O
C
5
H
11
C
H
3
N
C
H
3
COOH
COOH
Glutamylrubropunctatine M = 483
O
O
O
O
C
7
H
15
C
H
3
N
C
H
3
COOH
COOH
Glutamylmonascorubrine M = 511
Structure of the complexed pigments of
Monascus


The production in
various

modes of culture




Liquid culture

Red Rice (solid culture)




The applications


Some

advertisements

in China (Ningxia
R.D. Natural pigment)


Patents in
Japan


-

Cosmetic

containing

pigment
derived

from

Monascus

(
Kanebo

Lt
)


-

Monascus

culture
extract

for skin
cleansing

and
protect

effect

(
Pentel

KK)


-

Monascus

pigment for
inhibiting

melanin

formation (
Hokuto

Kasei KK,
Ichimaru

Pharmacos Inc.)




Coloration of textiles as silk, wool,
linen (Kasetsart University, Bangkok)



Coloration of biodegradable materials
(ATO/DLO Netherlands)



Others

pigments
from

fungi

Arpink

Red
TM

an
anthraquinonyl

derivative

from

Penicillium
oxalicum




Ascolor

Biotech

s.r.o
.
produced

it

in

Czech

Republic


Fermentation
performances : 2 g/L


Riboflavin

from

Ashbya

gossypii

t
he
v
itamin

B2 but
also

a
yellow

food

colorant


Riboflavin





Ashbya

gossypii

was originally isolated
from cotton
as
a pathogen !

It produces more than 2 g/L riboflavin

.

b
-
carotene

from

various

fungi







b
-
carotene

from

Blakeslea

trispora




DSM
was

the 1
st

company

to
produce

b
-
carotene

,
today


2
others

productions in
Russia

and Spain.

Others

fungi

produce

b
-
carotene



Mucor

circinelloides


Phycomyces

blakesleeanus


Fusarium

sporotrichiodes

Astaxanthin

from

Xanthophyllomyces

dendrorhous


Astaxanthin


Contributes

as a
flesh

pigmenter to the
orange
-
red

coloration of
crustaceans

and
salmonids


Salmon and
trout

business
is

now

a
huge

business


Fed batch production: 17 g/L
biomass

Coloration of
crustaceans


Feed

non
supplemented

with

any

pigment




Feed

supplemented

with

astaxanthin


Melanin

from

Saccharomyces
neoformans

var.
nigricans

Resarch

project

presently


Partial conclusion:

Some

fermentative
food

grade
pigments are on the
market
,
many

are
at

the
development

stage or
research

project




Microbial

production of pigments (
Industrial

production)


Molecule

Colour

Microorganism

Status

Ankaflavin

Yellow

Monascus

IP

Anthraquinone

Red

Penicillium

oxalicum

IP

Monascorubramin


Red

Monascus


IP


Rubropunctatin


Purple

Monascus


IP

b
-
carotene


Yellow
-
orange

Blakeslea

trispora

IP

Riboflavin

Yellow

Ashbya

gossypii

IP


Microbial

production of pigments (
Development

stage)


Molecule

Colour

Microorganism

Status

Astaxanthin

Pink
-
red

Xanthophyllomyces

dendrohous

DS

Lycopene

Red

Blakeslea

trispora

DS

Rubrolone


Red

Streptomyces

echinoruber


DS


Torularhodin


Orange
-
red

Rhodotorula

sp
.


DS

Zeaxanthin


Yellow

Flavobacterium

sp
.

DS

b
-
carotene

Yellow
-
orange

Mucor
circinelloides

DS


Microbial

production of pigments (
R
esearch

project
)


Molecule

Colour

Microorganism

Status

Astaxanthin

Pink
-
red

Agrobacterium

aurantiacum

Paracoccus

carotinifaciens

RP

Canthaxanthin

Dark

red

Bradyrhizobium

sp
.

RP

Lycopene


Red

Fusarium

sporotrichoides


RP


Melanin


Black

Saccharomyces
neoformans

var.

nigricans

RP

Naphtoquinone


Deep

blood
-
red

Cordyceps

unilateralis

RP

Zeaxanthin

Yellow

Paracoccus

zeaxanthinifaciens

RP


b
-
carotene

Yellow
-
orange

Fusarium

sporotrichiodes

Neurospora

crassa

Phycomyces

blakesleeanus

RP


Carotenoids

from

microalgae
:
a
well

established

business



Chlorophyceae

(green
colour
)

Rhodophyceae

(
red

colour
)

Cyanophyceae

(
blue

green)

Pheophyceae

(
brown

colour
)


Dunaliella

species

for
carotenoids

Production: 400 mg
b
-
carotene

/m
2

of
cultivation

area

GRAS
status

Main
companies

for
carotenoids


Parry’s

Agro Ltd (
India
)

ABC
Biotech

Ltd. (
India
)

Betatene

Ltd. (
Australia
)

Western
Biotechnology

Ltd. (
Australia
)


Cyanotech

Corp., Hawaii (USA)

Inner

Mongolia

Biological

Eng. Co. (China)

Tianjin
Lantai

Biotechnology

(China
)

Nature beta Technologies (
Israel
)


Haematococcus

for
astaxanthin

Approved

by USFDA


Main
companies

for
astaxanthin

Parry’s

Pharmaceuticals (
India
)


Mera Pharmaceuticals, Hawaii (USA)

Cyanotech

Co., Hawaii (USA)

BioReal

Inc., Hawaii (USA)


Phycoerythrin

(fluorescent
pink
)

from

Porphyridium

Production:
200 mg /L of culture

Not
yet

approved

Phycocyanin

(marine
blue
)
from

Spirulina

or

Porphyridium

Production:
100 mg/L of culture

Not
yet

approved


Important aspects
before

selling

a new
food

colorant


Presentation

of the
microorganism

(
natural
, not GMO)


Lobbying by
other

colorants
producers

(nature
-
identical
)


Safety

of the fermentation
process

(HPLC,
genotoxicity
)


Guidelines
for labelling




Conclusions


-

Traditional

Monascus

pigment in
Asia

-

Success

of
b
-
carotene

produced

by
D
unaliella

salina

-

Success

of
b
-
carotene

produced

by
Blakeslea

trispora

-

Success

of
Arpink

red

produced

by
P
enicillium
oxalicum

-

Exploration of
biodiversity

to
get

water
-
soluble pigments

-

Biosynthesis

of «

niche

» pigments not
found

in plants